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  • 1.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde
    Sleutjes, Bart
    Comparing Patterns of Segregation in North-Western Europe: A Multiscalar Approach2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 151-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Costa, Rafael
    Sleutjes, Bart
    Stonawski, Marcin Jan
    de Valk, Helga A. G.
    A Comparative Study of Segregation Patterns in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden: Neighbourhood Concentration and Representation of Non-European Migrants2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 251-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use geo-coded, individual-level register data on four European countries to compute comparative measures of segregation that are independent of existing geographical sub-divisions. The focus is on non-European migrants, for whom aggregates of egocentric neighbourhoods (with different population counts) are used to assess small-scale, medium-scale, and large-scale segregation patterns. At the smallest scale level, corresponding to neighbourhoods with 200 persons, patterns of over- and under-representation are strikingly similar. At larger-scale levels, Belgium stands out as having relatively strong over- and under-representation. More than 55% of the Belgian population lives in large-scale neighbourhoods with moderate under- or over-representation of non-European migrants. In the other countries, the corresponding figures are between 30 and 40%. Possible explanations for the variation across countries are differences in housing policies and refugee placement policies. Sweden has the largest and Denmark the smallest non-European migrant population, in relative terms. Thus, in both migrant-dense and native-born-dense areas, Swedish neighbourhoods have a higher concentration and Denmark a lower concentration of non-European migrants than the other countries. For large-scale, migrant-dense neighbourhoods, however, levels of concentration are similar in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Thus, to the extent that such concentrations contribute to spatial inequalities, these countries are facing similar policy challenges.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sobolev, Boris
    Small Effects of Selective Migration and Selective Survival in Retrospective Studies of Fertility2013In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 345-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we assess the accuracy of fertility estimates that stem from the retrospective information that can be derived from an existing cross-sectional population. Swedish population registers contain information on the childbearing of all people ever registered as living in Sweden, and thus allow us to avoid problems of selectivity by the virtue of survival or nonemigration when estimating the fertility measures for previous calendar periods. We calculate two types of fertility rates for each year in 1961-1999: (i) rates that are based on the population that was living in Sweden at the end of 1999, and (ii) rates that also include information on people who had died or emigrated before the turn of the twentieth century. We find that the omission of information on individuals who had emigrated or died, as the situation would be in any demographic survey, most often have negligible effects on fertility measures. However, first-birth rates of immigrants gradually become more biased as we move back in time from 1999 so that they increasingly tend to over-estimate the true fertility of that population.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Online Distance Education and Transition to Parenthood Among Female University Students in Sweden2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 795-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expansion of tertiary education is key to understanding postponement of first births. Currently, online distance education is changing the nature of university enrolment. In this study, I suggest that online distance education impacts on fertility by facilitating the transition to parenthood among students. I examine the relationship between online distance education and first births during university enrolment. Using survival analysis of register data for the 1968–1991 female cohorts, I examine the impact of distance and campus education on first-parity transitions during university enrolment between 2004 and 2012 (N = 938,768). Results indicate that the negative association between enrolment and first parity conception differs substantially between campus and distance enrolment. Compared to non-enrolment, the hazard of first parity conception is 70% lower during campus enrolment but 43% lower during distance enrolment. These findings are discussed in relation to educational heterogeneity and fertility postponement and the impact of technological innovation on family dynamics.

  • 5.
    Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Parity and Mortality: An Examination of Different Explanatory Mechanisms Using Data on Biological and Adoptive Parents2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 63-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing literature has demonstrated a relationship between parity and mortality, but the explanation for that relationship remains unclear. This study aims to pick apart physiological and social explanations for the parity-mortality relationship by examining the mortality of parents who adopt children, but who have no biological children, in comparison with the mortality of parents with biological children. Using Swedish register data, we study post-reproductive mortality amongst women and men from cohorts born between 1915 and 1960, over ages 45-97. Our results show the relative risks of mortality for adoptive parents are always lower than those of parents with biological children. Mortality amongst adoptive parents is lower for those who adopt more than one child, while for parents with biological children we observe a U-shaped relationship, where parity-two parents have the lowest mortality. Our discussion considers the relative importance of physiological and social depletion effects, and selection processes.

