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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Petersson, Mona
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Impact of the European Water Framework Directive on local-level water management: Case study Oxunda Catchment, Sweden2012In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 29, no 1, 73-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union provides a common framework for waterpolicy that focuses on holistic and integrated water management in river basins. In many member states,implementation of the WFD has shifted the main responsibility for local water issues from the municipallevel to the regional or supra-regional levels. In this study, we investigated how the implementation of theWFD has influenced local-level water management including the interpretation of the new environmentalquality standards. Specifically, we considered Sweden, which has traditionally had relatively stronggovernance at the municipal level. Because a sufficient amount of time has now passed for evaluationof WFD-related effects on operational water handling, we interviewed individuals directly involved inwater planning and land use planning at the municipal level in one sub catchment in the Northern BalticSea River Basin District of Sweden, as well as representatives for superior levels and associations. Despitedivergent views regarding the priority of water issues in physical planning among the local-level plannersinterviewed, they had all participated in successful inter-municipal pre-WFD collaboration projects.Although such collaborations could help increase the understanding and acceptance of WFD-related goalsand costs, as well as facilitate conflict solving, as shown in the Oxunda Catchment, they have not gainedmuch attention in the WFD implementation process. Additionally, physical planners have generally beenreluctant to accept new environmental quality standards resulting from WFD implementation, in partbecause they lack precise definitions, but also because they could challenge the municipal routine ofweighing various objectives against each other. Furthermore, despite WFD-related increases in ambitionlevels, lack of resource improvements at the municipal level were identified as potential problems by local environmental planners.

  • 2. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Valenti, Josh
    Exploring agricultural advice networks, beneficial management practices and water quality on the landscape: A geospatial social-ecological systems analysis2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 51, 236-243 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural practices have been linked to detrimental effects on ecosystems, with water quality of particular concern. Research has been devoted to understanding uptake of beneficial, or best, management practices (BMPs) in agriculture; however, sources of advice and subsequent effects on the landscape have not been elucidated. This study set out to understand (1) what sources of information agricultural producers rely on when making land-management decisions; (2) the characteristics of their advice networks; and (3) how the advice network linked spatially to water quality on the landscape. A watershed in Alberta was used as a case study and respondents identified that regional advisors were relied upon most often for advice and these advisors had the most influence on the adoption of BMPs. Results indicate that respondents with connections to regional actors implemented more BMPs that those without. Regional government actors had a greater effect than regional non-governmental actors. Local actors played a lesser role in advice networks related to BMP adoption. A 3D geovisualization was used to explore linkages among advisors, BMPs, and water quality. This technique may be useful for other scenarios and can contribute to policy development and enhanced practices.

  • 3. Beilin, Ruth
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stenseke, Marie
    Pereira, Henrique Miguel
    Llausas, Albert
    Slätmo, Elin
    Cerqueira, Yvonne
    Navarro, Laetitia
    Rodrigues, Patricia
    Reichelt, Nicole
    Munro, Nicola
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Analysing how drivers of agricultural land abandonment affect biodiversity and cultural landscapes using case studies from Scandinavia, Iberia and Oceania2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 36, 60-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural land abandonment (ALA) is widespread in many countries of the global north. It impacts rural communities, traditional landscapes, biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is an opportunity for ecosystem restoration or new landscape functions. We explored ALA in study areas in Australia, Portugal and Sweden. In each, we assessed plant species diversity, historical trajectories of land cover change; and the socioeconomic past, present and future in interviews with farmers. The ALA data was integrated and analysed by identifying the drivers of change. The relative importance of each driver and its scale of action was estimated, both in the past (1950-2010) and in the future (2010-2030). ALA has transformed rural landscapes in the study areas of Portugal and Sweden. It is at a much earlier stage with potential to increase in the Australian case. We identified a set of driving forces, classified into pressures, frictions and attractors that clarify why ALA, noting its temporal and spatial scale, occurs differently in each study area. The effect of the drivers is related to social and historical contexts. Pressures and attractors encouraging agricultural abandonment are strongest in Portugal and Sweden. Generally more (institutionalized) frictions are in place in these European sites, intended to prevent further change, based on the benefits assumed for biodiversity and aesthetics. In Australia, the stimulation of driving forces to promote a well-managed abandonment of some cleared areas could be highly beneficial for biodiversity, minimally disruptive for current dairy farming operations and would bring opportunities for alternative types of rural development.

