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  • 1.
    Fang, Shuhong
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Chengdu University of Information Technology, China.
    Sha, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yin, Hongling
    Bian, Yuxia
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Environment occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids and associated human health risks near a major fluorochemical manufacturing park in southwest of China2020In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 396, article id 122617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite China being the largest global manufacturer of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), few studies have been carried out on the environmental occurrence and associated human health risks of PFAAs emitted from manufacturing sites in China. Here, river water, tap water, soil and leaf samples were collected around a major fluorochemical manufacturing park (FMP) in the southwest of China in 2019. High EPFAA concentrations (sum of 12 PFAAs) of 3817 ng/L, 3254 ng/L, 322 - 476 ng/g dw and 23401-33749 ng/g dw were measured near the FMP in river water, tap water, soil and leaves, respectively, indicating that the FMP is a point source of PFAAs. PFOA was the predominant PFAA in all samples (58.5-98.6 %) indicating the production or use of PFOA at the FMP. PFOA concentrations in most tap water samples (> 300 ng/L in 31 of 38 samples) exceeded the U.S. EPA health advisory. Proportions of branched PFOA isomers in all samples were in 5.9-47.4 %, suggesting the production or use of PFOA manufactured by electrochemical fluorination at the FMP. It is recommended to focus more attention on branched PFOA isomers in the future because otherwise health risks may be underestimated due to their relatively high proportions in China.

  • 2. Farinelli, Giulio
    et al.
    Di Luca, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kaila, Ville R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    MacLachlan, Mark J.
    Tiraferri, Alberto
    Fe-chitosan complexes for oxidative degradation of emerging contaminants in water: Structure, activity, and reaction mechanism2021In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 408, article id 124662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Versatile and ecofriendly methods to perform oxidations at near-neutral pH are of crucial importance for processes aimed at purifying water. Chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, is a promising starting material owing to its biocompatibility and ability to form stable films and complexes with metals. Here, we report a novel chitosanbased organometallic complex that was tested both as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst in the degradation of contaminants of emerging concern in water. The stoichiometry of the complex was experimentally verified with different metals, namely, Cu(II), Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Pd(II), and Mn(II), and we identified the chitosan-Fe(III) complex as the most efficient catalyst. This complex effectively degraded phenol, triclosan, and 3-chlorophenol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A putative ferryl-mediated reaction mechanism is proposed based on experimental data, density functional theory calculations, and kinetic modeling. Finally, a film of the chitosan-Fe(III) complex was synthesized and proven a promising supported heterogeneous catalyst for water purification.

  • 3. Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Yngsell, Daniel
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Identification of commercial and recreational vessels coated with banned organotin paint through screening of tin by portable XRF2019In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 362, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most effective biocide used historically in antifouling paints is tributyltin (TBT). However, due to its extreme toxicity to non-target organisms and its persistence in the environment, the use of TBT and other organotin compounds (OTCs) was restricted in EU on leisure boats and ships in 1989 and 2003, respectively. Nevertheless, studies worldwide still report TBT to be released from both ships and leisure boats. Here, we present a new application for a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) used for screening for organotin paint through measurements of tin (Sn) on leisure boats and ships. Measurements on ships built after the restrictions showed concentrations of up to 68 mu g Sn/cm(2), likely due to impurities of inorganic Sn, as shown through chemical analysis of 21 organotin-free paints. A threshold value of 100 mu g Sn/cm(2) is suggested, where exceedance indicates presence of OTCs. Screening with the XRF method showed 10% of the commercial vessels (n = 30) and 23-29% of leisure boats (n = 693, investigated in this and in a previous study) to hold concentrations exceeding 100 mu g Sn/cm(2). The XRF technique presented here provides a useful tool for quick screening and identification of vessels holding banned organotin paint.

