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  • 1. Abunge, Caroline
    et al.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Connecting Marine Ecosystem Services to Human Well-being: Insights from Participatory Well-being Assessment in Kenya2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 8, 1010-1021 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linkage between ecosystems and human well-being is a focus of the conceptualization of ecosystem services as promoted by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, the actual nature of connections between ecosystems and the well-being of individuals remains complex and poorly understood. We conducted a series of qualitative focus groups with five different stakeholder groups connected to a small-scale Kenyan coastal fishery to understand (1) how well-being is understood within the community, and what is important for well-being, (2) how people's well-being has been affected by changes over the recent past, and (3) people's hopes and aspirations for their future fishery. Our results show that people conceive well-being in a diversity of ways, but that these can clearly map onto the MA framework. In particular, our research unpacks the freedoms and choices element of the framework and argues for greater recognition of these aspects of well-being in fisheries management in Kenya through, for example, more participatory governance processes.

  • 2. Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Rowe, Owen
    Wikner, Johan
    Haglund, Peter
    Eilola, Kari
    Legrand, Catherine
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, S345-S356 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, 445-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, 102-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Petersson, Mona
    Saving the Baltic Sea, the Inland Waters of Its Drainage Basin, or Both?: Spatial Perspectives on Reducing P-Loads in Eastern Sweden2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 7, 914-925 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient loads from inland sources to the Baltic Sea and adjacent inland waters need to be reduced in order to prevent eutrophication and meet requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). We here investigate the spatial implications of using different possible criteria for reducing water-borne phosphorous (P) loads in the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District (NBS-RBD) in Sweden. Results show that most catchments that have a high degree of internal eutrophication do not express high export of P from their outlets. Furthermore, due to lake retention, lake catchments with high P-loads per agricultural area (which is potentially of concern for the WFD) did not considerably contribute to the P-loading of the Baltic Sea. Spatially uniform water quality goals may, therefore, not be effective in NBS-RBD, emphasizing more generally the need for regional adaptation of WFD and BSAP-related goals.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Mathias H
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Dock-Åkerman, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Ubral-Hedenberg, Ramona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Öhman, Marcus C
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Sigray, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Swimming Behavior of Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Three-spined Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus) in Response to Wind Power Noise and Single tone frequencies2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 8, 636-638 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced underwater noise is drastically increasing as the result of offshore installations and human activities in the marine environment. Many of these structures and activities produce low-frequency noise that could potentially disturb or have harmful effects on several species of teleost fishes. Within the next decade, thousands of wind turbines will be in use in coastal and offshore waters and there is increasing concern on how they may influence marine life. The aims of this study were to examine how swimming behavior of roach (Rutilus rutilus) and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were influenced by single-frequency sounds and noise generated by an offshore wind turbine, and the function of sound pressure level.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Mathias H
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Asplund, Maria E
    Department of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University.
    Öhman, Marcus C
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    Importance of Using Multiple Sampling Methodologies for Estimating of Fish Community Composition in Offshore Wind Power Construction Areas of the Baltic Sea2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 8, 634-636 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is standard procedure that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is conducted before larger constructions are built. To adequately describe the impact, methods used in an EIA should be carefully adapted considering both the character of the constructions under development and the environment that will be affected. Various sampling techniques are applied to estimate fish abundances and species composition. Methods used, including trawling, seine and gill netting, angling, echo-sound sampling, fishery data, video recordings, dredging, and visual counts using SCUBA, will all give different estimates of fish community composition.

  • 8. Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Annerstedt, Matilda
    Axelsson, Robert
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Garrido, Pablo
    Grahn, Patrik
    Jonsson, K. Ingemar
    Pedersen, Simen
    Schlyter, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Smith, Mike
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Solving Problems in Social-Ecological Systems: Definition, Practice and Barriers of Transdisciplinary Research2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, 254-265 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  • 9.
    Atteridge, Aaron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Shrivastava, Manish Kumar
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Pahuja, Neha
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Upadhyay, Himani
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, 68-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understandwhy policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how internationalparties might cooperate with and support India’s domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states.  We argue that at each level of decision making in India,climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests.  While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  • 10.
    Auffret, Alistair G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    The spatial and temporal components of functional connectivity in fragmented landscapes2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, s51-S59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity is key for understanding how ecological systems respond to the challenges of land-use change and habitat fragmentation. Structural and functional connectivity are both established concepts in ecology, but the temporal component of connectivity deserves more attention. Whereas functional connectivity is often associated with spatial patterns (spatial functional connectivity), temporal functional connectivity relates to the persistence of organisms in time, in the same place. Both temporal and spatial processes determine biodiversity responses to changes in landscape structure, and it is therefore necessary that all aspects of connectivity are considered together. In this perspective, we use a case study to outline why we believe that both the spatial and temporal components of functional connectivity are important for understanding biodiversity patterns in the present-day landscape, and how they can also help us to make better-informed decisions about conserving and restoring landscapes and improving resilience to future change.

