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  • 1. Karsvall, Olof
    et al.
    Jupiter, Kristofer
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Fenced open-fields in mixed-farming systems: spatial organisation and cooperation in southern Sweden during the seventeenth century2023Inngår i: Journal of Historical Geography, ISSN 0305-7488, E-ISSN 1095-8614, Vol. 80, s. 18-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The organisation of fields and fences in agriculture that emerged during the Middle Ages and the early modern period was a complex system that combined individual ownership of and communal practices in arable land, meadows and pastures. It was adapted for small and mid-size family-based farming and was a different way to organise agriculture than the medieval estates (demesnes) and the larger coherent fields of the eighteenth century and onwards. The past decade of research in historical geography and economic history has highlighted the origin of this system, which is often referred to as the open-field system; it was open in the sense that it promoted communal farming of primarily arable land. This pre-modern farming system was, however, in many areas a physically closed landscape – a landscape where fences stood out as significant elements. This article investigates the use of fences in a part of early modern western Sweden. The empirical base is a reconstruction of fence-organisations from detailed large-scale maps dating from the mid-seventeenth century. Using historical maps, this study focuses on the collaboration and interaction among farms and settlements. We argue that the open-field system cannot be fully understood without regard to an in-depth analysis of the fences and the institutions holding the complex collaboration together. The occurrence or absence of fences in relation to open-fields involves several questions: What are the characteristics of the fences in the farming systems known as open-field? What can be said about the spatial distributions and connections between the settlements sharing the same open-field? Can agrarian landscapes where fences were prominent elements be considered open-field? The results show that fences appear to be a key factor in understanding settlement patterns and open-fields in Scandinavian regions. A large number of fences created small fenced open-fields. Moreover, the divisions of the arable plots had less importance in the creation of open-fields, which included arable land, meadows and pastures. Instead, cross-settlement collaborations and arrangements are central for the open-fields in the study region. The regional differences within the open-field system provide an understanding of the preconditions and organisation of mixed farming, which combined small-scale arable land cultivation and large-scale pastures.

  • 2.
    Sörlin, S.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Narratives and Counter Narratives of Climate Change: North Atlantic Glaciology and Meteorology, ca 1930-1955.2009Inngår i: Journal of Historical Geography, ISSN 0305-7488, E-ISSN 1095-8614, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 237-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Review of Nature's Ghosts: confronting Extinction from the Age of Jefferson to the Age of Ecology2011Inngår i: Journal of Historical Geography, ISSN 0305-7488, E-ISSN 1095-8614, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 509-Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Widgren, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    A simulation model of farming systems and land use in Sweden during the early Iron Age, c. 500 B.C. – A.D. 5501979Inngår i: Journal of Historical Geography, ISSN 0305-7488, E-ISSN 1095-8614, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 21-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In investigating an area with deserted fields and boundaries in the province of Östergotland, Eastern Middle Sweden, pollen analysis has been used as a tool in describing the ecological base of different phases in the development of the cultural landscape. The characteristics of the early Iron Age expansion have thus been proven to be the simultaneous expansion of cattle breeding and arable farming. This indicates an integrated system, with intensely tilled fields, knowledge of manuring and, therefore, need of a vast fence system to gather the cattle and make efficient use of the manure.

    Assuming a social organization of families with a size of eight to ten individuals, the amount of land required to feed each unit has been calculated. Three hectares of arable land, 30 ha of meadow land and 30 ha of pasture is suggested as a possible combination to support a family. Using a desk computer, units with these proportions of land have been randomly located in an area of 2 × 2 km2 taking soil differences into account. Agrarian units can be located several times at random and the resulting land-use patterns studied. The simulated results often very well describe the actual land-use pattern during the early Iron Age as indicated by deserted fields, boundaries and dwelling sites.

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