  • 4.
    Liu, Peng
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Zhu, Chuantao
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Mechanically robust high flux graphene oxide - nanocellulose membranes for dye removal from water2019In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 371, p. 484-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) layer was fabricated on cellulose nanofiber (CNF) membrane to achieve robust crosslinker free layered membrane with synergistic water flux and separation performance. Unlike pristine cellulosic or GO membranes, GO-CNF hybrid membranes exhibited significantly improved mechanical stability in both dry and wet states. All membranes showed negative surface zeta potential. GO: CNF membrane (1:100) exhibited significantly high water flux (18,123 +/- 574 Lm(-2) h(-1) bar(-1)); higher than that of CNF membrane or the hydrophilic commercial reference membrane with comparable pore structure (Nylon 66, 0.2 mu m). We hypothyse that a unique surface structure of standing inserted GO nanosheets observed at low concentrations of GO contributes enormously to its ultrafast water permeability through creation of numerous water transport nanochannels. The aniosptropic layered membranes exhibited > 90% rejection of positively and negatively charged dyes through a combination of electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interactions and molecular size exclusion. Construction of an ultrathin GO layer on CNF offers a unique and efficient way to prepare highly functional, economical and scalable water purification membranes having significant advantage with respect to flux, mechanical stability and rejection of dyes compared to isotropic membrane with GO nanosheets randomly dispersed in the cellulose nanofibrous network.

  • 5. Malnes, Daniel
    et al.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Figuière, Romain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Wiberg, Karin
    Köhler, Stephan J.
    Golovko, Oksana
    Hazard screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in Sweden’s three largest lakes and their associated rivers2023In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 453, article id 131376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent, mobile, and toxic (PMT) substances have recently garnered increased attention by environmental researchers, the water sector and environmental protection agencies. In this study, acute and chronic species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were retrieved from literature data for previously quantified contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in Swedish surface waters (n = 92) and risk quotients (RQ) were calculated. To better understand the characteristics of the detected CECs in non-urban lake sites (n = 71), these compounds were checked against established criteria for potentially toxic PMs (PM(T)s) and occurrence in the aquatic environment, respectively. For the CECs with missing SSDs (n = 15 [acute], n = 41 [chronic]), ecotoxicity data were extracted for eight taxonomic groups, and if data were sufficient (n ≥ 3), SSDs were derived. The retrieved and newly developed SSDs were then used in an environmental hazard assessment (EHA) in the investigated Swedish rivers and lakes. In the rivers, 8 CECs had RQ> 1 in at least one location, and 20 CECs posed a moderate risk (0.01 < RQ < 1). In total, 21 of the 71 detected substances had already been identified as PM(T)/vPvM substances. Our study shows the importance of studying field data at large spatial scale to reveal potential environmental hazards far from source areas.

  • 6. Meng, Pingping
    et al.
    Jiang, Xiangzhe
    Wang, Bin
    Huang, Jun
    Wang, Yujue
    Yu, Gang
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Deng, Shubo
    Role of the air-water interface in removing perfluoroalkyl acids from drinking water by activated carbon treatment2020In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 386, article id 121981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contamination of drinking water by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a worldwide problem. In this study, we for the first time revealed the role of the air-water interface in enhancing the removal of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic (PFCAs; CnF2n+1COOH, n >= 7) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic (PFSAs; CnF2n+1SO3H, n >= 6) acids, collectively termed as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), through combined aeration and adsorption on two kinds of activated carbon (AC). Aeration was shown to enhance the removal of long-chain PFAAs through adsorption at the air-water interface and subsequent adsorption of PFAA-enriched air bubbles to the AC. The removal of selected long-chain PFAAs was increased by 50-115 % with the assistance of aeration, depending on the perfluoroalkyl chain length. Aeration is more effective in enhancing long-chain PFAA removal as air-water interface adsorption increases with PFAA chain length due to higher surface activity. After removing adsorbed air bubbles by centrifugation, up to 80 % of the long-chain PFAAs were able to desorb from the sorbent, confirming the contribution of the air-water interface to the adsorption of PFAAs on AC. Aeration during AC treatment of water could enhance the removal of long-chain PFAAs, and improve the performance of AC during water treatment.

