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  • 1. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Kang, Jian
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models2016In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 149, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soundscape exists through human perception of the acoustic environment. This paper investigates how soundscape currently is assessed and measured. It reviews and analyzes the main soundscape descriptors in the soundscape literature, and provides a conceptual framework for developing predictive models in soundscape studies. A predictive soundscape model provides a means of predicting the value of a soundscape descriptor, and the blueprint for how to design soundscape. It is the key for implementing the soundscape approach in urban planning and design. The challenge is to select the appropriate soundscape descriptor and to identify its predictors. The majority of available soundscape descriptors are converging towards a 2-dimensional soundscape model of perceived affective quality (e.g., Pleasantness–Eventfulness, or Calmness–Vibrancy). A third potential dimension is the appropriateness of a soundscape to a place. This dimensions provides complementary information beyond the perceived affective quality. However, it depends largely on context, and because a soundscape may be appropriate to a place although it is poor, this descriptor must probably not be used on its own. With regards to predictors, or soundscape indicators, perceived properties of the acoustic environment (e.g., perceived sound sources) are winning over established acoustic and psychoacoustic metrics. To move this area forward it is necessary that the international soundscape community comes together and agrees on relevant soundscape descriptors. This includes to agree on numerical scales and assessment procedures, as well as to standardize them.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellström, Björn
    Lundén, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A field experiment on the impact of sounds from a jet-and-basin fountain on soundscape quality in an urban park2014In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 123, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A field experiment was conducted to explore whether water sounds from a fountain had a positive impact on soundscape quality in a downtown park. In total, 405 visitors were recruited to answer a questionnaire on how they perceived the park, including its acoustic environment. Meanwhile the fountain was turned on or off, at irregular hours. Water sounds from the fountain were not directly associated with ratings of soundscape quality. Rather, the predictors of soundscape quality were the variables Road-traffic noise and Other natural sounds. The former had a negative and the latter a positive impact. However, water sounds may have had an indirect impact on soundscape quality by affecting the audibility of road-traffic and natural sounds. The present results, obtained in situ, agree with previous results in soundscape research that the sounds perceived particularly roadtraffic and natural sounds explain soundscape quality. They also agree with the results from laboratory studies that water sounds may mask roadtraffic sounds, but that this is not simple and straight forward. Thus sound should be brought into the design scheme when introducing water features in urban open spaces, and their environmental impact must be thoroughly assessed empirically.

  • 3. Bendt, Pim
    et al.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Civic greening and environmental learning in public-access community gardens in Berlin2013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse environmental learning in public-access community gardens (‘PAC-gardens’) in Berlin, representing public green spaces that are collectively managed by civil society groups. Through extensive fieldwork, and drawing upon social theories of learning, we describe learning communities in four PAC-gardens and analyse factors that influence participation and boundary interaction, that is when experiences brought in from the outside encounter socially defined competences. Results show that these PAC-gardens have self-generated social and physical structures, which to different degrees inhibit or facilitate boundary interactions, whereas skills of individuals to put those to work, in combination with the quality of the surrounding neighbourhoods, can be ascribed for creating broader participation and greater diversity in the content of learning about local sustainability. Identified learning streams included learning about gardening and local ecological conditions; about urban politics, and about social entrepreneurship. We discuss results in relation to environmental learning that combats the generational amnesia in cities about our dependence on nature, where PAC-gardens clearly distinguish themselves from more closed forms of urban gardening such as allotment gardens and gated community gardens. We conclude that PAC-gardens that intertwine gardening with social, political and economic practices can create broader and more heterogeneous learning about social–ecological conditions, and help develop sense-of-place in degraded neighbourhoods.

  • 4.
    Bergsten, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Zetterberg, Andreas
    To model the landscape as a network: A practitioner's perspective2013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 119, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have shown a rapid increase in the number of published studies that advocate network analysis (graph theory) to ecologically manage landscapes that suffer from fragmentation and loss of connectivity. This paper studies the reasons, benefits and difficulties of using network analysis to manage landscape fragmentation in the practice of land-use planning. The results are based on interviews with thirteen municipal ecologists and environmental planners in Stockholm, Sweden, who had been introduced to a GIS-tool for network-based connectivity analysis. Our results indicate that fragmentation is not considered enough in municipal planning and demonstrate that none of the interviewed practitioners used systematic methods to assess landscape connectivity. The practitioners anticipate that network-level and patch-level connectivity measures and maps would help them to communicate the meaning and implications of connectivity to other actors in the planning process, and to better assess the importance of certain habitats affected by detailed plans. The main difficulties of implementing network-based connectivity analyses reported by the respondents related to the choice of focal species and the lack of model input in terms of landscape data and dispersal distances. The main strengths were expressed by the practitioners as graphical, quantitative and credible results; the ability to compare planning alternatives and to find critical sites in a more objective manner than today; and to relate local planning and ecology to the regional structure of the landscape. Many respondents stressed the role of fragmentation assessments in the endeavor to overcome current spatial mismatches of ecological and administrative scales.

