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  • 1. Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Social differentials in speed-premium effects in childbearing in Sweden2006In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 51-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, parents receive a parental-leave allowance of a high percentage (currently 80%) of their pre-birth salary for about a year in connection with any birth. If they space their births sufficiently closely, they avoid a reduction in the allowance caused by any reduced income earned between the births. The gain is popularly called a “speed premium”. In previous work we have shown that childbearing was sped up correspondingly. This is clear evidence of a causal effect of a policy change on childbearing behavior. In the present paper, we study how this change in behavior was adopted in various social strata of the Swedish population.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Contemporary Research on European Fertility: Perspectives and Developments2004In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a collection of related studies on different aspects of research on European fertility and family dynamics. The authors who have contributed to this special Volume presented their papers at a working party at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, April 2004. This collection has been produced in honor of Jan M. Hoem for his 65th birthday. It provides an overview of important approaches to, and relevant topics of European fertility research, as well as a number of case studies researching European fertility. In this introduction, we first give a brief summary of the present state of arts in fertility research in Europe, and we then proceed with an overview of the articles of the Volume.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Obucina, Ognjen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Scott, Kirk
    Marriage and divorce of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in Sweden2015In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 33, p. 31-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Immigrants and their second-generation descendants make up more than a quarter of the current Swedish population. Their nuptiality patterns can be viewed as crucial indicators of their integration into Swedish society. OBJECTIVES This study provides data on levels of and patterns in marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage of people in Sweden, by country of origin. METHODS The study is based on analyses of longitudinal register data that cover all residents born in 1951 and later who ever lived in Sweden during 1983-2007. Kaplan-Meier survivor functions demonstrate levels in nuptiality; multivariate event-history analyses demonstrate relative risks of marriage formation and divorce, by country group of origin. RESULTS We find evidence of variation among immigrant groups and between migrants and Swedish-born people in marriage and divorce patterns. A few groups of migrants have relatively high churning rates in family dynamics, with high levels of marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage. CONCLUSIONS Many factors relate to the nuptiality behavior of immigrants in Sweden. Differences in family systems seem to have some influence on behavior in the contemporary Swedish context. Other factors relate to the migration process itself and to the selectivity of migrants to Sweden.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Persson, Lotta
    Obucina, Ognjen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Depressed fertility among descendants of immigrants in Sweden2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, p. 1149-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Previous research shows evidence of an interrelation between family formation and the migration of immigrants in Europe. Less research has been conducted on the fertility and family behavior of the descendants of immigrants. OBJECTIVES Our study provides analyses of the childbearing behavior of daughters of immigrants in Sweden. The context is that of a country with near-replacement-level fertility and social policies oriented towards social equality. METHODS The study is based on register data covering 1998-2012, which allows for highly detailed analyses of the childbearing behavior of 20 country origin groups of second-generation women. By means of event history techniques, we analyze the transition to any first, second, and third births. RESULTS Our analyses show that most groups of descendants of immigrants have lower fertility than those with a full Swedish background. The risk of having a first child is particularly depressed, and the risk of having a second child is also lower for daughters of immigrants than for women with two Swedish-born parents. In contrast, many groups of immigrant-descendant two-child mothers display elevated third-birth risks. CONCLUSIONS Our findings demonstrate the necessity to account for parity-specific differences in fertility when studying the fertility of descendants of migrants.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rönsen, Marit
    Knudsen, Lisbeth
    Lappegård, Trude
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Skrede, Kari
    Teschner, Kathrin
    Vikat, Andres
    Cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries2009In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 313-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women’s educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries. Median childbearing age is about 2−3 years higher in the 1960−64 cohort than in the 1950−54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education, resulting in small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Another interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Despite some differences in the levels of childlessness, country differences in fertility outcome are generally small. The cohort analyses thus support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Thomson, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duntava, Aija
    Life-table representations of family dynamics in the 21st century2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, p. 1081-1229, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND A key resource for cross-national comparative research on family dynamics (Andersson and Philipov 2002) is seriously outdated. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS We provide an update of the life-table estimates by Andersson and Philipov (2002) based on data from the Generations and Gender Surveys and other related surveys in 18 countries across Europe and the United States. RESULTS Life-table estimates of family formation of women and men, union dynamics, and children's experience of family disruption and family formation demonstrate the degree of variation in family dynamics across countries. CONCLUSIONS Our findings provide the basis for more in-depth research on the causes and consequences of differences in family dynamics across contexts. CONTRIBUTION The Appendix of the current manuscript is a new resource for comparative research on family dynamics in the early 21st century.

  • 7.
    Barclay, Kieron J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sex ratios at sexual maturity and longevity: Evidence from Swedish register data2013In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 29, p. 837-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study tests the recently proposed hypothesis that the contextual sex ratio at sexual maturity is related to longevity. Previous empirical research in the United States has shown that a higher proportion of males at the age of sexual maturity increases the risk of mortality for males both before and after the age of 65.

    Methods: I use Swedish administrative register data, linking the 1960 census to individual- level mortality data over the period 1960 to 2007. I calculate the sex ratio at two geographic levels, municipalities and parishes. Two different specifications of the sex ratio are calculated: males aged 18 to 27 over females aged 15 to 24, and males aged 18 to 22 over females aged 16 to 20. I conduct piece-wise constant survival analyses over the period from 1960 to 2007 to analyze the risk of mortality before age 65. I run separate analyses for males and females, using cohorts born in 1941 and 1942.

    Results: For males, the results generally show that for both males and females a higher proportion of males was associated with a lower relative risk of mortality before age 65. The results were not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: The lack of a consistent statistically significant association for either males or females, and the trend for males being in the opposite direction of what was hypothesized, suggests that support for the hypothesis in Sweden is very weak.

  • 8.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Economic crisis and recovery: Changes in second birth rates within occupational classes and educational groups2011In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 24, p. 375-406, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the decline in second birth rates for men and women across different skill levels in transitional Russia. Changes within educational groups and occupational classes are observed over three distinct time periods: the Soviet era, economic crisis, and economic recovery. The most remarkable finding is the similarity in the extent second birth rates declined within educational groups and occupational classes during the economic crisis. Although further decline occurred in the recovery period, more variation emerged across groups.

  • 9.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Puur, Allan
    Sakkeus, Luule
    Jobs, careers, and becoming a parent under state socialist and market conditions: Evidence from Estonia 1971-20062014In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 30, p. 1733-1768, article id 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Entering employment and achieving a stable position in the labour market are considered important preconditions for childbearing. Existing studies addressing the relationship between work experience and the timing of parenthood focus exclusively on Western Europe and North America. By adding an Eastern European context before and after societal transformation, this study contributes to a more comprehensive account of the role of work experience in first-birth timing in Europe.