  • 11. Beery, Thomas H.
    et al.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Kyttä, Marketta
    Olafsson, Anton Stahl
    Plieninger, Tobias
    Sandberg, Mattias
    Stenseke, Marie
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Fostering incidental experiences of nature through green infrastructure planning2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 7, 717-730 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concern for a diminished human experience of nature and subsequent decreased human well-being is addressed via a consideration of green infrastructure's potential to facilitate unplanned or incidental nature experience. Incidental nature experience is conceptualized and illustrated in order to consider this seldom addressed aspect of human interaction with nature in green infrastructure planning. Special attention has been paid to the ability of incidental nature experience to redirect attention from a primary activity toward an unplanned focus (in this case, nature phenomena). The value of such experience for human well-being is considered. The role of green infrastructure to provide the opportunity for incidental nature experience may serve as a nudge or guide toward meaningful interaction. These ideas are explored using examples of green infrastructure design in two Nordic municipalities: Kristianstad, Sweden, and Copenhagen, Denmark. The outcome of the case study analysis coupled with the review of literature is a set of sample recommendations for how green infrastructure can be designed to support a range of incidental nature experiences with the potential to support human well-being.

  • 12. Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Andersson, Agneta
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Haglund, Peter
    Hansson, Katarina
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Newton, Seth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Nygren, Olle
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Tysklind, Mats
    Wiberg, Karin
    Atmospheric pathways of chlorinated pesticides and natural bromoanisoles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, 472-483 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-range atmospheric transport is a major pathway for delivering persistent organic pollutants to the oceans. Atmospheric deposition and volatilization of chlorinated pesticides and algae-produced bromoanisoles (BAs) were estimated for Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea, based on air and water concentrations measured in 2011-2012. Pesticide fluxes were estimated using monthly air and water temperatures and assuming 4 months ice cover when no exchange occurs. Fluxes were predicted to increase by about 50 % under a 2069-2099 prediction scenario of higher temperatures and no ice. Total atmospheric loadings to Bothnian Bay and its catchment were derived from air-sea gas exchange and bulk'' (precipitation ? dry particle) deposition, resulting in net gains of 53 and 46 kg year(-1) for endosulfans and hexachlorocyclohexanes, respectively, and net loss of 10 kg year(-1) for chlordanes. Volatilization of BAs releases bromine to the atmosphere and may limit their residence time in Bothnian Bay. This initial study provides baseline information for future investigations of climate change on biogeochemical cycles in the northern Baltic Sea and its catchment.

  • 13. Bishop, K.
    et al.
    Allan, C.
    Bringmark, L.
    Garcia, E.
    Hellsten, S.
    Hogbom, L.
    Johansson, K.
    Lomander, A.
    Meili, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Munthe, J.
    Nilsson, M.
    Porvari, P.
    Skyllberg, U.
    Sorensen, R.
    Zetterberg, T.
    Akerblom, S.
    The Effects of Forestry on Hg Bioaccumulation in Nemoral/Boreal Waters and Recommendations for Good Silvicultural Practice2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 7, 373-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) levels are alarmingly high in fish from lakes across Fennoscandia and northern North America. The few published studies on the ways in which silviculture practices influence this problem indicate that forest operations increase Hg in downstream aquatic ecosystems. From these studies, we estimate that between one-tenth and one-quarter of the Hg in the fish of high-latitude, managed forest landscapes can be attributed to harvesting. Forestry, however, did not create the elevated Hg levels in the soils, and waterborne Hg/MeHg concentrations downstream from harvested areas are similar to those from wetlands. Given the current understanding of the way in which silviculture impacts Hg cycling, most of the recommendations for good forest practice in Sweden appear to be appropriate for high-latitude regions, e.g., leaving riparian buffer zones, as well as reducing disturbance at stream crossings and in moist areas. The recommendation to restore wetlands and reduce drainage, however, will likely increase Hg/MeHg loadings to aquatic ecosystems

  • 14. Bishop, Kevin
    et al.
    Beven, Keith
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Abrahamsson, Katarina
    Andersson, Lotta
    Johnson, Richard
    Rodhe, Johan
    Hjerdt, Niclas
    Nature as the “natural” goal for water management: A Conversation2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 4, 209-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals for water-quality and ecosystem integrity are often defined relative to “natural” reference conditions in many water-management systems, including the European Union Water Framework Directive. This paper examines the difficulties created for water management by using “natural” as the goal. These difficulties are articulated from different perspectives in an informal (fictional) conversation that takes place after a workshop on reference conditions in water-resources management. The difficulties include defining the natural state and modeling how a system might be progressed toward the natural, as well as the feasibility and desirability of restoring a natural state. The paper also considers the appropriateness for developing countries to adopt the use of natural as the goal for water management. We conclude that failure to critically examine the complexities of having “natural” as the goal will compromise the ability to manage the issues that arise in real basins by not making the ambiguities associated with this “natural” goal explicit. This is unfortunate both for the western world that has embraced this model of “natural as the goal” and for the developing world in so far as they are encouraged to adopt this model.

  • 15.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Larsson, Per
    Andersson, Agneta
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Synthesis and future challenges2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, 507-515 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic Sea.