  • 6. Bernard, Aude
    et al.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Are Young Swedes Moving More? A Cohort Analysis of Internal Migration by Move Order2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While levels of migration within countries have been trending down in a number of advanced economies, Sweden has recorded a rise in internal migration among young adults. An increase in aggregate migration levels can be the result of a decline in immobility (i.e. the absence of migration), an increase in repeat movement or a combination of both. In this paper, we draw on retrospective survey and longitudinal register data to explore the demographic mechanisms underpinning the rise in internal migration among young Swedes born in the 30 years to 1980 and we compare the migration behaviour of the youngest cohort to that of their European counterparts. Of all 25 European countries, Sweden reports the highest level of migration among young adults, which is the result of very low immobility combined with high repeat movement. The increase in migration has been particularly pronounced for inter-county moves for the post-1970 cohorts. Analysis of order-specific components of migration shows that this is the result of a decrease in immobility combined with a modest rise in higher-order moves, whereas it is the rise in higher-order moves that underpins the increase in inter-parish migration. This upswing has been accompanied by a shift in the ages at migration, characterised by an earlier start and later finish leading to a lengthening of the number of years young adults are mobile. The results indicate that change in migration behaviour is order-specific, which underlines the need to collect and analyse migration by move order to obtain a reliable account of migration trends.

  • 7.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Second and Third Births in Armenia and Moldova: An Economic Perspective of Recent Behaviour and Current Preferences2011In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 125-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about fertility in Armenia and Moldova, the two countries that have both, according to national statistics, experienced very low levels of fertility during the dramatic economic, social and political restructuring in the last two decades. This article fills this gap and explores recent fertility behaviour and current fertility preferences using 2005 Demographic and Health Survey data. Educational differences in fertility decline and the association between socioeconomic indicators and fertility preferences are considered from an economic perspective. Special emphasis is given to determining whether and how diverging economic conditions in the two countries as well as crisis conditions may have influenced fertility. Second parity progression ratios (PPR) reveal a positive relationship between the degree of decline from 1990 to 2005 and education, whereas third PPR declines appear the greatest for women with both the lowest and highest education. In both countries, logistic regression results suggest that working women are more likely to want a second child, as well as want the child sooner university than later in Armenia, and the wealthiest women in Armenia have a higher odds of wanting a third child. Dual-jobless couples are less likely to want a second child in Moldova and more likely to postpone the next child in Armenia. These findings offer some insight into the shifts in fertility behaviour in these two post-Soviet countries and suggest that despite diverging economic trajectories and a lessening commitment to the two-child norm in Moldova, determinants of fertility behaviour and preferences have remained similar in both countries.

  • 8.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Who Moves to Whom? Gender Differences in the Distance Moved to a Shared Residence2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 435-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the migration of couples and families is well examined, the migration that occurs at the start of co-residence has only been minimally studied. This study examines (1) whether women move more often and move over longer distances at the start of co-residence and (2) whether gender differences (if any) stem from compositional differences between women and men, such as gender differences in ties, or if they are the consequence of the within-couple distribution of bargaining power. The analyses are performed on Swedish population register data from 1991 to 2008, including longitudinal information on the residence of all couples who either married or had a child as cohabitants in 2008, backtracking them to the year of union formation. The results indicate that women are more prone to move for the sake of their male partner in the process of union formation than vice versa. If partners lived in close proximity prior to co-residence, the woman’s increased likelihood of moving and longer distance moved is nearly completely explained by power imbalances in the couple. Gender differences in ties only have minor importance in explaining gender differences in these types of migration patterns. If partners lived far apart prior to co-residence, gender differences are particularly pronounced. These differences remain after adjusting for the two partners’ relative resources. We contribute to the family migration literature by suggesting that women’s higher propensity to move and their longer distance moved are indications that even couples’ decisions at the start of co-residence are made in favour of the man’s career.

  • 9.
    Chudnovskaya, Margarita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Trends in Childlessness Among Highly Educated Men in Sweden2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 939-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among men with post-secondary degrees in Sweden, one in four are childless by age 45, and this level has been constant over time (in this study, for men born 1956-1972). This high level of childlessness is somewhat surprising in the context of a significant gender imbalance among the highly educated (and thus the relative scarcity of highly educated men). In this study, I examine differences in childlessness among the highly educated by studying how educational prestige, social class, and income are associated with the likelihood of becoming a father. Higher income and social class background are positively associated with fatherhood, and this association has not changed over time. Educational prestige (higher degrees, or degrees from traditional universities) is not positively associated with fatherhood, while 2-year degrees have become more positively associated with fatherhood over time. The findings of this study suggest that socioeconomic resources are important for men's family formation in Sweden compared to educational resources, contrary to expectations from educational homophily and partner market perspectives.