    OBJECTIVE

    We investigate how work experience and career development are related to the timing of parenthood in two diverse contexts in Estonia, state socialism and the market economy, and how it varies by gender and nativity.

    METHOD

    The data used come from the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006-2007. We estimate piecewise constant event history models to analyse the transition to first birth.

    RESULTS

    Our results suggest that in the market economy work experience became more important in the decision to enter parenthood. In the market economy the importance of work experience to entering parenthood became more similar for women and men. Non-native-origin men and women's timing of parenthood appears to have become detached from their career developments. The article discusses mechanisms that may underlie the observed patterns.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Our study shows how work experience gained importance as a precondition for parenthood in the transition to a market economy. This lends support to the view that the increasing importance of work experience is among plausible drivers of the postponement transition that extended to Eastern Europe in the 1990s.

  • 10. Boertien, Diederik
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Why does women's education stabilize marriages? The role of marital attraction and barriers to divorce2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 38, p. 1241-1276, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Despite widespread attention paid to the negative correlation between female education and divorce, we lack an explanation for it. In this study we use social exchange theory to assess two broad groups of explanations. According to the 'marital attraction' explanation, educated women's marriages have higher marital quality and marital satisfaction. According to the 'barriers to divorce' explanation, educated women's marriages include factors that raise the cost of divorcing. Many previous studies have referred to variants of the former explanation, whereas the latter has been less prominent. Our objective is to investigate the explanatory power of these two explanations.

    METHODS

    We use discrete-time event history models to document the educational gradient of divorce from first marriages using the British Household Panel Survey (N = 1,263) for the years 1996-2009. We subsequently perform a mediation analysis to explain the educational gradient in divorce and a path analysis to distinguish which factors shape marital attraction and barriers to divorce.

    RESULTS

    Female education is positively related to marital stability, but this association is only partly explained by educational differences in marital satisfaction and variables that shape attractions. Variables interpreted as affecting barriers to divorce, such as home ownership and having divorced parents, provide an at least equally important explanation of the educational gradient in divorce.

    CONTRIBUTION

    This paper shows that the negative female educational gradient of divorce is shaped not only by educational differences in marital attraction, but also by differences in barriers to divorce.

  • 11. Caporali, Arianna
    et al.
    Klüsener, Sebastian
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Krapf, Sandra
    Grigorieva, Olga
    Kostova, Dora
    The Contextual Database of the Generations and Gender Programme: Concept, content, and research examples2016In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 35, p. 229-252, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Differences in demographic behaviours across countries and subnational regions have stimulated interest in studying the relationships between individual characteristics and the contexts in which individuals are embedded. Analytical approaches that include contextual indicators in statistical analyses of demographic behaviour need well-documented comparative data at the national and the subnational regional level. The Contextual Database (CDB) of the Generations and Gender Programme (GGP; http://www.ggp-i.org/data/ggp-contextual-database) supports such analyses by providing comparative data on demographic and socio-economic contexts in up to 60 countries in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania.

    Objective: This paper presents conceptual considerations and an overview of the content and the functionality of the CDB. Research examples illustrate how data from this database can increase the analytical potential of demographic analyses.

    Conclusions: The CDB is a state-of-the-art research tool that provides well-documented comparative data at the national and the subnational regional level. Although it is conceptually linked to the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS), it can also be used to analyse data from other surveys, to study macro developments, and for teaching and lecturing. The CDB has a number of valuable features. First, it has a large number of indicators specifically geared towards demographic analyses, which provide extensive temporal and geographic coverage. Second, its dynamic web environment provides a high degree of transparency on data sources, as it offers meta-data for each individual entry. Finally, the CDB supports geocoding schemes that are used by the GGS and other surveys to denote region and country of residence.

  • 12. Carollo, Angela
    et al.
    Oksuzyan, Anna
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Camarda, Carlo Giovanni
    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel
    Christensen, Kaare
    van Raalte, Alyson
    Is the age difference between partners related to women's earnings?2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 41, p. 425-460, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Women earn less than men at most career stages. Explanations for a gender gap in wages include gender differences in the allocation of household and domestic work. At the family level, a marital age difference is an important shared characteristic that might play a role in determining a woman's career trajectory, and, therefore, her income. Since women tend to marry older men, we investigate whether women whose husbands are older have lower incomes than women whose husbands are the same age or younger. OBJECTIVE This study investigates whether the age gap between a woman and her partner was associated with her income in Denmark in 2010. METHODS We use data on Danish female twin pairs in 2010. Our design includes samples within twin pairs (n = 4,716) and pooled twin samples (n = 13,354) to account for differences in early household environments and uses unconditional quantile regression to model the association between the age gap and the woman's income. RESULTS We find a statistically significant association between the marital age gap and the woman's income. The form of this association appears to be complex and varies across the income and age gap distribution. However, the magnitude of the estimated effects is small in economic terms. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the marital age gap is unlikely to be an important determinant of a woman's income, at least in Denmark. CONTRIBUTION To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the association between marital age differences and a woman's earnings using a twin design and high-quality register data.

  • 13.
    Comolli, Chiara Ludovica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The fertility response to the Great Recession in Europe and the United States: Structural economic conditions and perceived economic uncertainty2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, p. 1549-1600, article id 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study further develops Goldstein et al.'s (2013) analysis of the fertility response to the Great Recession in western economies.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the fertility reaction to different indicators of the crisis. Beyond the structural labor market conditions, I investigate the dependence of fertility rates on economic policy uncertainty, government financial risk, and consumer confidence.

    METHODS: Following Goldstein et al. (2013), I use log-log models to assess the elasticity of age-, parity-, and education-specific fertility rates to an array of indicators. Besides the inclusion of a wider set of explanatory variables, I include more recent data (2000-2013) and I enlarge the sample to 31 European countries plus the United States.

    RESULTS: Fertility response to unemployment in some age-and parity-specific groups has been, in more recent years, larger than estimated by Goldstein et al. (2013). Female unemployment has also been significantly reducing fertility rates. Among uncertainty measures, the drop in consumer confidence is strongly related to fertility decline and in Southern European countries the fertility response to sovereign debt risk is comparable to that of unemployment. Economic policy uncertainty is negatively related to TFR even when controlling for unemployment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Theoretical and empirical investigation is needed to develop more tailored measures of economic and financial insecurity and their impact on birth rates.

    CONTRIBUTION: The study shows the nonnegligible influence of economic and financial uncertainty on birth rates during the Great Recession in Western economies, over and above that of structural labor market conditions.