  • 16. Bokhorst, Stef
    et al.
    Pedersen, Stine Hojlund
    Brucker, Ludovic
    Anisimov, Oleg
    Bjerke, Jarle W.
    Brown, Ross D.
    Ehrich, Dorothee
    Essery, Richard L. H.
    Heilig, Achim
    Ingvander, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Johansson, Margareta
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjorg Svala
    Inga, Niila
    Luojus, Kari
    Macelloni, Giovanni
    Mariash, Heather
    McLennan, Donald
    Rosqvist, Gunhild Ninis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Bergen, Norway.
    Sato, Atsushi
    Savela, Hannele
    Schneebeli, Martin
    Sokolov, Aleksandr
    Sokratov, Sergey A.
    Terzago, Silvia
    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun
    Williamson, Scott
    Qiu, Yubao
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Changing Arctic snow cover: A review of recent developments and assessment of future needs for observations, modelling, and impacts2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no 5, 516-537 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow is a critically important and rapidly changing feature of the Arctic. However, snow-cover and snowpack conditions change through time pose challenges for measuring and prediction of snow. Plausible scenarios of how Arctic snow cover will respond to changing Arctic climate are important for impact assessments and adaptation strategies. Although much progress has been made in understanding and predicting snow-cover changes and their multiple consequences, many uncertainties remain. In this paper, we review advances in snow monitoring and modelling, and the impact of snow changes on ecosystems and society in Arctic regions. Interdisciplinary activities are required to resolve the current limitations on measuring and modelling snow characteristics through the cold season and at different spatial scales to assure human well-being, economic stability, and improve the ability to predict manage and adapt to natural hazards in the Arctic region.

  • 17.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. University of Oslo, Norway.
    de Boer, Florianne W.
    The Historical Dynamics of Social-Ecological Traps2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 3, 260-274 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental degradation is a typical unintended outcome of collective human behavior. Hardin's metaphor of the tragedy of the commons has become a conceived wisdom that captures the social dynamics leading to environmental degradation. Recently, traps has gained currency as an alternative concept to explain the rigidity of social and ecological processes that produce environmental degradation and livelihood impoverishment. The trap metaphor is, however, a great deal more complex compared to Hardin's insight. This paper takes stock of studies using the trap metaphor. It argues that the concept includes time and history in the analysis, but only as background conditions and not as a factor of causality. From a historical-sociological perspective this is remarkable since social-ecological traps are clearly path-dependent processes, which are causally produced through a conjunction of events. To prove this point the paper conceptualizes social-ecological traps as a process instead of a condition, and systematically compares history and timing in one classic and three recent studies of social-ecological traps. Based on this comparison it concludes that conjunction of social and environmental events contributes profoundly to the production of trap processes. The paper further discusses the implications of this conclusion for policy intervention and outlines how future research might generalize insights from historical-sociological studies of traps.

  • 18.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sandström, Annica
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Developing an analytical framework for assessing progress toward ecosystem-based management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, 357-369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has become a key instrument of contemporary environmental policy and practice. Given the increasingly important role of EBM, there is an urgent need for improved analytical approaches to assess if and to what extent EBM has been accomplished in any given case. Drawing on the vast literature on EBM, we identify five key ecosystem aspects for assessment. By linking these aspects to four phases of management, we develop an interdisciplinary, analytical framework that enables a high-resolution and systematic assessment of the degree of specificity and integration of ecosystem aspects in an EBM. We then apply the framework to evaluate five coastal EBM initiatives in Sweden, four on the Baltic coast and one on the west coast. Our results demonstrate our framework's usefulness for in-depth and continuous assessments of processes aiming for EBM, and also provide an empirical basis for inferences about the key challenges for successful EBM.

  • 19. Boyd, Emily
    et al.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stacewicz, Izabela A.
    Anticipatory governance for social-ecological resilience2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, s149-S161 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipation is increasingly central to urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to the global economic crisis. Anticipatory practices are coming to the forefront of political, organizational, and citizens' society. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace with public demand for insights into anticipatory practices, their risks and uses. Where research exists, it is deeply fragmented. This paper seeks to identify how anticipation is defined and understood in the literature and to explore the role of anticipatory practice to address individual, social, and global challenges. We use a resilience lens to examine these questions. We illustrate how varying forms of anticipatory governance are enhanced by multi-scale regional networks and technologies and by the agency of individuals, drawing from an empirical case study on regional water governance of Malaren, Sweden. Finally, we discuss how an anticipatory approach can inform adaptive institutions, decision making, strategy formation, and societal resilience.

  • 20.
    Bring, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Relevance of Hydro-Climatic Change Projection and Monitoring for Assessment of Water Cycle Changes in the Arctic2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 4, 316-369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid changes to the Arctic hydrological cycle challenge both our process understanding and our ability to find appropriate adaptation strategies. We have investigated the relevance and accuracy development of climate change projections for assessment of water cycle changes in major Arctic drainage basins. Results show relatively good agreement of climate model projections with observed temperature changes, but high model inaccuracy relative to available observation data for precipitation changes. Direct observations further show systematically larger (smaller) runoff than precipitation increases (decreases). This result is partly attributable to uncertainties and systematic bias in precipitation observations, but still indicates that some of the observed increase in Arctic river runoff is due to water storage changes, for example melting permafrost and/or groundwater storage changes, within the drainage basins. Such causes of runoff change affect sea level, in addition to ocean salinity, and inland water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Process-based hydrological modeling and observations, which can resolve changes in evapotranspiration, and groundwater and permafrost storage at and below river basin scales, are needed in order to accurately interpret and translate climate-driven precipitation changes to changes in freshwater cycling and runoff. In contrast to this need, our results show that the density of Arctic runoff monitoring has become increasingly biased and less relevant by decreasing most and being lowest in river basins with the largest expected climatic changes.