  • 5.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nature conservation for what?: Analyses of urban and rural nature reserves in southern Sweden 1909-20062013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 117, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively integrate nature conservation in sustainable landscape management, it isessential to deepen the understanding of why, what, where and for whom nature isprotected. This is especially important for nature conservation in human dominatedlandscapes such as cities, where the distance between built up and protected areas is inconstant decline due to urbanisation worldwide. In this study we use historical andcurrent data from Sweden to examine how urban compared to rural nature conservationhave been using formal nature reserve objectives. The focal nature conservationobjectives in our study area were preservation of biodiversity, restoration ofenvironments and outdoor recreation, as well as subdivision of those. The use of theseobjectives were analysed for 1869 nature reserves in relation to degree of urbanisation.We found that nature reserves in more urbanised landscapes were based on a highernumber of objectives. The urban reserves also had a different composition of objectives,where the objectives outdoor recreation and biodiversity preservation were morecommon in urban than in rural reserves. During the last decades we detected a shift inuse of objectives in urban areas, going from biodiversity preservation to a strongerfocus on outdoor recreation. National and global trends in the nature conservationdebate could also be seen as reflected in the use of objectives. To ensure its adaptivecapacity, we stress that urban nature conservation needs a more proactive strategy,where potential future social as well as ecological values must be embraced and notonly existing ones.

  • 6. Cilliers, S. S.
    et al.
    Siebert, S. J.
    Du Toit, M. J.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mishra, S.
    Cornelius, S. F.
    Davoren, E.
    Garden ecosystem services of Sub-Saharan Africa and the role of health clinic gardens as social-ecological systems2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 180, p. 294-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid urbanization is predicted to take place in Africa in the near future and currently stressed cities will be even more overburdened in terms of pressure on green areas and increasing urban poverty. Effectively planning for and conserving current urban green infrastructure will be essential to ensure resilience and maintenance of quality urban environments. Gardens represent major portions of urban green infrastructure. In this paper we review literature to determine the current status of garden ecosystem services under the main themes of provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services in sub-Saharan Africa and identify the current challenges in optimizing these ecosystem services. Studying gardens as social-ecological systems might be the key to promote and enhance their resilience capacity in a changing world, acknowledging the fact that gardens are communities of practice in which social learning may occur. Studies on health clinic gardens in the North-West Province of South Africa have indicated how some of the challenges in terms of optimizing garden ecosystem services can be addressed. Multiple stakeholders involved in the health clinic gardens contribute towards a co-production of knowledge that could lead to social learning on aspects such as cultivation of nutritious food. More detailed studies on health clinic gardens are however, necessary to be able to develop a community-based resource management framework that can be implemented in the North-West Province and potentially in other South African provinces and countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 7.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Eriksson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Franzen, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Reconstructing past land use and vegetation patterns using palaeogeographical and archaeological data: A focus on grasslands in Nynas by the Baltic Sea in south-eastern Sweden2002In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past landscape characteristics were reconstructed in Nynas, south-eastern Sweden, using geographical and archaeological data together with pollen stratigraphy and an existing shore displacement model, with the aim to explore the development of semi-natural grasslands in the area. A 2.3 m peat core was analysed and radiocarbon dated at three levels. The pollen stratigraphy was estimated to start at approximately 3800 C-14 years before present (BP), at the end of Late Neolithic. Human activities are evident, from both archaeological findings and pollen analysis, for more than 4000 years. Grazing is apparent, possibly more intense around 3200 C-14 years BP, 2500-2600 C-14 years BP, 2100-2200 C-14 years BP, and 1300/1400 C-14 years BP to present day. From 1900+/-80 C-14 years BP and onwards cultivation is intensified at the same time as spruce (Picea abies) expands. Maps on land-cover distribution in the late 17th century was used as a model for the utilisation of the landscape during the Iron Age. Land-covers on very thin soils were grazed and sometimes mown within the village boundaries, but they were also used for cultivation in narrow strips where bedrock is adjacent to clays. Till and varved glacial clays would have been used for cultivation. A reasonable estimation is that 10% of the study area could have been used for cultivation 1900 C-14 years BP, compared to 28% in the end of the 17th century. During the last century there has been a shift towards more arable fields and more forestry. There are 10% open or semi-open grassland left today, and 6% wooded grassland, compared with 47% open or semi-open grassland in the 17th century. Little more than half of the open grasslands are managed today, all by grazing. It is argued that encroachment of trees and shrubs on open or semi-open grasslands will not only reduce species richness in the landscape but also threaten parts of our cultural heritage.