  • 10.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Social Background and Becoming a Parent in Sweden: A Register-Based Study of the Effect of Social Background on Childbearing in Sweden2015In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 417-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I introduce three measures of social background, namely occupational class, social status, and parental education, into fertility research. The objective is to examine whether these dimensions of social background affect entry into parenthood even after controlling for several potential pathways. I estimate event history models on first birth rates using data, which include all Swedes born in 1960. The results show that each of the three dimensions of social background has a clear bivariate association with the risk of becoming a parent, both for men and for women. Parental education has the strongest effect of class and status background, and the latter two do not affect the entry into fatherhood when the effects of all dimensions of social background are estimated simultaneously. Much of the remaining association between social background and fertility persists when controlling for own educational history, mother's age at first birth, and father's mean incomes. The results also show that higher social background leads to postponement of childbearing but that it has no effect on the final likelihood of ever become a parent. The influence of social background on fertility is stronger for women than for men.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Taking Turns or Halving It All: Care Trajectories of Dual-Caring Couples2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 191-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interview and observational studies document that dual-caring is characterized by temporality. Two ‘ideal-typical’ trajectories are identified: ‘halving it all’ in which couples divide care equally on a daily or weekly basis and ‘taking turns’ in which parents take month- or year-long turns in serving as primary caregivers to the child. This study utilizes a new source of couple-level longitudinal information on parental leave to investigate dual-caring trajectories in contemporary Sweden. Results show that while care trajectories in which only one parent serves as the primary caregiver can be captured without longitudinal information, the dominant dual-caring trajectory cannot. In fact, despite a uniquely flexible parental leave system that allows egalitarian couples to share care on a daily basis, most couples do not share care in every point in time, but ‘take turns’ in serving as the primary caregiver to the child, with the mother’s ‘turn’ preceding the father’s. The results demonstrate that cross-sectional and aggregate measures of child care may fail to detect emerging trends in dual-caring.

  • 12. Erman, Jeylan
    et al.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Parental Separation and School Performance Among Children of Immigrant Mothers in Sweden2017In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 267-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration and family change are two demographic processes that have changed the face of European societies and are associated with inequalities in child outcomes. Yet there is little research outside the USA on whether the effects of family dynamics on children's life chances vary by immigrant background. We asked whether the effect of parental separation on educational achievement varies between immigrant backgrounds (ancestries) in Sweden. We used Swedish population register data on two birth cohorts (born in 1995 and 1996) of Swedish-born children and analyzed parental separation penalties on grade sums and non-passing grades (measured at ninth grade) across ten ancestry groups, defined by the mother's country of birth. We found that the parental separation effects vary across ancestries, being weakest among children with Chilean-born mothers and strongest among children with mothers born in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In general, the effects were weaker in groups in which parental separation was a more common experience.

  • 13.
    Gabrielli, Giuseppe
    et al.
    University of Bari, Italy.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Italy’s Non-Negligible Cohabitational Unions2010In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Italy has long been regarded as the country with negligible non-maritalcohabitation par excellence, but lately the pattern has begun to change and entryinto consensual unions has increased strongly in younger Italian generations. Thisarticle is devoted to a study of such features between 1980 and 2003 based on thedata from the Italian variant of the Gender and Generations Survey, Round 1. Weconsider entry into marriage and entry into cohabitation as competing risks andshow how the incidence of cohabitation consistently much lower but has increasedby some 70% over the 20-odd years of our study, while the marriage rate hasdropped by almost as much. We find great variation across major regions of thecountry. The rise in cohabitation is confined to Northern and Central Italy, while therisk of marriage formation has declined strongly all over the country. Unlike previousinvestigations, our data suggest that non-marital cohabitation may be takingover whatever minor role civil marriage has had in Italian union formation.