  • 14.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Family influence in fertility: A longitudinal analysis of sibling correlations in first birth risk and completed fertility among Swedish men and women2013In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 29, p. 233-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND The intergenerational transmission of fertility has received much attention in demography. This has been done by estimating the correlation between parents' and offsprings' fertility. An alternative method that provides a more comprehensive account of the role of family background - sibling correlations - has not been used before. OBJECTIVE I estimate the overall importance of family background on entry into parenthood and completed fertility and whether it changed over time. Furthermore, I compare the intergenerational correlation in completed fertility with corresponding sibling correlations. METHODS Brother and sister correlations in first birth hazard and in final family size were estimated using multi-level event-history and multi-level linear regression on Swedish longitudinal register data. RESULTS The overall variation in fertility that can be explained by family of origin is approximately 15%-25% for women and 10%-15% for men. The overall importance of the family of origin has not changed over the approximately twenty birth cohorts that were studied (1940-63 for women, 1940-58 for men). Parents' completed fertility accounts for only a small share of the total family background effect on completed fertility. CONCLUSIONS This study contributes to the existing understanding of intergenerational transition of fertility, both methodologically, by introducing a new and powerful method to study the overall importance of family of origin, and substantially, by estimating the overall importance of family of origin and its development over time. A non-negligible proportion of the variation in fertility can be attributed to family of origin and this effect has remained stable over twenty birth cohorts.

  • 15.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Explaining Swedish sibling similarity in fertility: Parental fertility behavior vs. social background2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 39, p. 883-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this descriptive study is to determine which of the family-specific factors, parental fertility behavior or social background, matters most for the intergenerational transmission of fertility.

    Methods: Brother and sister correlations in age at first birth and final family size were estimated using multilevel linear regression on data covering 242,976 Swedish men and women born between 1958 and 1967. To explore how much of siblings’ similarity in fertility can be explained by parental fertility behavior (age at parenthood and number of children) and social background, we analyzed the decrease in sibling correlation when these family-specific factors were added to the unconditional models.

    Results: We found that most of siblings’ similarity in fertility could not be explained by parental fertility behavior and social background, but that they explained a substantive part of siblings’ similarities in age at first birth and a smaller but non-negligible part of siblings’ similarities in completed fertility. Parental fertility behavior and social background explain as much (about 36%) of brothers’ and sisters’ similarities in age at first birth. Parental fertility behavior matters more than social background for sisters’ similarities in completed family size. Parental fertility behavior and social background explain about the same (5%) for brothers’ similarities in completed family size.

    Contribution: This study contributes to the existing understanding of intergenerational transmission of fertility; both methodologically, by introducing a new method to estimate the impact of specific factors shared by siblings, and by determining how much of siblings’ resemblance in fertility can be explained by parental fertility behavior and social background.

  • 16.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Andersen, Synøve N.
    Garðarsdóttir, Ólöf
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Viklund, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental leave policies and continued childbearing in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1501-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Demographic theories maintain that family policies that support gender equality may lead to higher fertility levels in postindustrial societies. This phenomenon is often exemplified by the situation in the Nordic countries. These countries have parental leave policies that promote a gender-equal work-care balance for both parents, and these countries have comparatively high fertility levels. However, very little is known about the association between these policies and childbearing at the individual level.

    OBJECTIVE

    We explore how fathers' parental leave use is related to subsequent childbearing in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, and we examine whether differences exist in childbearing outcomes among fathers who use no leave, those who use only the leave allocated to them by the policy, and those who use more than that amount of leave.

    METHODS

    The study is based on 15 years of administrative register data on parental leave use in Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Event history analysis is used to follow parental couples from the end of the parental leave use for their first or second child until a new birth takes place.

    RESULTS

    There is a positive association between fathers' leave use and second births in all three countries, while there is a negative association between fathers' parental leave use and third births in Norway and Sweden. Taking more than the 'father's quota' does not consistently increase the second-birth intensities.

    CONCLUSIONS

    The two-child norm is closely connected to the norm of fathers being engaged in child rearing, while only a select group of fathers continue with a third child.

    CONTRIBUTION

    The study shows that the association between gender equality and fertility differs between countries and by the parity of the child. It also shows the need to differentiate between policy-induced gender-equal behavior and gender-egalitarian parenting.

  • 17.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Boye, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Erman, Jeylan
    Fathers on-call? A study on the sharing of care work between parents in Sweden2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 39, p. 33-60, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Swedish fathers’ parental leave uptake has increased over time, but progress has been moderate. In relation to this, we ask what factors hinder or facilitate the taking of leave by fathers and how – if at all – the leave influences the father’s relationship with his child.

    OBJECTIVE

    To study (i) the reasons for parents’ division of parental leave as well as the consequences this division has for their actual time at home with the child and (ii) the link between the father’s leave and his relationship with the child, as well as the parents’ division of childcare after parental leave.

    METHODS

    A multi-methods approach is used, where OLS regression models of survey data from the Young Adult Panel Study are analysed alongside qualitative in-depth interviews with 13 couples who have had a first child.

    RESULTS

    Quantitative results show that parents’ leave lengths vary with the reasons given for the division of leave and that fathers’ parental leave is related to long-term division of childcare. Qualitative results suggest that equal parenting is important to the interviewed parents; however, motherhood ideals may stand in the way of achieving it. Several mechanisms by which fathers’ parental leave may influence later division of childcare are suggested, including the development of a closer relationship between father and child.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Policies aimed towards increasing fathers’ parental leave uptake have the potential to strengthen the father–child bond, contribute to a more equal division of childcare, and facilitate both parents’ understanding of each other and what being a stay-at-home parent involves.

    CONTRIBUTION

    This article is the first to show how parents alleged reasons for the parental leave links to the actual length of the mother's and father's leave. Results indicate that increasing paternal leave length is linked to improved couple relationship quality and a closer relationship with the child.

  • 18.
    Fahlén, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Equality at home - A question of career? Housework, norms, and policies in a European comparative2016In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 35, p. 1411-1440, article id 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Dual-earner families are widespread in contemporary Europe, yet the division of housework is highly gendered, with women still bearing the lion's share. However, women in dual-career couples and in other types of non-traditional couples, across and within different European countries, appear to handle the division of housework differently. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine the division of housework among various couple-earner types, by determining i) whether relative resources, time spent on paid work, gender attitudes, and family structure reduce variations in housework between different couple types, and ii) whether the division of housework varies between countries with different work. family policies and gender norms. METHODS The study uses data from ten countries, representing different welfare regime types, extracted from the European Social Survey (2010/11), and employs multivariate regressions and aggregated analysis of the association between the division of housework and the contextual indices. RESULTS The results show that dual-career couples divide housework more equally than dualearner couples, relating more to the fact that the former group of women do less housework in general, rather than that men are doing more. The cross-national analysis shows tangible differences between dual-earner and dual-career couples; however, the difference is less marked with respect to the division of housework in countries with more institutional support for work. family reconciliation and less traditional gender norms. CONTRIBUTION By combining conventional economic and gender-based approaches with an institutional framework, this study contributes to the research field by showing that the division of housework within different couple-earner types is contextually embedded.