  • 21. Bring, Arvid
    et al.
    Rogberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Variability in climate change simulations affects needed long-term riverine nutrient reductions for the Baltic Sea2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, 381-391 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes to runoff due to climate change may influence management of nutrient loading to the sea. Assuming unchanged river nutrient concentrations, we evaluate the effects of changing runoff on commitments to nutrient reductions under the Baltic Sea Action Plan. For several countries, climate projections point to large variability in load changes in relation to reduction targets. These changes either increase loads, making the target more difficult to reach, or decrease them, leading instead to a full achievement of the target. The impact of variability in climate projections varies with the size of the reduction target and is larger for countries with more limited commitments. In the end, a number of focused actions are needed to manage the effects of climate change on nutrient loads: reducing uncertainty in climate projections, deciding on frameworks to identify best performing models with respect to land surface hydrology, and increasing efforts at sustained monitoring of water flow changes.

  • 22. Callaghan, Terry
    et al.
    Tweedie, Craig
    Ņkerman, Jonas
    Andrews, Christopher
    Bergstedt, Johan
    Butler, Malcolm G.
    Christensen, Torben R
    Cooley, Dorothy
    Dahlberg, Ulrika
    Danby, Ryan K.
    Daniels, Fred J. A.
    Molenaar, Johannes G.
    Dick, Jan
    Mortensen, Christian Ebbe
    Ebert-May, Diane
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Eriksson, Håkan
    Hedenås, Henrik
    Henry, Greg. H. R.
    Hik, David S.
    Hobbie, John E.
    Jantze, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Jaspers, Cornelia
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Johansson, Margareta
    Johnson, David R.
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Kennedy, Catherine
    Kenney, Alice J.
    Keuper, Frida
    Koh, Saewan
    Krebs, Charles J.
    Lantuit, Hugues
    Lara, Mark J.
    Lin, David
    Lougheed, Vanessa L.
    Madsen, Jesper
    Matveyeva, Nadya
    McEwen, Daniel C.
    Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    Narozhniy, Yuriy K.
    Olsson, Håkan
    Pohjola, Veijo A.
    Price, Larry W.
    Rigét, Frank
    Rundqvist, Sara
    Sandström, Anneli
    Tamstorf, Mikkel
    Bogaert, Rik
    Villarreal, Sandra
    Webber, Patrick J.
    Zemtsov, Valeriy A.
    Multi-Decadal Changes in Tundra Environments and Ecosystems: Synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future Project (IPY-BTF)2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 6, 705-716 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the responses of tundra systemsto global change has global implications. Most tundraregions lack sustained environmental monitoring and oneof the only ways to document multi-decadal change is toresample historic research sites. The International PolarYear (IPY) provided a unique opportunity for such researchthrough the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project#512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 paperswithin this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes includeglacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increasedsnow depth and hardness, permafrost warming, andincreased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden;drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availabilityin Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at mostlocations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relativelyminor plant community change at two sites in Greenland tomoderate change in the Yukon, and to dramatic increasesin shrub and tree density on Herschel Island, and in subarcticSweden. The population of geese tripled at one sitein northeast Greenland where biomass in non-grazed plotsdoubled. A model parameterized using results from a BTFstudy forecasts substantial declines in all snowbeds andincreases in shrub tundra on Niwot Ridge, Colorado overthe next century. In general, results support and provideimproved capacities for validating experimental manipulation,remote sensing, and modeling studies.

  • 23. Calvo-Ugarteburu, Gurutze
    et al.
    Raemaekers, Serge
    Halling, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Rehabilitating mussel beds in Coffee Bay, South Africa: Towards fostering cooperative small-scale fisheries governance and enabling community upliftment2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 2, 214-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Along the coast of South Africa, marine resources play a significant role in supporting livelihoods and contributing to food security in impoverished rural communities. Post-apartheid fisheries laws and policies have begun to address traditional fishing rights and development needs, and new management arrangements are being implemented. One such initiative has been the Mussel Rehabilitation Project in Coffee Bay, which piloted a resource rehabilitation technique at several overexploited fishing sites. Mussel stocks in these exploited areas had dropped to under 1 % mussel cover, and during the project period, stocks increased to[ 80 % cover, supporting a sustainable harvest well above national daily bag limits. This stock enhancement was achieved only after the project had started to address social challenges such as the lack of local management institutions and the need to enhance food security. The project embarked on training and institution-building; it formed a robust community mussel management committee; and developed a local resource management plan, facilitating increased community participation in the day-to-day management of the resource. The project also saw the initiation of various ancillary projects aimed at improving food security and stimulating the local economy and hence alleviating pressure on the marine resources. Here we review this 10-yearproject's outcomes, and present lessons for smallscale fisheries governance in South Africa and internationally. We show, through empirical experience, that balancing stock rebuilding needs in a context of widespread poverty and dependency on natural resources by a local fisher community can only be addressed through an integrated approach to development. Participation of resource users and a thorough understanding of the local context are imperative to negotiating appropriate smallscale fisheries governance approaches. We recommend that the implementation of South Africa's newly minted SmallScale Fisheries Policy should begin with bottom-up, demonstrative resource management measures such as mussel rehabilitation. This type of initiative can deliver short-term food security benefits and foster social learning towards sustainable and cooperative fisheries governance.