  • 14.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Van Wissen, Leo J. G.
    Explaining the flight of Cupid's arrow: A spatial random utility model of partner choice2012In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 417-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial homogamy may be defined as follows: anyone may be attractedto anyone else, but near candidates are more attractive than distant candidates.In this article, we propose a model of partner choice, where homogamy is definedin terms of spatial, demographic, socioeconomic and cultural similarity. A spatialchoice model using random utility theory is formulated, taking into account arelaxation of the independence from the irrelevant alternatives property, as spatialalternatives are not independent of one another. We model partner choice given thecharacteristics of the chosen partner and a choice set of alternatives, using uniquemicro data on all new cohabiters in the Netherlands, linked to other relevant datasets. The model takes the spatial locations of potential candidates within a choice setinto account, including an indicator for the spatial similarity between alternatives.We find that spatial homogamy is a vital component of partner matching, aside fromand adding to the spatial effects in demographic, socioeconomic and culturalhomogamy. Given a choice set of partners, the highest likelihood of a match occurswith a person who is born and lives near by, who is close in age, is in the same lifestage and has the same marital status, who has the same educational and incomelevel and the same labour market status, who speaks the same dialect and lives in aculturally similar residential area. The distance effect is most pronounced for thoseindividuals with lower levels of education and those living in rural areas.

  • 15.
    Henz, Ursula
    et al.
    London School of Economics.
    Thomson, Elizabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Union Stability and Stepfamily Fertility in Austria, Finland, France & West Germany2005In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 21, p. 3-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kostova, Dora
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
    Jasilioniene, Aiva
    Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
    Muresan, Cornelia
    Babes-Bolyai University, Romania.
    Traces of the Second Demographic Transition in Four Selected Countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Union Formation as a Demographic Manifestation2009In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 239-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from the first round of the national Gender and GenerationsSurveys of Russia, Romania, and Bulgaria, and from a similar survey of Hungary,which were all collected in recent years, we study rates of entry into marital andnon-marital unions. We have used elements from the narrative of the SecondDemographic Transition (SDT) as a vehicle to give our analysis of the data from thefour countries some coherence, and find what can be traces of the SDT in thesecountries. The details vary by country; in particular, latter-day developments inunion formation patterns did not start at the same time in all the countries, but in ourassessment it began everywhere before communism fell, that is, before the societaltransition to a market economy got underway in 1990.

  • 17.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Muresan, Cornelia
    Babes-Bolyai University, Romania.
    An Extension of the Conventional TFR: Une extension de l'indicateur conjoncturel de fécondité2011In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 389-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The period-based total fertility rate is probably the most commonly used single measure of a population’s fertility level, but it has the disadvantage that it only controls for the population’s age distribution and not for any other subdividing feature, such as the parity distribution, ethnic composition, or educational attain-ment.This may lead the TFR to change because the population composition changes, even when the underlying fertility remains constant in each population sub-group. In the present contribution, we use elementary event-history methods to show how one can easily control the TFR against a change in the population’s distribution across any selected subdivision. We use the data of the Romanian Gender and Generations Survey of 2005 to illustrate how this can be done.

  • 18.
    Hoem, Jan M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Muresan, Cornelia
    Babes-Bolyai University, Romania.
    The Total Marital Fertility Rate and Its Extensions2011In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 295-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What we will call the age-based TMFR is computed conventionally by adding up age-specific marital fertility rates in the hope of estimating the number of children ever born to a woman who is married throughout her childbearingyears. Demographers have long been strongly skeptical about this quantity becauseit normally indicates implausibly many children. Our analysis of data from the Romanian GGS confirms this finding, and we propose an alternative duration-basedTMFR computed in the spirit of parity-progression ratios. At the same time, we extend the method to cover any type of living arrangement (cohabitation, marriage,non-partnered arrangement, and so on). Because each resulting total union-typefertility rate (TUFR) explicitly accounts for the living arrangement, it improves on the conventional total fertility rate (TFR), which does not. We embed the investigation in an event-history analysis with fixed and time-varying control covariates and find patterns of relative risks for such variables that reveal interesting features of childbearing behavior in the Romanian data, which we use to illustrate the method. In most cases, these patterns are quite robust against model re-specification, including the shift from the age-based to the duration-based approach. Since, the number of female respondents is ''only'' about 6,000 (minus records that cannot be used for the current purpose) in a normal single-round GGS, there is considerable inherent random variation in the data set, but we show that simple few-term movingaverage graduation suffices to overcome this problem.