  • 19.
    Fahlén, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Economic uncertainty and first-birth intentions in Europe2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 39, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The demographic challenge Europe is facing due to long-term low fertility, accompanied by pronounced economic uncertainty, indicates the need for adequate policy response based on a thorough understanding of the economic uncertainty-fertility decisions-public policy nexus.

    OBJECTIVE

    We address the relationship between societal economic conditions, individual economic uncertainty, and short-term first-birth intentions of women and men in ten European countries, representing various institutional contexts before and after the Great Recession.

    METHODS

    We analyse European Social Survey data from 2004 and 2011. After addressing the macro-level association, we study the micro-level relationship in regard to perceived security of employment and income situation, based on multiple logistic regression models.

    RESULTS

    Societal economic uncertainty is negatively associated with short-term parenthood intentions, especially for men. Regarding subjective economic security, men's labour market position matters irrespectively of the institutional context, but women's labour market position matters at younger ages only and in particular welfare regimes (the Postsocialist and Familialistic regimes). Perceived income security is less important at higher ages for either gender and for women below age 30, especially in the aftermath of the crisis. Men in their early thirties show the lowest fatherhood intentions in a constrained situation.

    CONTRIBUTION

    Our findings highlight the continued importance of economic uncertainty for fertility plans, especially for men, who still seem to consider themselves as the primary earner in couples. For young employed women, a secure position is a precondition for first birth, but motherhood appears as attractive alternative to unemployment above age 30, except for Postsocialist and Universal clusters.

  • 20.
    Frejka, Tomas
    et al.
    Independent researcher, International.
    Sobotka, Tomas
    Vienna Institute of Demography, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Toulemon, Laurent
    Institut national d´études démographiques (INED), France.
    Summary and general conclusions: Childbearing Trends and Policies in Europe2008In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 5-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European fertility early in the 21st century was at its lowest level since the Second World War. This study explores contemporary childbearing trends and policies in Europe, and gives detailed attention to the past two or three decades. We felt motivated to undertake this project because in many European countries, as well as for the European Union as a whole, the overall fertility level and its consequences are of grave concern and draw attention on the political stage. Our account focuses somewhat more on the previously state socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe, where available knowledge about the impact on childbearing of the momentous political and economic transition that started in 1989 remains relatively scarce. As family formation and childbearing behaviour are inherent components of societal life, they were influenced and modified by the various political, economic, and social changes that took place in Europe during the past 60 years. There were also profound changes in norms, values, beliefs, and attitudes regarding family and childbearing, and these exerted additional effects on fertility and family trends. To identify such effects, this study pays much attention to the influence of social and family policies on fertility, to the influence of political and economic changes on fertility and family trends, and to the diverse ways changes in values, norms, and attitudes relate to the transformation in family-related behaviour in Europe. In the present chapter, we outline main issues discussed in the subsequent overview chapters, and summarise the main findings of the entire study.

  • 21. Goldscheider, Frances
    et al.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden2013In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 29, p. 1097-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines, modern. family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. OBJECTIVE After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? METHODS Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS), we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1) holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2) actual sharing in these domestic tasks. RESULTS Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. CONCLUSIONS As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  • 22.
    Goldscheider, Frances
    et al.
    Brown University, USA.
    Olah, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Puur, Allan
    Reconciling studies of men's gender attitudes and fertility: Response to Westoff and Higgins2010In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reflexion by Westoff and Higgins (2009) in response to a study by Puur, Oláh, Tazi-Preve and Dorbritz (2008) has been recently published in this journal. Both articles addressed the relationship between men’s gender attitudes and fertility, using different datasets and quite different measures of gender attitudes, producing divergent results. Based on that, the authors of the reflexion suggested caution regarding the conclusion of the Puur et al. analysis. We respond to their arguments here by elaborating on the theoretical underpinnings of the claim presented in the original article and thus the importance of the differences of the measures of gender attitudes applied in the two studies (gender roles in the public sphere vs. the private sphere). With this contribution, we stress the need for further research on the association of men’s gender attitudes and fertility.

  • 23. Guillot, Michel
    et al.
    Khlat, Myriam
    Wallace, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Adult mortality among second-generation immigrants in France: Results from a nationally representative record linkage study2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1603-1644, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND France has a large population of second-generation immigrants (i.e., native-born children of immigrants) who are known to experience important socioeconomic disparities by country of origin. The extent to which they also experience disparities in mortality, however, has not been previously examined. METHODS We used a nationally representative sample of individuals 18 to 64 years old in 1999 with mortality follow-up via linked death records until 2010. We compared mortality levels for second-generation immigrants with their first-generation counterparts and with the reference (neither first- nor second-generation) population using mortality hazard ratios as well as probabilities of dying between age 18 and 65. We also adjusted hazard ratios using educational attainment reported at baseline. RESULTS We found a large amount of excess mortality among second-generation males of North African origin compared to the reference population with no migrant background. This excess mortality was not present among second-generation males of southern European origin, for whom we instead found a mortality advantage, nor among North African- origin males of the first-generation. This excess mortality remained large and significant after adjusting for educational attainment. CONTRIBUTION In these first estimates of mortality among second-generation immigrants in France, males of North African origin stood out as a subgroup experiencing a large amount of excess mortality. This finding adds a public health dimension to the various disadvantages already documented for this subgroup. Overall, our results highlight the importance of second-generation status as a significant and previously unknown source of health disparity in France.

  • 24.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Overview Chapter 8: The impact of public policies on European fertility2008In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 249-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter outlines the positions in the current debate about the possibility of using public policies to influence fertility. We note the polarization between, on the one hand, those who view public policies as obvious means for lifting the currently low fertility levels in Europe, in line with the role of economic policies in a modern society; and, on the other hand, those who feel that family policies are inefficient, and perhaps even unnecessary. We place the contributions of the national chapters of this book in this framework and describe the formidable methodological difficulties that face those who seek to investigate policy impacts on fertility behavior. While properly conducted empirical investigations have overcome such problems and have clearly demonstrated policy effects in specific circumstances, we conclude that, in general, national fertility is possibly best seen as a systemic outcome that depends more on broader attributes, such as the degree of family-friendliness of a society, and less on the presence and detailed construction of monetary benefits.