  • 4.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Funding ecological restoration policy in practice-patterns of short-termism and regional biases2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, 439-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With continuous degradation of ecosystems combined with the recognition of human dependence on functioning ecosystems, global interest in ecological restoration (ER) has intensified. From being merely a nature conservation measure, it is today advanced as a way to improve ecosystem functions, mitigate biodiversity loss and climate change, as well as renew human-nature relationships. However, ER is a contested and diversified term used in research, policy and practice. Substantive public funding is allocated towards this end worldwide, but little is known about its concrete purpose and coverage, as well as what decides its allocation. With inspiration from environmental funding literature we analyze the case of Sweden to provide the first national overview of public ER funding. The understudied political context of ER is thus addressed but also regional variation in funding allocation. A database of all national government funding programs between 1995 and 2011 that included projects and sub-programs aiming at practical ER measures was created. Results show that ER activities counted for 11% (130 million USD) of the total government nature conservation funding. Water environments were highly prioritized, which can be explained by economic and recreational motives behind ER. The ER funding was unevenly distributed geographically, not related to either environmental need or population size, but rather to regional administrative capacity. It was also found to be small scale and short term, and hence part of a general trend of project proliferation of public administration which runs contrary to ecosystem based management. As ER is not yet a long-term investment in Sweden, commonly seen as an environmental lead state, we expect even less and more short-term ER funding in other countries.

  • 5. Elbakidze, Marine
    et al.
    Dawson, Lucas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Axelsson, Robert
    Angelstam, Per
    Stjernquist, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Teitelbaum, Sara
    Schlyter, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thellbro, Camilla
    Is spatial planning a collaborative learning process? A case study from a rural-urban gradient in Sweden2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 48, 270-285 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International and national policies stress the importance of spatial planning for the long-term sustainability of regions. This paper identifies the extent to which the spatial planning in a Swedish region can be characterised as a collaborative learning process. By combining qualitative interviews and systems thinking methods we analysed the main attributes of public-led spatial (i.e. comprehensive) planning in nine municipalities representing a steep urban-rural gradient in the Bergslagen region of Central Sweden. We show that the attributes of strategic spatial planning needed for collaborative learning were absent or undeveloped. All studied municipalities experienced challenges in coordinating complex issues regarding long-term planning to steer territorial development and help to solve conflicts among competing interests. Stakeholder participation was identified as a basic condition for social learning in planning. Together with stakeholders we identified the causal structure behind stakeholder participation in municipal planning processes, including main drivers and feedback loops. We conclude that there is a need for arenas allowing and promoting stakeholder activity, participation and inclusion that combines both bottom-up and top-down approaches, and where evidence-based collaborative learning can occur.

  • 6. Haenke, Hendrik
    et al.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Enfors-Kautsky, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Drought tolerant species dominate as rainfall and tree cover returns in the West African Sahel2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 59, 111-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the severe droughts in the 1970s and 1980s, and subsequent debates about desertification, analyses of satellite images reveal that the West African Sahel has become greener again. In this paper we report a study on changes in tree cover and tree species composition in three village landscapes in northern Burkina Faso, based on a combination of methods: tree density change detection using aerial photos and satellite images, a tree species inventory including size class distribution analysis, and interviews with local farmers about woody vegetation changes. Our results show a decrease in tree cover in the 1970s followed by an increase since the mid-1980s, a pattern correlating with the temporal trends in rainfall as well as remotely sensed greening in the region. However, both the inventory and interview data shows that the species composition has changed substantially towards a higher dominance of drought-resistant and exotic species. This shift, occurring during a period of increasing annual precipitation, points to the complexity of current landscape changes and questions rain as the sole primary driver of the increase in tree cover. We propose that the observed changes in woody vegetation (densities, species composition and spatial distribution) are mediated by changes in land use, including intensification and promotion of drought tolerant and fast growing species. Our findings, which indicate a rather surprising trajectory of land cover change, highlight the importance of studies that integrate evidence of changes in tree density and species composition to complement our understanding of land use and vegetation change trajectories in the Sahel obtained from satellite images. We conclude that a better understanding of the social-ecological relations and emerging land use trajectories that produce new types of agroforestry parklands in the region is of crucial importance for designing suitable policies for climate change adaptation, biodiversity conservation and the sustainable delivery of ecosystem services that benefit local livelihoods in one of the world's poorest regions.