  • 19.
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Children and Dual Worklessness in Europe:  A Comparison of Nine Countries2011In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 217-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parents’ labour market status is a strong determinant of children’seconomic well-being, and children living in jobless households are particularlyvulnerable. However, previous research has not focused on the association betweenchildren and household worklessness. In this paper, I used ECHP data from nineEuropean countries to analyse the effects of the number and age of children on theprobability that neither partner of a couple works. Results from random-effectsregressions show that children increase the risk of dual worklessness in five of thecountries. The effects were particularly strong in the United Kingdom and Ireland,and more generally, stronger in countries with little institutional support for workingmothers, low levels of employment protection, and unexpectedly, where benefitswere less likely to be means-tested. The risk of dual joblessness diminished with theage of the youngest child in Belgium, Finland, France and the United Kingdom andmore generally, slower in countries with a strict employment protection regimeand a high level of means-testing of social benefits. Having children can thus affectthe labour market position of households, and influence their economic well-being. However, these effects can be shaped by the social policy and labour market solutions countries adopt

  • 20.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bernardi, Fabrizio
    Boertien, Diederik
    Family Dynamics and Child Outcomes: An Overview of Research and Open Questions2017In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 163-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented that children who do not live with both biological parents fare somewhat worse on a variety of outcomes than those who do. In this article, which is the introduction to the Special Issue on Family dynamics and children's well-being and life chances in Europe, we refine this picture by identifying variation in this conclusion depending on the family transitions and subpopulations studied. We start by discussing the general evidence accumulated for parental separation and ask whether the same picture emerges from research on other family transitions and structures. Subsequently, we review studies that have aimed to deal with endogeneity and discuss whether issues of causality challenge the general picture of family transitions lowering child well-being. Finally, we discuss whether previous evidence finds effects of family transitions on child outcomes to differ between children from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, and across countries and time-periods studied. Each of the subsequent articles in this Special Issue contributes to these issues. Two articles provide evidence on how several less often studied family forms relate to child outcomes in the European context. Two other articles in this Special Issue contribute by resolving several key questions in research on variation in the consequences of parental separation by socioeconomic and immigrant background, two areas of research that have produced conflicting results so far.

  • 21. Jakobsen, Vibeke
    et al.
    Korpi, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lorentzen, Thomas
    Immigration and Integration Policy and Labour Market Attainment Among Immigrants to Scandinavia2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 305-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insufficient integration of immigrants into the labour market has been identified as a major problem in the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Integration depends, inter alia, on immigration and integration policy, and for most of the post-war period the policies of the three countries displayed strong similarities. However, in the early 2000s Denmark increasingly deviated from its two neighbours, introducing more restrictive immigration and stricter integration policies. Comparing both pre- and post-reform immigrants across Scandinavia, we assess the wider impact of this comprehensive policy reversal by tracking the evolution of employment and earnings gaps between 1993 and 2006. We use large data sets with individual-level register information allowing us to account for immigrant labour force composition and to examine sub-groups of immigrants. The results do not indicate that the Danish reforms had any clear-cut effect on either employment or earnings among non-Western immigrants. Moreover, integration in Norway and Sweden was not unequivocally worse despite the absence of similar reforms, raising questions regarding the aptness of the Danish reversal.

  • 22. Jalovaara, Marika
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Education, Gender, and Cohort Fertility in the Nordic Countries2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 563-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic comparisons of fertility developments based on education, gender and country context are rare. Using harmonized register data, we compare cohort total fertility and ultimate childlessness by gender and educational attainment for cohorts born beginning in 1940 in four Nordic countries. Cohort fertility (CTF) initially declined in all four countries, although for cohorts born in the 1950s and later, the CTF remained stable or declined only modestly. Childlessness, which had been increasing, has plateaued in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Women’s negative educational gradient in relation to total fertility has vanished, except in Finland, while men’s positive gradient has persisted. The highest level of men’s childlessness appears among the least educated. In the oldest female cohorts, childlessness was highest among the highly educated, but these patterns have changed over the cohorts as childlessness has increased among the low educated and remained relatively stable among higher educated women. In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, childlessness is now highest among the least educated women. We witness both a new gender similarity and persistent (among men) and new (among women) educational disparities in childbearing outcomes in the Nordic region. Overall, the number of low educated has decreased remarkably over time. These population segments face increasing social and economic disadvantages that are reflected as well in their patterns of family formation.