  • 7.
    Nybom, Inna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    van Grimbergen, Janneke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Forsell, Mari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Mustajärvi, Lukas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Martens, Jannik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Water column organic carbon composition as driver for water-sediment fluxes of hazardous pollutants in a coastal environment2024In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 465, article id 133393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental fate of hazardous hydrophobic pollutants in the marine environment is strongly influenced by organic carbon (OC) cycling. As an example, the seasonality in primary production impacts both water column OC quantity and quality, which may influence pollutant mass transport from the water column to the sediment. This study aims to better understand the role of water column OC variability for the fate of pollutants in a near-coastal area. We conducted an in situ sampling campaign in the coastal Baltic Proper during two seasons, summer and autumn. We used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as model compounds, as they represent a wide range in physicochemical properties and are ubiquitous in the environment. Freely dissolved, and OC-bound concentrations were studied in the water column and surface sediment. We found stronger sorption of pollutants to suspended particulate matter (SPM) during the summer compared to the autumn (average 0.6 and 0.9 log unit higher particle-water partition coefficients during summer for PAHs and PCBs). Our data suggest that stronger sorption mirrors a compositional change of the OC towards higher contribution of labile OC during the summer, characterized by two times higher fatty acid and 24% higher dicarboxylic acids in SPM during summer. High concentrations of OC in the water column during the autumn resulted in increased SPM-mediated sinking fluxes of pollutants. Our results suggest that future changes in primary production are prone to influence the bioavailability and mobility of pollutants in costal zones, potentially affecting the residence time of these hazardous substances in the circulating marine environment.

  • 8. Okkenhaug, Gudny
    et al.
    Grasshorn Gebhardt, Karl-Alexander
    Amstaetter, Katja
    Lassen Bue, Helga
    Herzel, Hannes
    Mariussen, Espen
    Rossebø Almås, Åsgeir
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Rasmussen, Grete
    Mulder, Jan
    Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study2016In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 307, p. 336-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-arm shooting ranges often receive a significant input of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) from ammunition. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mobility, distribution and speciation of Pb and Sb pollution under field conditions in both untreated and sorbent-amended shooting range soil. Elevated Sb (19-349 mu g L-1) and Pb (7-1495 mu g Pb L-1) concentrations in the porewater of untreated soil over the four-year test period indicated a long-term Sb and Pb source to the adjacent environment in the absence of remedial measures. Mixing ferric oxyhydroxide powder (CFH-12) (2%) together with limestone (1%) into the soil resulted in an average decrease of Sb and Pb porewater concentrations of 66% and 97%, respectively. A similar reduction was achieved by adding 2% zerovalent iron (Fe) to the soil. The remediation effect was stable over the four-year experimental period indicating no remobilization. Water- and 1 M NH4NO3-extractable levels of Sb and Pb in field soil samples indicated significant immobilization by both treatments (89-90% for Sb and 89-99% for Pb). Results from sequential extraction analysis indicate fixation of Sb and Pb in less accessible fractions like amorphous iron oxides or even more crystalline and residual mineral phases, respectively. This work shows that amendment with Fe-based sorbents can be an effective method to reduce the mobility of metals both in cationic and anionic form in polluted shooting range soil.

  • 9. Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A.
    et al.
    Ali, Lamiaa M. A.
    Vardanyan, Ani
    Gary-Bobo, Magali
    Budnyak, Tetyana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine.
    Kessler, Vadim G.
    Durand, Jean-Olivier
    Mesoporous silica adsorbents modified with amino polycarboxylate ligands-functional characteristics, health and environmental effects2021In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 406, article id 124698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of hybrid adsorbents were produced by surface modification with amino polycarboxylate ligands of industrially available microparticles (MP) of Kromasil (R) mesoporous nanostructured silica beads, bearing grafted amino propyl ligands. Produced materials, bearing covalently bonded functions as EDTA and TTHA, original Kromasil (R), bearing amino propyl ligands, and bare particles, obtained by thermal treatment of Kromasil (R) in air, were characterized by SEM-EDS, AFM, FTIR, TGA and gas sorption techniques. Adsorption kinetics and capacity of surface-modified particles to adsorb Rare Earth Elements (REE), crucial for extraction in recycling processes, were evaluated under dynamic conditions, revealing specificity matching the ligand nature and the size of REE cations. A detailed comparison with earlier reported adsorbents for REE extraction was presented. The cytotoxicity was assessed using four different types of healthy cells, human skeletal muscles derived cells (SKMDC), fibroblast cells, macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating lower toxicity of ligand-free MP than MP bearing amino poly-carboxylate functions. Internalization of the MP inside the cells and release of nitric oxide were observed. In addition, zebrafish embryos were exposed to high concentrations of MP and did not show any pronounced toxicity.