  • 24. Carstensen, Jacob
    et al.
    Conley, Daniel J.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Gustafsson, Bo G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Hietanen, Susanna
    Janas, Urzsula
    Jilbert, Tom
    Maximov, Alexey
    Norkko, Alf
    Norkko, Joanna
    Reed, Daniel C.
    Slomp, Caroline P.
    Timmermann, Karen
    Voss, Maren
    Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea: Biogeochemical Cycles, Benthic Fauna, and Management2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 1, 26-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia has occurred intermittently over the Holocene in the Baltic Sea, but the recent expansion from less than 10 000 km(2) before 1950 to > 60 000 km(2) since 2000 is mainly caused by enhanced nutrient inputs from land and atmosphere. With worsening hypoxia, the role of sediments changes from nitrogen removal to nitrogen release as ammonium. At present, denitrification in the water column and sediments is equally important. Phosphorus is currently buried in sediments mainly in organic form, with an additional contribution of reduced Fe-phosphate minerals in the deep anoxic basins. Upon the transition to oxic conditions, a significant proportion of the organic phosphorus will be remineralized, with the phosphorus then being bound to iron oxides. This iron-oxide bound phosphorus is readily released to the water column upon the onset of hypoxia again. Important ecosystems services carried out by the benthic fauna, including biogeochemical feedback-loops and biomass production, are also lost with hypoxia. The results provide quantitative knowledge of nutrient release and recycling processes under various environmental conditions in support of decision support tools underlying the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  • 25. Christensen, Torben R.
    et al.
    Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin
    Aurela, Mika
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Heliasz, Michal
    Mastepanov, Mikhail
    Friborg, Thomas
    Monitoring the multi year carbon balance of a subarctic palsa mire with micrometeorological techniques2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, 207-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports a dataset on 8 years of monitoring carbon fluxes in a subarctic palsa mire based on micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements. The mire is a complex with wet minerotrophic areas and elevated dry palsa as well as intermediate sub-ecosystems. The measurements document primarily the emission originating from the wet parts of the mire dominated by a rather homogenous cover of Eriophorum angustifolium. The CO2/CH4 flux measurements performed during the years 2001-2008 showed that the areas represented in the measurements were a relatively stable sink of carbon with an average annual rate of uptake amounting to on average -46 g C m(-2) y(-1) including an equally stable loss through CH4 emissions (18-22 g CH4-C m(-2) y(-1)). This consistent carbon sink combined with substantial CH4 emissions is most likely what is to be expected as the permafrost under palsa mires degrades in response to climate warming.

  • 26.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Incorporating Green-Area User Groups in Urban Ecosystem Management2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 5, 237-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Corell, Hanna
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Döös, Kristofer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Difference in Particle Transport Between Two Coastal Areas in the Baltic Sea Investigated with High-Resolution Trajectory Modeling2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 4, SI 455-463 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A particle-tracking model based on high-resolution ocean flow data was used to investigate particle residence times and spatial distribution of settling sediment for two geo-morphologically different Swedish coastal areas. The study was a part of a safety assessment for the location of a future nuclear-waste repository, and information about the particle-transport patterns can contribute to predictions of the fate of a possible leakage. It is also, to our knowledge, the first time particle-transport differences between two coastal areas have been quantified in this manner. In Forsmark, a funnel-shaped bay shielded by a number of islands, the average residence time for clay particles was 5 times longer than in the modeled part of Simpevarp, which is open to the Baltic Sea. In Forsmark, < 10 % of the released particles left the domain compared to 60-80 % in Simpevarp. These site-specific differences will increase over time with the differences in land uplift between the areas.

  • 28.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Auffret, Alistair G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindgren, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tränk, Louise
    Regional-scale land-cover change during the 20th century and its consequences for biodiversity2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, S17-S27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive changes in land cover during the 20th century are known to have had detrimental effects on biodiversity in rural landscapes, but the magnitude of change and their ecological effects are not well known on regional scales. We digitized historical maps from the beginning of the 20th century over a 1652 km(2) study area in southeastern Sweden, comparing it to modern-day land cover with a focus on valuable habitat types. Semi-natural grassland cover decreased by over 96 % in the study area, being largely lost to afforestation and silviculture. Grasslands on finer soils were more likely to be converted into modern grassland or arable fields. However, in addition to remaining semi-natural grassland, today's valuable deciduous forest and wetland habitats were mostly grazed grassland in 1900. An analysis of the landscape-level biodiversity revealed that plant species richness was generally more related to the modern landscape, with grazing management being a positive influence on species richness.

  • 29.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Karcher, Michael
    Gascard, Jean-Claude
    Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS): Integrated perspectives2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, 341-354 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the special issue presents an overview of the wide range of results produced during the European Union project Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS). This project assessed the main impacts of climate change on Arctic Ocean's geophysical variables and how these impending changes could be expected to impact directly and indirectly on socio-economic activities like transportation, marine sea food production and resource exploitation. Related governance issues were examined. These results were used to develop several management tools that can live on beyond ACCESS. In this article, we synthesize most of the project results in the form of tentative responses to questions raised during the project. By doing so, we put the findings of the project in a broader perspective and introduce the contributions made in the different articles published in this special issue.