  • 23.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Age Differences in Unions: Continuity and Divergence Among Swedish Couples Between 1932 and 20072015In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 365-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age differences in unions have important implications for a number of demographic and societal outcomes. This study examines patterns of age differences in Swedish marital and childbearing unions during the twentieth century, using administrative register data on all first births (1932-2007) and first marriages (1968-2007). All first births are further analyzed by civil status of the parents, and non-married and married parents are compared. The study discusses the theoretical and methodological importance of distinguishing between age heterogamy (absolute age differences) and age hypergamy (gendered age differences) and examines changes in both measures. Results show that age differences in unions changed only slowly over the twentieth century. Age hypergamy decreased at a slow pace, while age heterogamy showed a u-shaped pattern with increasing heterogamy the last decades. These results are confirmed in quantile analyses. Standardizations are also done to examine the influence of age distribution of first unions. Trends for marital versus childbearing unions are similar overall.

  • 24.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Deliberate Birth Spacing in Nineteenth Century Northern Sweden2011In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 337-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fertility in nineteenth century Europe before the fertility transition has been described as high, unregulated, and stable; the extent of fertility control remains a controversial topic. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is evidence of deliberate birth spacing in northern Sweden prior to the onset of the fertility transition. This study analyses micro-level parish records of 9,636 women in nineteenth century northern Sweden—a remote but, at the time, economically dynamic frontier region of Sweden. Event history analysis reveals evidence of birth spacing that suggests some conscious birth control. Piecewise exponential models of the transition from second to third birth reveal circumstances in which parents increased or decreased the time to next birth. The results on the survival of previous children, geographic context, sex of previous children, and variations in grain prices all indicate that parents deliberately manipulated the spacing between births.

  • 25.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Low Fertility and the Housing Market: Evidence from Swedish Regional Data2010In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 229-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term effect of low birth rates is a decline in the population share of children and young adults. How will such changes in age structure affect the housing market? In this article, panel data sets for Swedish municipalities from 1981 to 2006 are used to answer this question. The use of panel data makes it possible to control for the effect of national-level policy shifts and macroeconomic events through the introduction of fixed time effects. The results show that population aging could lead to less rapid house price growth in the first decades of the twenty first century, compared to the last decades of the twentieth century. These results also hold when local population growth, income growth, and educational levels are controlled for.

  • 26.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Residential Segregation of European and Non-European Migrants in Sweden: 1990–20122018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 169-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse how a migrant population that is both expanding and changing in composition has affected the composition of Swedish neighbourhoods at different scales. The analysis is based on Swedish geocoded individual-level register data for the years 1990, 1997, 2005, and 2012. This allows us to compute and analyse the demographic composition of neighbourhoods that range in size from encompassing the nearest 100 individuals to the nearest 409,600 individuals. First, the results confirm earlier findings that migrants, especially those from non-European countries, face high levels of segregation in Sweden. Second, large increases in the non-European populations in combination with high levels of segregation have increased the proportion of non-European migrants living in neighbourhoods that already have high proportions of non-European migrants. Third, in contrast to what has been the established image of segregation trends in Sweden, and in an apparent contrast to the finding that non-European migrants increasingly live in migrant-dense neighbourhoods, our results show that segregation, when defined as an uneven distribution of different populations across residential contexts, is not increasing. On the contrary, for both European migrants from 1990 and non-European migrants from 1997, there is a downward trend in unevenness as measured by the dissimilarity index at all scale levels. However, if segregation is measured as differences in the neighbourhood concentration of migrants, segregation has increased.

  • 27.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Use It or Save It? Migration Background and Parental Leave Uptake in Sweden2016In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 189-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a welfare state with a family policy that strongly emphasizes equality without distinction by place of birth or gender. In this study, we investigate the differences in uptake of parental leave between native and immigrant mothers, and the connection to labour-market attachment. Sweden represents a unique case study, not only because of the strong effort to combine work and family for all women and men, the high level of fertility and the large presence of immigrants in the country; it also enables a detailed and sophisticated analysis based on the high-quality data derived from its population registers. We find that immigrant mothers use more parental leave benefit the first year after their child's birth, but then fewer in the second year compared with native mothers. The differences diminish when labour-market activity is controlled for. Additionally, after a time in Sweden, immigrant mothers use leave more similarly to how native mothers do.