  • 8.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Ihse, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A methodological study for biotope and landscape mapping based on CIR aerial photographs1998In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 41, no 3-4, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a method for base-line mapping of biotope and landscape elements in the rural Swedish agricultural landscape. The overall goal is to elaborate a classification system for a national landscape monitoring program, based on interpretation of existing colour infrared (CIR) aerial photographs at the scale 1:30000, and including a field control. The classification system developed was tested by mapping landscape elements in strategically selected test areas, and it is assessed with respect to interpretation accuracy. The landscape elements, mapped separately as patches, lines and points, are significant for the biodiversity on landscape level, and are susceptible to change. The classification system is based on a hierarchical approach in five levels, with regard to land use and management, nature type and succession stage, moisture, physiognomy, vegetation cover and plant species. By using the method and the suggested classification system, a base-line mapping can be done very quickly and accurately. The mapping rate is 1.4-2.8 km(2)/h and the interpretation accuracy is 95-99%.

  • 9. Donahue, Marie L.
    et al.
    Keeler, Bonnie L.
    Wood, Spencer A.
    Fisher, David M.
    Hamstead, Zoe A.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The New School, USA; Cary Institute of Ecosystems Studies, USA.
    Using social media to understand drivers of urban park visitation in the Twin Cities, MN2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 175, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green space and parks in urban environments provide a range of ecosystem services and public benefits. However, planners and park managers can lack tools and resources to gather local information on how parks are used and what makes them desirable places for recreation and a wide variety of uses. Traditional survey methods to monitor park use and user preferences can be costly, time consuming, and challenging to apply at scale. Here, we overcome this limitation by using geotagged social media data to assess patterns of visitation to urban and peti-urban green space across park systems in the metropolitan area of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. We find that parks with nearby water features, more amenities, greater accessibility from the presence of trails, and that are located within neighborhoods with higher population density, are associated with higher rates of visitation. As cities grow and shifts in demographics occur, more responsive management of public green space will become increasingly important to ensure urban parks provide ecosystem services and meet users' needs. Using social media data to rapidly assess park use at a lower cost than traditional surveys has the potential to inform public green space management with targeted information on user behavior and values of urban residents.

  • 10. Elbakidze, Marine
    et al.
    Angelstam, Per
    Yamelynets, Taras
    Dawson, Lucas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Gebrehiwot, Mersha
    Stryamets, Nataliya
    Johansson, Karl-Erik
    Garrido, Pablo
    Naumov, Vladimir
    Manton, Michael
    A bottom-up approach to map land covers as potential green infrastructure hubs for human well-being in rural settings: A case study from Sweden2017In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 168, p. 72-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green infrastructure (GI) policy encourages the spatial planning of natural and semi-natural areas to deliver biodiversity conservation and a wide range of ecosystem services (ES) important to human well-being. Much of the current literature relies on expert-led and top-down processes to investigate connections between landscapes' different land covers and ES. Little is known regarding the preferences of residents, and how they connect land covers with the delivery of ES important for their well-being. The aim of this study is to identify and locate such land cover types as GI that provide multiple ES important for human well-being in rural settings. First, we interviewed 400 urban and rural residents to identify ES important for personal well-being and the land covers that deliver multiple ES in three counties that best represent the existing rural-urban gradient in Sweden. Second, to support the inclusion of GI in spatial planning, we identified and located spatial concentrations of individual land covers providing multiple ES (GI hubs) and significant clusters of such land covers (GI hotspots). The majority of urban and rural respondents associated their well-being with lakes, mountains above the tree line, old-growth forests, wooded-pastures, mature pine forests and rural farmsteads. The areal proportion of each type of hub was low, on average 3.5%. At least three land management strategies are needed to sustain GI hubs: maintenance of the composition, structure and function of natural ecosystems in protected areas; support for traditional agroforestry and villages as social-ecological systems; and diversification of the current intensive forest management approach.