  • 30.
    Cuadra, Steven N.
    et al.
    University of Nicaragua-Managua.
    Linderholm, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Lunds universitet.
    Persistent organochlorine pollutants in children working at a waste-disposal site and in young females with high fish consumption in Managua, Nicaragua2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 3, 109-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess persistent organochlorine pollutant (POP) levels in serum collected from children (11-15 years old) working and sometimes also living at the municipal waste-disposal site in Managua, located at the shore of Lake Managua, and in nonworking children living both nearby and also far away from the waste-disposal site. The influence of fish consumption was further evaluated by assessing POPS levels in serum from young women (15-24 years old) with markedly different patterns of fish consumption from Lake Managua. 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloro-ethane (4,4’-DDT) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethene (4,4-DDE), T-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorobiphenylols were quantified in all samples. In general, the levels observed were higher than those reported in children from developed countries, such as Germany and United States. Toxaphene, aldrin, dieldrin, and beta-HCH could not be identified in any sample. The children working at the waste-disposal site had higher levels of POPS compared with the nonworking reference groups. In children not working, there were also gradients for several POPs, according to vicinity to the waste-disposal site. Moreover, in children, as well as in young women, there were gradients according to fish consumption. The most abundant component was 4,4-DDE, but at levels still lower than those reported in children from malarious areas with a history of recent or current application of 4,4-DDT for vector control.

  • 31.
    Dahl, Gudrun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    The Beja of Sudan and the Famine of 1984-19861991In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 20, no 5, 189-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Howthe Beja, largely apolitical nomadic pastoralists of northeastern Sudan, perceived their profound misfortunes during the drought of the 1 980s is examined. The famine of 1984-1986 was considered neither to have resulted from their own actions nor to be amenable to alleviation by them-both being functions of God, perhaps acting through the central government. Those Beja who were forced by the famine to abandon their traditional ways appear to be ripe for politicization.

  • 32.
    Dessie, Gessesse
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Christiansson, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Forest decline and its causes in the South Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Human impact over a one hundred year perspective2008In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 37, no 4, 263-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest decline in Ethiopia is highlighted by several authors but there is no consensus on its causes and consequences. The objective of this study is to investigate, from sociopolitical and geographical perspectives, the linkage between the trend of forest decline and changes in the social, economic, and political pattern in the Awassa watershed over a 100-year. perspective. Field observations, satellite image and map analyses, interviews, and literature studies were employed, and natural indicators were analyzed. The findings indicate that the forest area declined from about 40% at the turn of the 19th century to less than 3% in the year 2000. Forest decline in the study area during the elected time period is the result of the combination of biophysical and social conditions. Important causes are geographic properties, sociopolitical changes, population growth, unstable land tenure principles, agricultural development, and the improvement of transport capacity. The main conclusions are as follows: Already in the early 20th century forest decline was in progress and forests were attributed an insignificant economic classification. Large areas of forest were cut down during periods of political transition when as a result of the political vacuum, interest in the protection of resources including forests was lacking. Long-term planning efforts to manage forests were obstructed by uncertainty resulting from land tenure principle change during each political period. The sparse area of forest land that remains is becoming increasingly attractive as potential land for arable agriculture because of improved road access between the study area and distant markets.

  • 33.
    Destouni, G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Frank, H.
    Mälardalens högskolan.
    Renewable Energy2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no Supplement 1, 18-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee’s Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee’s scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  • 34. Elbakidze, Marine
    et al.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Angelstam, Per
    Axelsson, Robert
    Legal Framework for Biosphere Reserves as Learning Sites for Sustainable Development: A Comparative Analysis of Ukraine and Sweden2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, 174-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Biosphere Reserve (BR) concept aims at encouraging sustainable development (SD) towards sustainability on the ground by promoting three core functions: conservation, development, and logistic support. Sweden and Ukraine exemplify the diverse governance contexts that BRs need to cope with. We assessed how the BR concept and its core functions are captured in national legislations. The results show that the core functions are in different ways reflected in legal documents in both countries. While in Ukraine the BR concept is incorporated into legislation, in Sweden the concept is used as a soft law. In Ukraine managers desired stronger legal enforcement, while in Sweden managers avoided emphasis on legislation when collaborating with local stakeholders. Hence, BR implementation have adapted to different political cultures by development of diverse approaches. We conclude that a stronger legal support might not be needed for BRs, rather SD needs to be recognized as an integrated place-based process at multiple levels.

  • 35.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Implications of climate and land-use change for landscape processes, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and governance2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, s1-S5 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the Special Issue summarizes the results of 14 scientific articles from the interdisciplinary research program Ekoklim at Stockholm University, Sweden. In this program, we investigate effects of changing climate and land use on landscape processes, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, and analyze issues related to adaptive governance in the face of climate and land-use change. We not only have a research focus on the 22 650 km(2) Norrstrom catchment surrounding lake Malaren in south-central Sweden, but we also conduct research in other Swedish regions. The articles presented here show complex interactions between multiple drivers of change, as well as feedback processes at different spatiotemporal scales. Thus, the Ekoklim program highlights and deals with issues relevant for the future challenges society will face when land-use change interacts with climate change.

  • 36.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Hellström, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    A boreal invasion in response to climate change?: Range shifts and community effects in the borderland between forest and tundra2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no 1, 39-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been hypothesized that climate warming will allow southern species to advance north and invade northern ecosystems. We review the changes in the Swedish mammal and bird community in boreal forest and alpine tundra since the nineteenth century, as well as suggested drivers of change. Observed changes include (1) range expansion and increased abundance in southern birds, ungulates, and carnivores; (2) range contraction and decline in northern birds and carnivores; and (3) abundance decline or periodically disrupted dynamics in cyclic populations of small and medium-sized mammals and birds. The first warm spell, 1930-1960, stands out as a period of substantial faunal change. However, in addition to climate warming, suggested drivers of change include land use and other anthropogenic factors. We hypothesize all these drivers interacted, primarily favoring southern generalists. Future research should aim to distinguish between effects of climate and land-use change in boreal and tundra ecosystems.