  • 25.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Preface: Childbearing Trends and Policies in Europe2008In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The editors of the present Special Collection of the electronic journal Demographic Research take pleasure in making the Collection available to the research community and the general public. The Collection’s principal focus is the demographic analysis of European fertility trends, their determinants, and public policies modifying childbearing. The collection is the outcome of an international comparative project. It includes nineteen country studies, eight topical overview chapters, and a summary.

  • 26.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The reporting of statistical significance in scientific journals: A Reflexion2008In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 18, no 15, p. 437-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific journals in most empirical disciplines have regulations about how authors should report the precision of their estimates of model parameters and other model elements. Some journals that overlap fully or partly with the field of demography demand as a strict prerequisite for publication that a p-value, a confidence interval, or a standard deviation accompany any parameter estimate. I feel that this rule is sometimes applied in an overly mechanical manner. Standard deviations and p-values produced routinely by general-purpose software are taken at face value and included without questioning, and features that have too high a p-value or too large a standard deviation are too easily disregarded as being without interest because they appear not to be statistically significant. In my opinion authors should be discouraged from adhering to this practice, and flexibility rather than rigidity should be encouraged in the reporting of statistical significance. I would also encourage thoughtful rather than mechanical use of p-values, standard deviations, confidence intervals, and the like.

  • 27.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Why does Sweden have such high fertility?2005In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 13, no 22, p. 559-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By current European standards, Sweden has had a relatively high fertility in recent decades. During the 1980s and 1990s, the annual Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for Sweden undu­lated consid­erably around a level just under 1.8, which is a bit lower than the corresponding level in France and well above the level in West Germany. (In 2004 the Swedish TFR reached 1.76 on an upward trend.) The Swedish com­pleted Cohort Fertility Rate (CFR) was rather constant at 2 for the cohorts that produced children in the same period; for France it stayed around 2.1 while the West-German CFR was lower and de­clined regularly to around 1.6. In this presentation, I describe the back­ground for these develop­ments and explain the unique Swedish undulations.

  • 28.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gabrielli, Giuseppe
    University of Bari, Faculty of Economics, Bari Italy.
    Jasilioniene, Aiva
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
    Kostova, Dora
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography Warsaw School of Economics.
    Levels of recent union formation: Six European countries compared2010In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We offer a comparison between the age profiles of rates of formation of marital and non-marital unions among women in Russia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Italy. We show that there is considerable variability across these populations in the levels and age patterns of union entry rates, ranging (i) from high and early rates in Russia to slow and late entries in Italy; and (ii) from the emphasis on marriage seen in Russia, Poland, Italy, and particularly Romania, to the dominant role of cohabitation reported for Bulgaria. Although this paper mainly discusses known features (like the patterns for Italy), these features are displayed with an unusual degree of clarity in the comparative framework, which also highlights unusual patterns, such as those seen in Bulgaria. We do not find much commonality in union-entry rates among ex-communist countries.

  • 29.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Jalovaara, Marika
    Muresan, Cornelia
    Recent fertility patterns of Finnish women by union status: A descriptive account2013In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 28, p. 409-419, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE

    Remarkably little is known about the significance of consensual unions for fertility. This is true everywhere, but the lacuna is more important in the Nordic countries where there is so much childbearing outside of marriage, mostly in consensual unions. The purpose of this paper is to help fill this hole in our knowledge for Finland.

    DATA

    Unusually good register data enable us to study recent fertility trends by union status (married, cohabiting, neither) using records for some 112,000 Finnish women, or 11% of all women at fertile ages.

    METHODS

    Our description of fertility is based on group-specific duration-based TFRs, which is the number of children borne by a woman who remains in the group throughout her reproductive life, as computed from the fertility rates for a synthetic cohort. This is an intuitively appealing metric that has been taken into systematic use only recently.

    RESULTS

    We find substantial fertility differences between women who cohabit, women who marry directly (i.e., without pre-marital cohabitation), and women who marry their cohabitational partner. As one would also expect in Finland, cohabiting women have much lower fertility than married women. The marital TFR is highest among the directly-married and declines monotonically as the length of pre-marital cohabitation increases, even when premarital childbearing is included in the count. As far as we know the latter relationship has not been shown before, because extensive data for complete cohabitational unions have not been available for other populations.

    CONCLUSIONS

    The Finnish data are unique, even among the Nordic countries, in that they contain individual-level life histories of family dynamics that cover consensual unions from their very start. Fertility analysis would benefit if data similar to the Finnish were to become available, because analyses that rely on civil status as an indicator of union status barely add anything to what we already know about today's family dynamics.

  • 30.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Anticipatory analysis and its alternatives in life-course research Part 1: ducation and first childbearing2006In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 461-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Procedures that seek to explain current behavior by future outcomes (anticipatory analysis) constitute a widespread but problematic approach in life-course analysis because they disturb the role of time and the temporal order of events. Nevertheless the practice is often used, not least because it easily produces useful summary measures like the median age at first childbearing and the per cent permanently childless in various educational groups, defined by ultimate attainment. We use an empirical example to demonstrate the issues involved and to propose an alternative "non-anticipatory" research strategy, which, however, does not equally easily provide summary measures.

  • 31.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Anticipatory analysis and its alternatives in life-course research Part 2: Marriage and first birth2006In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 15, no 17, p. 485-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the second part of these reflections, we use the connection between marriage and first childbearing to demonstrate further issues involved in anticipatory analysis. We show that an anticipatory approach cannot be used to represent intentionality: People may marry with the intention of having a child, but the analyst should be wary of using anticipatory analysis to pick that up.

  • 32.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nedoluzhko, Lesia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Marriage formation as a process intermediary between migration and childbearing2008In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 18, no 21, p. 611-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies of differences in fertility between migrants and non-migrants, marriage interferes because migration can be motivated by an impending marriage or can entail entry into a marriage market with new opportunities. One would therefore expect elevated fertility after migration, although a competing theory states that on the contrary fertility ought to be reduced in the time around the move because migration temporarily disturbs the life of the migrant. In any case marriage appears as a process that is intermediary between migration and childbearing. To handle such issues it pays to have a technique that allows the analyst to separate any disruptive effects of migration from any boosting effects of marriage in studies of childbearing. The purposes of the present paper are (i) to remind us that such a technique is available, in fact is straightforward, and (ii) to apply the technique to further analyze a set of data on migration and first-time parenthood in Kyrgyzstan recently used by the second author and Gunnar Andersson. The technique has the neat feature that it allows us to operate with several “clocks” at the same time. In the analysis of first births we keep track of time since migration (for migrants) and time since marriage formation (for the married) beside the respondent’s age (for women at childbearing ages); in other connections there may be more clocks. For such analyses we make use of a flexible graphical housekeeping device that allows the analyst to keep track of a feature like whether migration occurs before or after marriage, or at the same time. This is a half-century-old flow chart of statuses and transitions and is not much more complex than the famous Lexis diagram, which originated with Gustav Zeuner, as we now know. These reflexions were first presented at a symposium dedicated to Professor Zeuner.