  • 10.
    Szabo, Drew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Marchiandi, Jaye
    Samandra, Subharthe
    Johnston, Julia M.
    Mulder, Raoul A.
    Green, Mark P.
    Clarke, Bradley O.
    High-resolution temporal wastewater treatment plant investigation to understand influent mass flux of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)2023In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 447, article id 130854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and reveals previously undescribed variability in daily PFAS concentrations by measuring their occurrence in WWTP influent each hour over the course of a week. ∑50PFAS concentrations ranged between 89 ± 38 on Monday and 173 ± 110 ng L-1 on Friday, where perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), disubstituted phosphate esters (diPAPs), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) contributed the largest proportion to overall weekly concentrations 37%, 30%, and 17% respectively. Simultaneous pulse events of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS; 400 ng L-1) and perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid (PFHpS; 18 ng L-1) indicate significant industrial or commercial waste discharge that persists for up to 3 h. The minimum number of hourly grab samples required to detect variation of PFOS and PFHpS concentrations are 7 and 9 samples respectively, indicating a high degree of variability in PFAS concentrations between days. Overall, the risk of sampling bias from grab samples is high given the variability in PFAS concentrations and more frequent sampling campaigns must be balanced against the cost of analysis carefully to avoid the mischaracterisation of mass flux to receiving surface waters.

  • 11. van Gils, Jos
    et al.
    Posthuma, Leo
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Brack, Werner
    Altenburger, Rolf
    Baveco, Hans
    Focks, Andreas
    Greskowiak, Janek
    Kühne, Ralph
    Kutsarova, Stela
    Lindim, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Markus, Arjen
    van de Meent, Dik
    Munthe, John
    Schueder, Rudy
    Schüürmann, Gerrit
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    de Zwart, Dick
    van Wezel, Annemarie
    Computational material flow analysis for thousands of chemicals of emerging concern in European waters2020In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 397, article id 122655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of exposure to a wide range of chemicals, and the spatio-temporal variability thereof, is urgently needed in the context of protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems. This paper discusses a computational material flow analysis to predict the occurrence of thousands of man-made organic chemicals on a European scale, based on a novel temporally and spatially resolved modelling framework. The goal was to increase understanding of pressures by emerging chemicals and to complement surface water monitoring data. The ambition was to provide a first step towards a real-life mixture exposure situation accounting for as many chemicals as possible. Comparison of simulated concentrations and chemical monitoring data for 226 substance/basin combinations showed that the simulated concentrations were accurate on average. For 65% and 90% of substance/basin combinations the error was within one and two orders of magnitude respectively. An analysis of the relative importance of uncertainties revealed that inaccuracies in use volume or use type information contributed most to the error for individual substances. To resolve this, we suggest better registration of use types of industrial chemicals, investigation of presence/absence of industrial chemicals in wastewater and runoff samples and more scientific information exchange.

  • 12.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Rüdel, Heinz
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Koschorreck, Jan
    Identifying emerging environmental concerns from long-chain chlorinated paraffins towards German ecosystems2022In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 424, article id 127607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Germany is one of several major European producers of chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This study showed that not only the legacy short-chain products (SCCPs, C10-13), but also the current-use medium- and long-chain products (MCCPs, C14-17; LCCPs, C 17) as well as the very-short-chain impurities (vSCCPs, C<10) are ubiquitous in the 72 samples collected from the coastal, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems across the country. The concentrations of LCCPs surpassed those of the other CPs in 40% of the biota samples. Archived bream samples collected downstream of a CP-manufacturing factory showed decreasing temporal trends of (v)SCCPs and relatively constant levels of MCCPs from 1995 to 2019; however, the overall levels of LCCPs have increased by 290%, reflecting the impact of chemical regulation policies on changes in CP production. A visualization algorithm was developed for integrating CP results from various matrices to illustrate spatial tendencies of CP pollution. Higher levels of (v)SCCPs were indicated in the former West Germany region, while MCCP and LCCP concentrations did not seem to differ between former East and West Germany, suggesting relatively equal production and use of these chemicals after the German Reunification. The results provide an early warning signal of environmental concerns from LCCPs on the eve of their booming global production and use.

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