  • 37. Erichsen, Anders Christian
    et al.
    Konovalenko, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Mohlenberg, Flemming
    Closter, Rikke Margrethe
    Bradshaw, Clare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Aquilonius, Karin
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Radionuclide Transport and Uptake in Coastal Aquatic Ecosystems: A Comparison of a 3D Dynamic Model and a Compartment Model2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 4, 464-475 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories, understanding radionuclide fate in ecosystems is necessary to determine the impacts of potential releases. Here, the reliability of two mechanistic models (the compartmental K-model and the 3D dynamic D-model) in describing the fate of radionuclides released into a Baltic Sea bay is tested. Both are based on ecosystem models that simulate the cycling of organic matter (carbon). Radionuclide transfer is linked to adsorption and flows of carbon in food chains. Accumulation of Th-230, Cs-135, and Ni-59 in biological compartments was comparable between the models and site measurements despite differences in temporal resolution, biological state variables, and partition coefficients. Both models provided confidence limits for their modeled concentration ratios, an improvement over models that only estimate means. The D-model enables estimates at high spatio-temporal resolution. The K-model, being coarser but faster, allows estimates centuries ahead. Future developments could integrate the two models to take advantage of their respective strengths.

  • 38. Eriksson, Britas Klemens
    et al.
    Sieben, Katrin
    Eklöf, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Ljunggren, Lars
    Olsson, Jens
    Casini, Michele
    Bergström, Ulf
    Effects of Altered Offshore Food Webs on Coastal Ecosystems Emphasize the Need for Cross-Ecosystem Management2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 7, 786-797 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By mainly targeting larger predatory fish, commercial fisheries have indirectly promoted rapid increases in densities of their prey; smaller predatory fish like sprat, stickleback and gobies. This process, known as mesopredator release, has effectively transformed many marine offshore basins into mesopredator-dominated ecosystems. In this article, we discuss recent indications of trophic cascades on the Atlantic and Baltic coasts of Sweden, where increased abundances of mesopredatory fish are linked to increased nearshore production and biomass of ephemeral algae. Based on synthesis of monitoring data, we suggest that offshore exploitation of larger predatory fish has contributed to the increase in mesopredator fish also along the coasts, with indirect negative effects on important benthic habitats and coastal water quality. The results emphasize the need to rebuild offshore and coastal populations of larger predatory fish to levels where they regain their control over lower trophic levels and important links between offshore and coastal systems are restored.

  • 39. Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Purcell, Steven W.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lessons for resource conservation from two contrasting small-scale fisheries2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no 3, 204-213 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale fisheries present challenges to management due to fishers' dependency on resources and the adaptability of management systems. We compared social-ecological processes in the sea cucumber fisheries of Zanzibar and Mayotte, Western Indian Ocean, to better understand the reasons for resource conservation or collapse. Commercial value of wild stocks was at least 30 times higher in Mayotte than in Zanzibar owing to lower fishing pressure. Zanzibar fishers were financially reliant on the fishery and increased fishing effort as stocks declined. This behavioral response occurred without adaptive management and reinforced an unsustainable fishery. In contrast, resource managers in Mayotte adapted to changing fishing effort and stock abundance by implementing a precautionary fishery closure before crossing critical thresholds. Fishery closure may be a necessary measure in small-scale fisheries to preserve vulnerable resources until reliable management systems are devised. Our comparison highlighted four poignant lessons for managing small-scale fisheries: (1) diagnose the fishery regularly, (2) enable an adaptive management system, (3) constrain exploitation within ecological limits, and (4) share management responsibility.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Hampus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Robinson, Georgina
    Slater, Matthew
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sea Cucumber Aquaculture in the Western Indian Ocean:  Challenges for Sustainable Livelihood and Stock Improvement2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 2, 109-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decline in sea cucumber fisheries that serve the Asian dried seafood market has prompted an increase in global sea cucumber aquaculture. The tropical sandfish (Holothuria scabra) has in this context been reared and produced with mixed success. In the Western Indian Ocean, villagers often participate in the export fishery for sea cucumbers as a source of income. However, with a growing concern of depleted stocks introduction of hatcheries to farm sandfish as a community livelihood and to replenish wild stocks is being promoted. This review identifies and discusses a number of aspects that constitute constraints or implications with regard to development of sandfish farming in the region. The conclusion is that for sandfish farming to live up to its expectations the possible impacts need to be further studied, and that improved evaluation of ongoing projects is required. In the interim a precautionary approach towards new enterprise activities is suggested. 

  • 41.
    Eriksson Hägg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Wällstedt, Teresia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Claremar, Björn
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Future nutrient load scenarios for the Baltic Sea due to climate and lifestyle changes2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 3, 337--351 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic model simulations of the future climate and projections of future lifestyles within the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin (BSDB) were considered in this study to estimate potential trends in future nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads were estimated using a simple proxy based only on human population (to account for nutrient sources) and stream discharges (to account for nutrient transport). This population-discharge proxy provided a good estimate for nutrient loads across the seven sub-basins of the BSDB considered. All climate scenarios considered here produced increased nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea over the next 100 years. There was variation between the climate scenarios such that sub-basin and regional differences were seen in future nutrient runoff depending on the climate model and scenario considered. Regardless, the results of this study indicate that changes in lifestyle brought about through shifts in consumption and population potentially overshadow the climate effects on future nutrient runoff for the entire BSDB. Regionally, however, lifestyle changes appear relatively more important in the southern regions of the BSDB while climatic changes appear more important in the northern regions with regards to future increases in nutrient loads. From a whole-ecosystem management perspective of the BSDB, this implies that implementation of improved and targeted management practices can still bring about improved conditions in the Baltic Sea in the face of a warmer and wetter future climate