  • 11. Enqvist, Johan Pecanha
    et al.
    West, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Masterson, Vanessa A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stewardship as a boundary object for sustainability research: Linking care, knowledge and agency2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 179, p. 17-37Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current sustainability challenges - including biodiversity loss, pollution and land-use change require new ways of understanding, acting in and caring for the landscapes we live in. The concept of stewardship is increasingly used in research, policy and practice to articulate and describe responses to these challenges. However, there are multiple meanings and framings of stewardship across this wide user base that reflect different disciplinary purposes, assumptions and expertise, as well as a long history of use in both academic and lay contexts. Stewardship may therefore be considered a 'boundary object'; that is, a conceptual tool that enables collaboration and dialogue between different actors whilst allowing for differences in use and perception. This paper seeks to map out the multiple meanings of stewardship in the literature and help researchers and practitioners to navigate the challenges and opportunities that come with using the term. We provide the first qualitative systematic review of stewardship, and identify four distinct meanings of the concept in the literature: Ethic, Motivation, Action and Outcome. We then develop a novel framework for thinking through and connecting these multiple meanings, centered around three dimensions: care, knowledge and agency. This framework is used to identify the care dimension and relational approaches as important areas for future stewardship research. In these efforts - and for scholars engaging with the stewardship concept more broadly - this paper can act as a helpful 'centering device', connecting practitioners, policy-makers and researchers from multiple disciplines in pursuit of sustainability.

  • 12.
    Enqvist, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Citizen networks in the Garden City: Protecting urban ecosystems in rapid urbanization2014In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 130, p. 24-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizen groups can be important actors in urban environmental stewardship, and network structure often influences function and performance. However, most previous studies focus on cities in developed countries, thereby overlooking conditions relevant for the parts of the planet where most people live and most urban growth is expected. This paper describes a citizen network engaged in environmental issues in Bangalore, India, where rapid urbanization puts pressure on conventional management structures as well as the ecosystems providing benefits for the city's inhabitants. The study uses a mixed methods approach of qualitative interviews and social network analysis. Results show that the citizen network functions as a platform that enables interaction between diverse interest groups, and as a watchdog that monitors parks, lakes and trees to prevent further loss of fragmented urban ecosystems. The network's activities are influenced by internal tensions between inclusiveness and efficiency, and between internal and external legitimacy. Although core actors have central network positions, strong leadership or political alliances are not considered important; members instead prefer to emphasize transparency and democratic participation. This limits the capacity to act collectively on controversial issues, but creates an inclusive forum that bridges between groups in the heterogeneous and dynamic population. This is important for monitoring Bangalore's fragmented ecosystems and for raising public awareness and support. Findings indicate an urgent need to develop a comprehensive framework for urban environmental stewardship, to better describe potential roles of citizens in governance across diverse social, political and ecological conditions, and during different periods of urban change.

  • 13.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    The social production of ecosystem services: A framework for studying environmental justice and ecological complexity in urbanized landscapes2013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework is constructed for how to relate ecosystem services to environmental justice. The benefits humans and society can derive from biophysical processes cannot be viewed as objectively existing out there, but as entangled in social and political processes. This is unpacked through the analytical moments of generation, distribution and articulation of ecosystem services. Social practice moderates the generation of benefits from biophysical processes (through urban development patterns and day-to-day management of urban ecosystems), but also who in society that benefits from them, i.e. the distribution of ecosystem services (viewed here as the temporal and spatial scales at which it is possible for humans to benefit from biophysical processes). Moreover, for biophysical processes to attain value in decision-making, a social practice of value articulation is needed. The framework then moves between two levels of analysis. At the city-wide level, an ecological network translates how urban 'green' areas, viewed as nodes, are interconnected by ecological flows (water, species movement, etc.) where nodes have different protective and management capacities. The network captures spatial complexity-what happens in one location, can have effects elsewhere. At the local level, urban struggles over land-use are studied to trace how actors utilize artifacts and social arenas to articulate how certain biophysical processes are of value. Competing networks of value articulation strive to influence land-use, and multiple local studies bring understanding of how power operates locally, informing city-wide analyses. Empirical studies from Stockholm, Cape Town and other cities inform the framework.