  • 28.
    Neyer, Gerda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegard, Trude
    Vignoli, Daniele
    Gender Equality and Fertility: Which Equality Matters?2013In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 245-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does gender equality matter for fertility? Demographic findings on this issue are rather inconclusive. We argue that one reason for this is that the complexity of the concept of gender equality has received insufficient attention. Gender equality needs to be conceptualized in a manner that goes beyond perceiving it as mere sameness of distribution. It needs to include notions of gender equity and thus to allow for distinguishing between gender difference and gender inequality. We sketch three dimensions of gender equality related to employment, financial resources, and family work, which incorporate this understanding: (1) the ability to maintain a household; (2) agency and the capability to choose; and (3) gender equity in household and care work. We explore their impact on childbearing intentions of women and men using the European Generations and Gender Surveys. Our results confirm the need for a more nuanced notion of gender equality in studies on the relationship between gender equality on fertility. They show that there is no uniform effect of gender equality on childbearing intentions, but that the impact varies by gender and by parity.

  • 29. Nisen, Jessica
    et al.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. University of Helsinki, Finland; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Myrskylä, Mikko
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Education, Other Socioeconomic Characteristics Across the Life Course, and Fertility Among Finnish Men2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 337-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of education and other adult socioeconomic characteristics of men are known to associate with their fertility, but early-life socioeconomic characteristics may also be related. We studied how men's adult and early-life socioeconomic characteristics are associated with their eventual fertility and whether the differences therein by educational level are explained or mediated by other socioeconomic characteristics. The data on men born in 1940-1950 (N = 37,082) were derived from the 1950 Finnish census, which is linked to later registers. Standard and sibling fixed-effects Poisson and logistic regression models were used. Education and other characteristics were positively associated with the number of children, largely stemming from a higher likelihood of a first birth among the more socioeconomically advantaged men. The educational gradient in the number of children was not explained by early socioeconomic or other characteristics shared by brothers, but occupational position and income in adulthood mediated approximately half of the association. Parity-specific differences existed: education and many other socioeconomic characteristics predicted the likelihood of a first birth more strongly than that of a second birth, and the mediating role of occupational position and income was also strongest for first births. Relatively small differences were found in the likelihood of a third birth. In men, education is positively associated with eventual fertility after controlling for early socioeconomic and other characteristics shared by brothers. Selective entry into fatherhood based on economic provider potential may contribute considerably to educational differentials in the number of children among men.

  • 30.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alcohol-related mortality in 15 European countries in the postwar period2002In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 307-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper isto assess postwar differences and trends inalcohol-related mortality in the currentEuropean Union (minus Luxembourg plus Norway)on the basis of liver cirrhosis mortality anddeaths with explicit mention of alcohol,primarily alcohol dependence, alcohol psychosisand alcohol poisoning (AAA). The questionof the extent to which these indicators arecomparable across Western European countries isalso addressed. A marked north-south gradientwas found for cirrhosis mortality, with thehighest rates revealed in Southern Europe andthe lowest in Northern Europe. However, thisgradient weakened with the passage of time andthe initially quite substantial regionaldifferences declined during the latter part ofthe study period. Explicitly alcohol-relatedmortality (AAA), on the other hand, showed areverse cross-national pattern with the highestrates in the north and the lowest in the south.A positive cross-national relationship wasobserved between cirrhosis and per capitaconsumption but this match was not improved bycombining cirrhosis with explicitlyalcohol-related causes. Nevertheless, withinSouthern, Central and Northern Europeancountries the relationship between per capitaconsumption and AAA-mortality was positive. Itis concluded that cirrhosis mortality is usefulfor making rough national comparisons in aWestern European context whereas the validityof explicitly alcohol-related mortality isquestionable. Cultural differences in recordingpractices and drinking patterns are discussedas possible determinants of geographicaldifferences in AAA-mortality.

  • 31.
    Tønnessen, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Statistics Norway, Norway.
    Declined Total Fertility Rate Among Immigrants and the Role of Newly Arrived Women in Norway2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western countries, the total fertility rate (TFR) of immigrant women has declined over the last decades. This paper proposes two methods for investigating such changes in the aggregate immigrant fertility level: what-if scenarios and a formal decomposition. Both methods disentangle the effect of changed composition-by origin area and duration of stay-from the effect of changed fertility within subgroups. The methods are applied to data from Norway, where immigrant TFR declined from 2.6 births per women in 2000 to below 2.0 in 2017. The results show that this decline is not due to successful integration, nor changed composition of immigrant women by origin area or duration of stay. A main reason for the decline is found among newly arrived immigrant women, particularly from Asia. They have a considerably lower fertility now than what the newly arrived had 15-20 years ago. After investigating several possible reasons for the TFR decline among the newly arrived, decreased fertility in origin areas is suggested as a key driver.

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