  • 33.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Education and childlessness: The relationship between educational field, educational level, and childlessness among Swedish women born in 1955-592006In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 14, no 15, p. 331-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend the concept of educational attainment to cover the field of education taken in addition to the conventional level of education attained. Our empirical investigation uses register records containing childbearing and educational histories of an entire cohort of women born in Sweden (about a quarter-million individuals). This allows us to operate with a high number of educational field-and-level combinations (some sixty in all). It turns out that the field of education serves as an indicator of a woman’s potential reproductive behavior better than the mere level attained. We discover that in each field permanent childlessness increases some with the educational level, but that the field itself is the more important. In general, we find that women educated for jobs in teaching and health care are in a class of their own, with much lower permanent childlessness at each educational level than in any other major grouping. Women educated in arts and humanities or for religious occupations have unusually high fractions permanently childless. Our results cast doubt on the assumption that higher education per se must result in higher childlessness. In our opinion, several factors intrinsic and extrinsic to an educational system (such as its flexibility, its gender structure, and the manner in which education is hooked up to the labor market) may influence the relationship between education and childlessness, and we would not expect a simple, unidirectional relationship.

  • 34.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-592006In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 14, no 16, p. 381-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher) humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  • 35.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Strandberg, Margit
    Independent researcher, International.
    Childbearing patterns for Swedish mothers of twins, 1961-19992004In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 421-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic population registers provide a unique possibility to study the demographic behavior of very small population groups and rare events. In this paper, we study the childbearing behavior of Swedish mothers of twins between 1961 and 1999, inclusive. Our most consistent finding is that mothers of twins wait noticeably longer than women with singletons before they have another child. This apart, mothers with twins at their first birth have next-birth fertility patterns very similar to women who have two singletons at their first two births. This commonality in child-bearing behavior does not extend to higher-order births. For mothers with a singleton and a pair of twins, the progression to a third birth depends very much on whether the twins came first or second. Beside these main results our fascinating material also provides a number of descriptive findings. The Swedish twinning rate has increased since the mid-1970s in response to a growing use of fertility-stimulating treatments such as in-vitro fertilization, in parallel with similar developments in many other countries. Such medical procedures are applied mainly to women beyond prime childbearing ages. Nevertheless, we find no simple age pattern in twinning rates. Even in recent years they do not just in-crease with the woman’s age. By way of contrast, at parities beyond 3 twinning rates increase with parity when we control for calendar period, time since last previous birth, and (NB) the woman’s own age.

  • 36. Ichou, Mathieu
    et al.
    Wallace, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institut National d’Études Démographiques, France.
    The Healthy Immigrant Effect: The role of educational selectivity in the good health of migrants2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 61-93, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    The Healthy Immigrant Effect (HIE) refers to the fact that recent migrants are in better health than the nonmigrant population in the host country. Central to explaining the HIE is the idea that migrants are positively selected in terms of their socioeconomic and health characteristics when compared to nonmigrants in their country of origin. However, due to a lack of reliable and comparable data, most existing studies rely on socioeconomic and health measures as collected in the host country after migration and do not actually measure selection.

    OBJECTIVE

    We directly test selection as an explanation of the HIE among migrants living in France.

    METHODS

    Using the French Trajectories and Origins (TeO) survey and Barro-Lee dataset, we construct a direct measure of migrants' educational selectivity. We then test its effect on health differences between migrants and nonmigrants using measures self-rated health, health limitations, and chronic illnesses, by fitting logistic regression and Karlson-Holm-Breen (KHB) decompositions.

    RESULTS

    After demonstrating that migrants in France experience an HIE, especially males, we also show that educational level as measured in the host country cannot account for the HIE. By contrast, we provide important evidence that educational selectivity constitutes a significant factor in explaining health disparities between migrant and nonmigrant populations.

    CONTRIBUTION

    Capitalizing on a novel measure of migrants' educational selectivity, we give credit to the oft-cited but rarely tested theory that the HIE is a consequence of migrants' positive selection.

  • 37.
    Jónsson, Ari Klaengur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Childbearing trends in Iceland, 1982-2013: Fertility timing, quantum, and gender preferences for children in a Nordic context2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, p. 147-188, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Iceland is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, but one that does not seem to have experienced the same fertility fluctuations as most other countries, following the enhanced role of women in society. OBJECTIVE In this study we examine the childbearing trends in Iceland during 1982-2013 by analysing the progressions to parities one, two, and three. We also investigate whether there is evidence of gender preferences for children among Icelandic parents. METHODS Official individual longitudinal register data is used, covering the total female population born in Iceland between 1941 and 1997. The data is analysed by means of event history analysis. RESULTS We find evidence of tendencies to postpone motherhood during the period, with increases in fertility for women in their 30s and 40s. The propensity to have a second and a third child has not declined; on the contrary, these birth intensities have increased since the mid-1980s. Estimates suggest that Icelandic parents prefer to have daughters. CONCLUSIONS During a period of increased educational attainment and postponed family formation, the resilience of Icelandic fertility is intriguing. CONTRIBUTION The study provides the first comprehensive overview of fertility trends in Iceland.

  • 38. Kennedy, Sheela
    et al.
    Thomson, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Children's experiences of family disruption in Sweden: Differentials by parent education over three decades2010In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 23, no 17, p. 479-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the living arrangements of Swedish children from 1970 through 1999 using the Level of Living Survey. Sweden, with low levels of economic inequality and a generous welfare state, provides an important context for studying socioeconomic differentials in family structure. We find that, although differences by parent education in non-marital childbearing are substantial and persistent, cohabiting childbearing is common even among highly educated Swedish parents. Educational differences in family instability were small during the 1970s, but increased over time as a result of rising union disruption among less-educated parents (secondary graduates or less). Children in more advantaged families experienced substantially less change in family structure and instability over the study period. Although cohabiting parents were more likely to separate than parents married at the child's birth, differences were greater for the less-educated. Data limitations precluded investigating these differences across time. We conclude that educational differences in children's living arrangements in Sweden have grown, but remain small in international comparisons.

  • 39.
    Klængur Jónsson, Ari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Family policies, childbearing, and economic crisis: The case of Iceland2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 39, p. 561-592, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the early 2000s, Iceland implemented one of the most gender-equal parental leave systems in the world, and at the same time increased the volume of public childcare. A few years later, in 2008, Iceland experienced a major economic crises that, among other things, lead to cutbacks in governmental spending and decreased support to families with children.