  • 14.
    Käyhkö, Niina
    et al.
    Dept of geography, University of Turku, Finland.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Change trajectories and key biotopes:  Assessing landscape dynamics and sustainability2006In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 75, no 3-4, p. 300-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a methodological synthesis of two congruent approaches into a common landscape change trajectory analysis and the assessment of landscape dynamics and sustainability. The emphasis of the analysis is on the retrospective relationship between the past and the present-day landscape patterns and associated key biotopes. The example key biotopes, oak woodlands and grasslands, represent valuable habitats in the hemiboreal landscapes of Finland and Sweden. The paper presents a conceptual stepwise approach for change trajectory analysis utilising multiple spatio-temporal data and techniques available in image processing and geographical information systems (GIS) including the following steps: (I) specification of spatio-temporal data and their representation of target objects, (II) the choice of direct or indirect change trajectory analysis, (III) hierarchical structuring of landscape information, (IV) compilation of landscape information into a GIS database, and (V) identification of paths for landscape change trajectory analysis. In this case study, we have focused on three interlinked trajectory analysis approaches, and their role in the assessment of landscape sustainability from a potential biodiversity perspective. We conclude that proposed landscape change trajectory analysis can improve the assessment of the key biotopes as well as present day landscape characteristics, in maintaining biodiversity and related ecological values by providing information on landscape stability, continuity, change processes and boundary dynamics. This approach can be useful in the assessment of natural capital, but requires data-specific and context sensitive data processing and analysis solutions. The results should be interpreted as an approximation and generalisation of the spatio-temporal complexity of landscape reality and therefore be used in conjunction with additional habitat function measures.

  • 15.
    Käyhkö, Niina
    et al.
    dept of Geography, University of Turku, Finland.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Retrospective land cover/land use change trajectories as drivers behind the local distribution and abundance patterns of oaks in south-western Finland2008In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 88, p. 12-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Valuable cultural landscapes are challenging to sustain. They are usually rare and reflect unique histories of nature–human interactions. We have studied the influence of environmental factors on the present distribution, age and abundance of oaks in a unique forest site in south-western Finland. The Landscape Change Trajectory Analysis (LCTA) approachwas tested to improve management strategies at a local level. We used geospatial analysis in GIS on existing data from a recent forest inventory, a multi-temporal land cover/land use analysis, and a digital elevation model. The results show that mature Pendunculate oaks (Quercus robur) are restricted to the eastern parts of Ruissalo island and their present abundance patterns can be linked with change trajectories as opposed to physical conditions. While the prevailing strategy of strict protection seems to lead to an increasing amount of dead wood, the lack of management hampers the regeneration of oaks. We suggest four principles for future management of these sites that could be applied throughout the hemiboreal region of Europe with similar historical development: (1) management regimes should be spatially explicit in terms of land cover history instead of treating valuable oak biotopes as one homogenous unit; (2) management units should be determined by biotope dynamics and development rather than present status and distribution; (3) management should allow strict protection of sites with long duration of protection and high abundance of decaying oak wood to support biodiversity; (4) alternative management regimes should be introduced in sites with high potential for re-establishment of light-abundant favourable conditions.

  • 16. Langemeyer, Johannes
    et al.
    Camps-Calvet, Marta
    Calvet-Mir, Laura
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik
    Stewardship of urban ecosystem services: understanding the value(s) of urban gardens in Barcelona2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 170, p. 79-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion and assessment of ecosystem services (ES) values is becoming an established part of the discourse regarding urban green space performance. Yet, underlying factors enabling ES values are still poorly understood. We assume the production of ES value crucial for environmental stewardship in cities, and aimed in this study to uncover their key enabling factors. This study has been developed on a broad data base including a survey (n = 201), interviews (n = 46), field observation and remote sensing from 27 urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain, including municipal 'allotment gardens' and 'civic gardens' emerging from bottom-up initiatives. In a first step, we distinguished different urban gardens types regarding the ES values they provide. In a second step, we tested specific garden characteristics including (a) user profiles, (b) biophysical garden properties, and (c) institutional settings for their specific importance to trigger ES values. Results showed ES values to significantly differ with the types of gardens. For example, classical allotment gardens are more likely to provide recreational values, while emerging civic gardens are more likely to produce place-making and social cohesion. A main finding from our study is the importance of social and institutional garden characteristic as enabling factors of ES values. Results indicate, for example, a correlation between childhood experiences and a higher appreciation of ES. Our results further indicate that civic gardens with broader property rights and decision-capacities are more likely to enhance stewardship action. In providing a differentiated understanding of the ES value(s) of urban gardens, this study highlights the potential for green space planning in cities to steer the stewardship of urban gardens by providing institutional and physical space for civic gardening initiatives.