  • 42.
    Eriksson, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå university.
    A spatial dimension of ecology: Ilkka Hanski Crafoord Laureate2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 40, no 3, 247-247 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    van der Leeuw, Sander E.
    Arizona State University.
    Redman, Charles L
    Arizona State University.
    Meffert, Douglas J.
    Tulane University.
    Davis, George
    SANBI, Urban Conservat Programme.
    Alfsen, Christine
    Columbia University.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 8, 531-545 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities-New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix-the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  • 44.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Jansson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Ebbesson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, Stockholm Environmental Law and Policy Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Albaeco, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Walker, Brian
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra, ACT, Australia .
    Reconnecting to the biosphere2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 7, 719-738 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere, with a significant imprint on the Earth System, challenging social-ecological resilience. This new situation calls for a fundamental shift in perspectives, world views, and institutions. Human development and progress must be reconnected to the capacity of the biosphere and essential ecosystem services to be sustained. Governance challenges include a highly interconnected and faster world, cascading social-ecological interactions and planetary boundaries that create vulnerabilities but also opportunities for social-ecological change and transformation. Tipping points and thresholds highlight the importance of understanding and managing resilience. New modes of flexible governance are emerging. A central challenge is to reconnect these efforts to the changing preconditions for societal development as active stewards of the Earth System. We suggest that the Millennium Development Goals need to be reframed in such a planetary stewardship context combined with a call for a new social contract on global sustainability. The ongoing mind shift in human relations with Earth and its boundaries provides exciting opportunities for societal development in collaboration with the biosphere-a global sustainability agenda for humanity.

  • 45.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Guest editorial: 3rd Nobel Laureate Symposium on Global Sustainability2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 7, 717-718 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Fröcklin, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Fish Traders as Key Actors in Fisheries: Gender and Adaptive Management2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 8, 951-962 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women’s reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar’s management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges.

  • 47.
    Fängström, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Weihe, Pál
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hydroxylated PCB Metabolites in Non-hatched Fulmar Eggs from the Faroe Islands2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 3, no 34, 184-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty-six polychlorinated biphenylols (OH-PCBs) conge-ners were characterized in Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) eggs collected from the Faroe Islands. The seven most abundant congeners were quantified in 19 samples, and the XOH-PCB concentrations ranged between 0.92 and 4.0 ng g 1 fresh weight (f.w.). These eggs constitute a part of the traditional diet for at least a part of the population on the Faroe Islands and may contribute to the high levels of these contaminants found in the blood of pregnant Faroese women. Because the metabolites are present in the nonhatched fulmar egg, it is concluded that the OH-PCBs are transferred to the egg before laying. High levels, 3300- 18 000 ng g-1 l.w., of 2polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were determined in the fulmar eggs, which are a consider-able source for human exposure. The high PCB levels are a source for metabolic formation of hydroxylated PCBs.

  • 48. Gardestedt, Caroline
    et al.
    Plea, Mama
    Nilsson, Gertrud
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Jacks, Birgitta
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Zinc in Soils, Crops, and Meals in the Niger Inland Delta, Mali2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 6, 334-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc deficiency is a problem in developing countries and not least so in Africa. This concerns both agriculture and human food provision. Zinc deficiency in soils may severely decrease yields, whereas insufficient zinc in food intake primarily affects the immune defense, notably in children. The present investigation concerned zinc availability in soils, crops, and food in the Niger inland delta in Mali. Agricultural soils are largely deficient in plant-available zinc, however, soils in close vicinity to habitation show elevated zinc concentrations. The zinc concentrations in crops are low; in rice, they are about half of reference ranges. Zinc intake assessed from a number of sampled meals was about half the recommended requirement. When zinc concentration is higher phytate was also high, which made the zinc less available. In spite of a recorded sufficient intake of iron, anemia is common and is most likely because of the high phytate concentration in the cereal-dominated diet. Increasing zinc and iron availability would be possible through the use of malting, fermentation, and soaking in food preparation. Finally, in the long run, any trace element deficiency, especially that of zinc in agricultural soils needs to be amended by addition of appropriate amounts in commercial fertilizers.

  • 49. Gascard, Jean-Claude
    et al.
    Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Karcher, Michael
    Young, Oran R.
    Facets of Arctic Change2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, 339-340 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50. Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Does divergence of nutrient load measurements matter for successful mitigation of marine eutrophication?2012In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, no 2, 151-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful implementation of an international nutrient abatement agreement, such as the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), requires consistent understanding of the baseline nutrient loads, and a perception of acceptable costs and fairness in targeted reductions of these base line loads. This article presents a general framework for identifying the implications of divergence between different nutrient load quantification approaches, with regard to both cost and fairness criteria outcomes, for the international agreement to decrease nutrient loads into the Baltic Sea as presented in the BSAP. The results indicate that even relatively small divergence in the nutrient load quantification translates into relatively large differences in abatement cost for different Baltic Sea countries. A robust result, irrespective of differences in nutrient load assessments, is a conflict between abatement cost effectiveness and fairness, with relatively poor countries facing heavy abatement cost burdens for cost-effective international load abatement.

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