    Objective: The objective of this study is to provide insight into recent childbearing dynamics in Iceland and how they may be linked to recent social-policy reforms and the intervention of the economic crisis in 2008.

    Methods: We use official individual longitudinal register data covering the total female population born in Iceland between 1953 and 1997. We analyse the data by means of event history techniques.

    Results: We find that changes in the standardized birth rates coincide with the emergence of the reformed family-policy package: A declining trend in the age-standardized first-birth rate came to a halt, and the propensity to have a second and a third child increased. After the onset of the crisis, a trend of decreasing first-birth intensities reemerged and, in 2011, a turnaround to declining second- and third-birth rates.

    Conclusions: The development in the post-2008 period indicates that even in the most gender-equal settings, the gender balance in family care is still vulnerable, and that family policies cannot compensate in full for the impact of economic crisis on fertility.

    Contribution: The study highlights the interdependency of factors related to both social policy and the business cycle in relation to childbearing developments.

  • 40.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The causal effect of an additional sibling on completed fertility: An estimation of intergenerational fertility correlations by looking at siblings of twins2015In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 32, p. 1409-1420, article id 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intergenerational transmission of fertility - a correlation between number of siblings and adult fertility - has been consistently demonstrated in developed countries. However, there is only limited knowledge of the causes of this correlation.

    Objective: This study estimates the effect of an exogenous increase of number of siblings on adult fertility for men and women using Swedish register data. The effect of an additional sibling is estimated from the birth of younger twin siblings by means of instrumental variable methods.

    Results: The study shows that there is no clear effect of an exogenous increase in the number of siblings on completed fertility. There is some evidence that an additional sibling is associated with lower fertility in adulthood.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that intergenerational transmission of fertility is due to factors shared between parents and children such as preferences or socioeconomic status, not directly related to the size of the family of upbringing. There is no effect on fertility in adulthood of having an additional sibling per se.

  • 41.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Weak support for a U-shaped pattern between societal gender equality and fertility when comparing societies across time2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 27-48, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    A number of recent theories in demography suggest a U-shaped relationship between gender equality and fertility. Fertility is theorized to be high in societies with low levels of gender equality, as well as in societies with high gender equality, with lower fertility in a transition phase.

    OBJECTIVE

    This study estimates the relationship between gender equality (as operationalized through female political empowerment) and fertility within societies over time, using yearly information on gender equality and fertility for 35 countries.

    RESULTS

    When examining societies across time there is no evidence of a U-shaped relationship between gender equality and fertility. In cross-sectional analyses across countries for recent periods, such a U-shaped relationship can be observed. For within-society analyses a negative relationship is clear at lower levels of gender equality, while no pattern can be observed in societies with high gender equality.

    CONTRIBUTION

    Theories that fertility would increase following increasing gender equality are not supported for changes over time within countries. Implications and robustness of the findings are discussed.

  • 42. Kreyenfeld, Michaela
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Pailhé, Ariane
    Economic uncertainty and family dynamics in Europe: Introduction2012In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 27, p. 835-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Economic uncertainty has become an increasingly important factor in explanations of declining fertility and postponed family formation across Europe. Yet the micro-level evidence on this topic is still limited.

    Objective: This special collection of Demographic Research focuses on the issue of how economic and employment uncertainties relate to fertility and family dynamics in Europe.

    Methods: The collection is comprised of studies that explore how various dimensions of employment uncertainty, such as temporary working contracts and individual and aggregate unemployment, are related to the fertility and family formation of women and men across Europe. The studies cover Germany, the UK, France, Russia, Estonia, Sweden, Italy, Spain, and Israel.

    Results: The various micro-level studies that are assembled in this special collection do not provide a simple answer to the question of whether and how economic uncertainty suppresses (or stimulates) fertility. However, some systematic variation by welfare state regime is discernable.

    Conclusions: Given the recent economic volatility in Europe, we expect that labor market uncertainties will remain an important component of explanations of fertility developments in the 21st century.

  • 43.
    Kridahl, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Retirement timing and grandparenthood: A population-based study on Sweden2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, p. 957-994, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study addresses the importance of grandparenthood in relation to retirement timing in Sweden. It extends previous research by assessing a number of grandparental characteristics, such as being a grandparent, a grandparent’s age and gender, number of years since the transition to grandparenthood, number of grandchildren, number of grandchild sets, and age of the youngest grandchild, while simultaneously controlling for other central predictors of retirement timing.

    Methods: The study uses survival analysis on Swedish population register data for cohorts born between 1935 and 1945 over the 1993‒2012 period.

    Results: The results indicate that grandparents have a higher retirement risk than non-grandparents, even after controlling for age and other central predictors of retirement. The results also show that those who have been grandparents for more than two years have a higher risk of retirement; however, there is variation with respect to the age of the grandparent. In addition, grandparents with multiple grandchildren and grandchild sets exhibit an increased risk of retirement. The study does not find strong differences between grandmothers’ and grandfathers’ retirement timing.

    Conclusions: The study finds that grandparents at different life stages have an elevated risk of retirement compared with non-grandparents, but there is also variation among grandparents, and the more complex the family situation, the higher the risk of retirement.

    Contribution: The inclusion of grandparenthood enriches the understanding of the complexity of the retirement decision and indicates that this decision is more closely linked to intergenerational family structures than the literature has previously shown. 

  • 44. Kulu, Hill
    et al.
    Boyle, Paul
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    High Suburban Fertility: Evidence from Four Northern European Countries2009In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 21, no 31, p. 915-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While numerous studies have compared urban and rural fertility rates across Europe, virtually no studies have distinguished suburbs as a distinct residential context. This study examines fertility variation across different residential contexts in four Northern European countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. We move beyond the conventional urban-rural focus of most previous studies of within-nation variations in fertility by distinguishing between urban centres and suburbs of cities and towns. We base our study on aggregate and individual-level register data and our analysis shows that fertility levels are significantly higher in suburbs than in urban centres; this pattern has persisted over the past quarter of a century for all four countries. A parity-specific analysis of Swedish register data reveals that total fertility varies between central cities and suburbs due to the relatively high first- and second-birth propensities in the suburbs. Further analysis shows that fertility variation between the central cities and suburbs persists after controlling for women’s socioeconomic characteristics. We discuss the role of various factors in accounting for high suburban fertility including omitted individual characteristics, contextual factors and selective residential moves of couples planning to have a child, suggesting that more study is required of this under-researched topic.

  • 45. Lundström, Karin E.
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Labor-market status, migrant status, and first childbearing in Sweden2012In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 27, no article 25, p. 719-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Labor market uncertainties and employment insecurity have emerged as increasingly important factors in research on family formation and fertility.