  • 17. Samuelsson, Karl
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Urban resilience at eye level: Spatial analysis of empirically defined experiential landscapes2019In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 187, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An unresolved issue in creating resilient cities is how to obtain sustainability benefits from densification while not eroding the capacity of social-ecological systems to generate wellbeing for urban dwellers. To understand how different relationships between urban form and wellbeing together play out, we analysed geocoded experiential data (1460 experiences from 780 respondents) together with variables of the physical environment. Through statistical and spatial analysis, we operationalised resilience principles to assess what urban environments provide resilience at eye level - a diversity of experiences and a level of connectivity between them that limit adverse outcomes. We found 8 typologies of experiential landscapes - distinct compositions of 11 categories of experiences. Our analysis shows that typologies with experiences supportive of wellbeing are diverse and exist in environments that balance residents and workplaces, avoid extreme spatial integration and/or density and have accessible nature. Typologies with many experiences hindering wellbeing fail in one or several of these respects. Our findings suggest that resilience principles can act as a guiding heuristic for urban densification that does not compromise human wellbeing.

  • 18. Samuelsson, Karl
    et al.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Legeby, Ann
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Impact of environment on people's everyday experiences in Stockholm2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 171, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to construct urban environments that limit negative impacts for global sustainability while supporting human wellbeing, there is a need to better understand how features of the environment influence people's everyday experiences. We present a novel method for studying this combining accessibility analysis and public participatory GIS (PPGIS). Seven environment features are defined and accessibility to them analysed across Stockholm municipality. We estimate the probabilities of positive and negative experiences in places based on these environment features, by using spatial regression to extrapolate from the results of an online PPGIS survey (1784 experiences of 1032 respondents). Six of the seven studied environment features have significant impact on experiential outcome, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation among the data. The results show that number of residents and proximity of nature environments and water, all common quality indicators in urban planning and research, have weak statistically significant effects on people's experiences. However, areas dominated by large working populations or proximity to major roads have very low rates of positive experiences, while areas with high natural temperature regulating capacities have very high rates, showing that there are considerable qualitative differences within urban environments as well as nature environments. Current urban planning practices need to acknowledge these differences to limit impacts on the biosphere while promoting human wellbeing. We suggest that a good way to start addressing this is through transformation of negatively experienced urban areas through designs that integrate closeness to urbanity with possibilities to have nature experiences on a daily basis.

  • 19.
    Stoltz, Jonathan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Grahn, Patrik
    Skärbäck, Erik
    Björk, Jonas
    Does neighbourhood green space quality affect noise annoyance? Contradictory results between self-reports and independent estimates of perceived qualities in a cross-sectional studyIn: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research suggests access to green areas and visible greenery to mitigate traffic noise annoyance. Studies also suggest certain perceptual qualities of neighbourhood green spaces to improve wellbeing and physical activity. Here we test if the presence of these qualities in the neighbourhood might reduce annoyance from traffic noise at home. We control for potential single-source bias of the result by also employing independent estimates of these qualities retrieved from a separate study sample. Methods: We use cross-sectional public health survey data from 7,065 individuals including information about disturbances from road traffic noise and reports of perceived qualities in the neighbourhood green spaces. We also estimate the presence of these qualities by area-aggregating 28,016 individual perceptions collected from an independent survey sample into 3,598 different 1-km2 squares. Results: With self-reports, more reported qualities in neighbourhood green spaces indicate a mitigating effect on annoyance at given noise levels. With independent estimates however, results instead suggest that more qualities actually might increase sensitivity to traffic noise and that the inverse causality might explain the negative link observed between self-reported qualities and annoyance. Conclusions: A possible explanation could be that traffic noise stands out in more contrast in environments with high quality green spaces. Extra care might then be motivated to protect such areas from noise exposure. Self-reported and independently estimated perceived green space might yield different results in epidemiological studies due to single-source bias effects.

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