  • 7. Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden.
    Flexible land-use and undefined governance: From threats to potentials in peri-urban landscape planning2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 63, 523-527 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Densification of cities is presently one of the dominating strategies for urbanization globally. However, how densification of cities is linked to processes in the peri-urban landscapes is rather unknown. The aim of this paper is to highlight the potentials in of peri-urban landscapes to be recognized as complementary providers of urban ecosystem services when green areas in cities are reduced by densification. We suggest that the way forward is to change the perceptions of peri-urban areas from being defined as located between cities and rural areas with a specific population density or a geographical distance, to become recognized as a landscape defined by its functionality. By identifying and describing the functionality in peri-urban landscapes the existing governance gaps can be recognized and thus dealt with through adaptation of existing planning tools. Although not yet articulated, peri-urban areas should be used to facilitate integration of top down and bottom up approaches and thereby closing the governance gaps. We illustrate this reasoning by two examples; one of the establishment of green wedges in Stockholm, Sweden, and the other with the establishments of international Model forests. We conclude that further densification of cities will create a lack of ecosystem services in cities by putting an even higher pressure on the peri-urban landscape and not as suggested today that densification lower pressure on peri-urban landscapes. Rethinking and reframing the peri-urban areas by adapting existing platforms will potentially contribute to a more nuanced discussion on strategies for urban development generally.

  • 8.
    Koh, Niak Sian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Safeguards for enhancing ecological compensation in Sweden2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 64, 186-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological compensation (EC) is being explored as a policy instrument for the European Union's 'No Net Loss of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services' initiative. EC is commonly associated with the Polluter-Pays Principle, but we propose the Developer-Pays Principle as a more comprehensive principle. Safeguards that are relevant to local and national contexts are needed when addressing social-ecological resilience in the face of risks associated with EC. The operationalisation of EC in Sweden is assessed through two case studies: the E12 highway and Mertainen mine. The institutional design and implementation procedures are investigated through semi-structured interviews as well as an analysis of legal and other written documents. Using a multi-level governance framework, we examine four key disputed issues within compensation. Our results suggest that (i) Risk of a license-to-trash can be minimised; (ii) Complementary quantitative and qualitative ecological valuation methods are needed to achieve additionality and No Net Loss; (iii) Compensation pools may be a promising strategy to secure land availability; and (iv) Social safeguards are vital for EC in high-income countries as well, where they are currently understudied. We conclude that EC cannot be the main instrument for nature conservation, but rather complementary to a strong legal framework that protects biodiversity and ecosystems in addition to the sustained and equitable benefits of ecosystem services.

  • 9. Mikulcak, Friederike
    et al.
    Haider, Jamila L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Abson, David J.
    Newig, Jens
    Fischer, Joern
    Applying a capitals approach to understand rural development traps: A case study from post-socialist Romania2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 43, 248-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural development models to date have failed to adequately explain why development stagnates in certain regions, and have often focused on single policy areas. This paper proposes a more holistic approach by combining the concept of traps with the sustainable livelihoods approach, applied to a case study in Central Romania. Based on semi-structured interviews with rural inhabitants from 66 villages in 2012, we analyze the barriers creating and maintaining a lock-in situation characterized by an apparently stable low-welfare equilibrium state. By clustering development barriers into livelihood capitals we find that barriers to rural development are multiple and interacting, and are strongly mediated by the institutional context. We show that while financial, social, human, and built capitals are inadequately developed, the region's rich natural and cultural capitals stand the best chances to foster rural development. Yet, these capitals are likely to deteriorate, too, if all other capitals remain under-developed. Given this inter-connectedness of development barriers we argue that one-sided interventions cannot help 'unlock' the trap-like situation of Central Romania. Instead, multiple barriers will need to be tackled simultaneously. The development of social, human and financial capitals should be of priority concern because of their potentially positive spill-over effects across all other capitals.