    Objective In the present study, we provide evidence from Sweden on how non-employment, unemployment, and temporary employment relate to young people's first birth risks.

    Methods We use a combination of Labor Force Survey data on employment characteristics and register data on demographic outcomes to investigate how the labor market status and stability of employment are associated with the first birth behavior of women and men, and of Swedish-and foreign-born people in Sweden.

    Results Consistent with previous research, we find that people who are not in the labor force are less likely than those who are employed to enter parenthood. In most cases, we also find that young people who are in temporary employment are less likely than those who are permanently employed to start a family.

    Conclusions Our study demonstrates that foreign-born people living in Sweden tend to adapt to the behavior of native-born Swedes, and that patterns for women and men are largely similar. We relate these findings to the equalizing impact of the country's universal welfare regime.

  • 46.
    Ma, Li
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Economic crisis and women's labor force return after childbirth: Evidence from South Korea2014In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 31, p. 511-552, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Most research on women's labor force return after childbirth concentrates on industrialized countries in the West; the link between economic swings and mothers' work-return behavior is rarely addressed. This study closes these gaps by focusing on South Korea, a developed society in East Asia that has in recent decades witnessed increases in female labor force participation and dramatic economic ups and downs. This is the first relevant study on South Korea.

    OBJECTIVE

    This study examines how women's labor force return after childbirth (with and without career interruption) and their career prospects upon work return varied before, during, and after the Asian financial crisis in South Korea.

    METHODS

    Logistic and hazard regression models were applied to the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS waves 1-10).

    RESULTS

    The study reveals an increase in women's immediate work return after childbirth without career interruption since the 1980s. The Asian financial crisis boosted this immediate return pattern. The implementation of job-protected maternity leave further contributed to this pattern. Women who underwent career interruption at first birth were also more likely to re-enter the labor market during and after the crisis than before. Downward occupational moves were especially common during the period of financial crisis.

    CONCLUSIONS

    The results suggest that the Asian financial crisis triggered a noticeable change in women's post-birth work-return behavior. The economic volatility pushed mothers to hold onto their role in the labor force more strongly than before.

  • 47. Ma, Li
    et al.
    Rizzi, Ester
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Childlessness, sex composition of children, and divorce risks in China2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 41, p. 753-780, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Studies on children and divorce in China find a negative association between the number of children and divorce and a protective effect of having a son. Nonetheless, we have little knowledge of how these associations have developed over time. OBJECTIVE This study explored the association of the number and sex composition of children with divorce risks in China over the period 1980-2012. METHODS We conducted an event history analysis of longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies. RESULTS Childless couples had an increasingly higher divorce risk than couples with children over our observation period. In the 2000s, the divorce risk of childless couples in both urban and rural areas was approximately five times that of one-child parents. The role of the child's gender differs for urban and rural one-child parents, with no significant effect on the divorce risk of urban parents and different effects over time for rural parents. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that ending a marriage when having no children has become an increasingly pronounced trend. Furthermore, partially due to the rapid socioeconomic and demographic progress and the rise of girls' empowerment, the child's gender has lost importance for the divorce risk of urban parents. CONTRIBUTION This study enriches our knowledge about the association between children and divorce risks in a rapidly developing society Indirectly, the study also informs us about the evolution of son preference in China. CONTRIBUTION This study enriches our knowledge about the association between children and divorce risks in a rapidly developing society Indirectly, the study also informs us about the evolution of son preference in China.

  • 48.
    Morosow, Kathrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Trappe, Heike
    Intergenerational transmission of fertility timing in Germany2018In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 38, p. 1389-1422, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intergenerational transmission of completed fertility is widely confirmed for several societies. Less research, however, has focused on differences in the transmission effect of fertility timing and its underlying mechanisms in a regional context.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the association between a mother’s age at her daughter’s birth and that daughter’s transition to first birth in eastern and western Germany, as well as its underlying mechanisms.

    Methods: Using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam), the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing between mothers and daughters born between 1971–1973 and 1981–1983 is investigated using event history analysis. As an alternative to a mother’s age at first birth, a mother’s age at her daughter’s birth is used to determine her daughter’s transition to first birth.

    Results: Results show evidence for intergenerational transmission of young childbearing between mothers and their daughters in eastern and western Germany, though the association was weaker for eastern Germany. This intergenerational transmission effect cannot be explained by the measures used to capture the underlying mechanisms – socialisation, socioeconomic status transmission, and social control.

    Contribution: Our contribution to the ongoing discussion is to close a gap in research on the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing. By using the German context to analyse regional differences, we exemplify the varying strength of the intergenerational transmission of fertility timing between eastern and western Germany that persisted beyond reunification.

  • 49.
    Muresan, Cornelia
    et al.
    Babes-Bolyai University, Romania.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The negative educational gradients in Romanian fertility2010In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 95-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Western countries, rates of second and third births typically increase with educational attainment, a feature that usually disappears if unobserved heterogeneity is brought into the event-history analysis. By contrast, in a country like Romania, second and third birth rates have been found to decline when moving across groups with increasing education, and the decline becomes greater if unobserved heterogeneity is added to the analysis. The present paper demonstrates this pattern, and shows that, because this feature is retained in the presence of control variables, such as age at first birth and period effects, the selectivity is not produced by a failure to account for the control variables.

  • 50.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gabrielli, Giuseppe
    Paterno, Anna
    Strozza, Salvatore
    Terzera, Laura
    Motherhood of foreign women in Lombardy: Testing the effects of migration by citizenship2015In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 33, p. 653-664, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND The international literature highlights the strong impact of the high risk of childbearing shortly after migration on period fertility, thus establishing a link between reproductive behaviors and migratory transitions. OBJECTIVE The present study aims to analyze how migration affects motherhood and the role played by country of citizenship. Although most of the literature has focused on analyzing post-immigration fertility behaviors, in the present work we follow the women for their entire fertility period. METHODS The data were collected in the 2010 ORIM survey, conducted by the Region of Lombardy and the Ismu Foundation. The survey covered about 8,000 immigrants in Lombardy, of whom 3,848 were women aged 14 years and over from less developed countries or Central/Eastern Europe. Using Event History Analysis, we applied discrete-time logit models to study the transition into motherhood. RESULTS Moroccans are characterized by a strong interrelation effect between fertility and migration. Moroccans and Albanians are the national groups with the highest risk of having a first child during the years shortly after migration. Migration does not seem to have any effect on the fertility behavior of Romanians, who have a lower risk of having a child regardless of their migration status. CONCLUSIONS The study confirms the importance of the interrelationship between migratory and reproductive behaviors. It also highlights the different effects by country of citizenship, where different citizenships are often associated with different migration patterns and distinct gender roles.

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