  • 10. Rudbeck Jepsen, Martin
    et al.
    Kuemmerle, Tobias
    Müller, Daniel
    Erb, Karlheinz
    Verburg, Peter H.
    Haberl, Helmut
    Vesterager, Jens Peter
    Andric, Maja
    Antrop, Marc
    Austerheim, Gunnar
    Björn, Ismo
    Bondeau, Alberte
    Bürgi, Matthias
    Bryson, Jessica
    Caspar, Gilles
    Cassar, Louis F.
    Conrad, Elisabeth
    Chromý, Pavel
    Daugirdas, Vidmantas
    van Eetvelde, Veerle
    Elena-Rosselló, Ramon
    Gimmi, Urs
    Izakovicova, Zita
    Jancák, Vit
    Jansson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Kladnik, Drago
    Kozak, Jacek
    Konkoly-Gyuró, Eva
    Krausmann, Fridolin
    Mander, Ülo
    McDonagh, John
    Pärn, Jaan
    Niedertscheider, Maria
    Nikodemus, Olgerts
    Ostapowicz, Katarzyna
    Pérez-Soba, Marta
    Pinto-Correia, Teresa
    Ribokas, Gintras
    Rounsevell, Mark
    Schistou, Despoina
    Schmit, Claude
    Terkenli, Theano
    Tretvik, Aud M.
    Trzepacz, Piotr
    Vadineanu, Angheluta
    Walz, Ariane
    Zhllima, Edvina
    Reenberg, Anette
    Transitions in European land-management regimes between 1800 and 20102015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 49, no SI, 53-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use is a cornerstone of human civilization, but also intrinsically linked to many global sustainability challenges—from climate change to food security to the ongoing biodiversity crisis. Understanding the underlying technological, institutional and economic drivers of land-use change, and how they play out in different environmental, socio-economic and cultural contexts, is therefore important for identifying effective policies to successfully address these challenges. In this regard, much can be learned from studying long-term land-use change. We examined the evolution of European land management over the past 200 years with the aim of identifying (1) key episodes of changes in land management, and (2) their underlying technological, institutional and economic drivers. To do so, we generated narratives elaborating on the drivers of land use-change at the country level for 28 countries in Europe. We qualitatively grouped drivers into land-management regimes, and compared changes in management regimes across Europe. Our results allowed discerning seven land-management regimes, and highlighted marked heterogeneity regarding the types of management regimes occurring in a particular country, the timing and prevalence of regimes, and the conditions that result in observed bifurcations. However, we also found strong similarities across countries in the timing of certain land-management regime shifts, often in relation to institutional reforms (e.g., changes in EU agrarian policies or the emergence and collapse of the Soviet land management paradigm) or to technological innovations (e.g., drainage pipes, tillage and harvesting machinery, motorization, and synthetic fertilizers). Land reforms frequently triggered changes in land management, and the location and timing of reforms had substantial impacts on land-use outcomes. Finally, forest protection policies and voluntary cooperatives were important drivers of land-management changes. Overall, our results demonstrate that land-system changes should not be conceived as unidirectional developments following predefined trajectories, but rather as path-dependent processes that may be affected by various drivers, including sudden events.

  • 11.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Binford, Michael W.
    Portier, Kenneth M.
    Vergara, Rodrigo
    A stand of trees does not a forest make: Tree plantations and forest transitions2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 56, 147-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global programs are calling to increase tree cover, including plantations, which supply global pulp and wood demand, energy, food, and carbon markets. Tree plantations that replace native forests, cultivated agriculture, or previously cleared land are essentially commodity crops with global market drivers, and do not provide the same ecosystem services as native forests. Nonetheless, they are counted as forest by global programs. We test whether 1) the forest transitions framework (FTF), which typically explains reforestation, adequately describes the socio-economic drivers of plantation establishment and 2) descriptions of the effects of land cover change on ecological processes are obscured when tree plantation and native forest classes are aggregated. We used longitudinal multi-temporal satellite imagery (1985-2001) to map and analyze plantation systems across a 35,853 km(2) area in southern Chile at the plantation frontier. As predicted by the FTF, plantations were established in foothills of predominantly agricultural watersheds rather than in watersheds dominated by native forests or in flat, agriculturally productive areas. Half of the plantations were planted on agricultural or cleared lands that were deforested years ago. Counter to predictions of the FTF, the other half of the plantations replaced native forests. Tree plantations were not associated with rural population loss; instead their establishment was related to the amount of potential usable land. We find that when native forests and tree plantation classes are disaggregated, land in coastal catchments that were converted to tree plantation is related to lower quality nearshore resources; analyses that aggregate plantations with native forests obscure this effect.

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