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  • 1.
    Agadjanian, Victor
    et al.
    Arizona State University.
    Nedoluzhko, Lesia
    Max Planck Institute for demographic Research.
    Kumskov, Gennady
    Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Kyrgyzstan.
    Eager to Leave? Intentions to Migrate Abroad among Young People in Kyrgyzstan2008In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 620-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines young people’s intentions to migrate abroad in Kyrgyzstan, focusing in particular on differences between Asian and European-origin ethnic groups. The multivariate analyses of recent survey data show that even after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and social embeddedness Europeans are significantly more inclined to migrate than Asians. Whereas no gender differences in migration intentions among either group are detected, marriage, childbearing, and social capital exhibit distinct ethnic-specific effects. Although economic considerations are prevailing stimuli for migration in both groups, the results point to the formation of two dominant ethnic-specific migration preference types – for temporary migration among Asians and permanent migration among Europeans.

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    Paper4
  • 2.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Exits from Self-Employment: Is there a Native-Immigrant Difference in Sweden?2010In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 539-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that non-western immigrants in Sweden are more likely to be self-employed than natives. Whether there is also a difference in the exit rate out of self-employment remains an unexplored question. Using panel data for the period 1998–2002, this study analyzes the exit rates by looking at all exits, and also at exits to different labor market states. We find that the exit rate is about 7% points higher among non-western immigrants than among natives and exits to unemployment is 14% points higher. Decomposing these differences, we find that differences in industry and earlier labor market status are important explanatory factors.

  • 3.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bursell, Moa
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Stereotypes of Men and Women with Arabic Names2016In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 385-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine differences in the intensity of employer stereotypes of men and women with Arabic names in Sweden by testing how much work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on job applications. Employers are first sent curriculum vitaes (CVs) of equal merit in a field experiment setup. Arabic-named CVs are thereafter enhanced with more relevant work experience than Swedish-named CVs. The results indicate a reverse gender gap in employer stereotypes because initial differences in the number of call-backs disappear for female applicants when Arabic-named CVs are enhanced but remain strong and significant for male applicants. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed about the interaction of gender and ethnicity, we find that Arabic men face stronger discrimination in the labor market than Arabic women.

  • 4.
    Bayram, Nuran
    et al.
    Uludag University.
    Nyquist, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Thorburn, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Bilgel, Nazan
    Uludag University.
    Turkish immigrants in Sweden: are they integrated?2009In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 90-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many in Europe believe that large numbers of Turkish immigrants have failed to integrate into their host communities. How is ths situation in Sweden? We found that most of the Turkish immigrants felt themselves to be Turkish and Sweden was accepted as a foregin country. Turkish-originated media was followed frequently and strong ties with relatives in Turkey were maintained. Marriage and friendship with native Swedes were not well accepted. We conclude that despite the mulicultural aspects of Swedish integration policies, Turkish immigrants in Sweden were not well integrated and they prefer to live within the boundaries of their segregated, closed, small communities.

  • 5.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ethnic Composition of Schools and Students' Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden2019In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 486-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of ethnic school composition on students' educational outcomes using Swedish population register data. We add to the literature on the consequences of ethnic school segregation for native and immigrant students by distinguishing social interaction effects from selection and environmental effects through one- and two-way fixed effects models. Our findings demonstrate that native and immigrant students' grades are relatively unaffected by social interaction effects stemming from the proportion of immigrant schoolmates. However, we find nontrivial effects on their eligibility for upper secondary school. Immigrants' educational outcomes are weakly positively affected by the proportion of co-ethnics in school.

  • 6.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Integration of Childhood Immigrants in the Short and Long Run - Swedish Evidence2009In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 387-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrant children are often at a disadvantage at school while they adjust to their new environment. It has been found that the age at immigration of 7 or above represents a sensitive period as regards these children's school performance for two main reasons: they have passed their prime age for language learning, and their acquisition of subject skills is less efficient while they learn to master the new language. Using Swedish administrative data, we track childhood immigrants born between 1972 and 1976 over time from adolescence (at 16) to adulthood (at 30), and study the role of age at immigration for educational and labor market outcomes. We find that immigration at a sensitive age (compared to a very young age) has a strong negative impact on compulsory school performance, but that the same individuals catch up strongly in terms of final educational attainment. In spite of this educational catching up, however, we find a considerable negative impact on earnings for men. We are able to rule out two potential mechanisms behind this puzzling result: It cannot be explained either by an impact on the chosen field of study or on completion time.

  • 7.
    Cantalini, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Guetto, Raffaele
    Panichella, Nazareno
    Ethnic Wage Penalty and Human Capital Transferability: A Comparative Study of Recent Migrants in 11 European Countries2023In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 328-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the ethnic wage penalty among migrants in 11 Western European countries. It aims to extend the literature on the models of migrant occupational inclusion in European labor markets by studying the wage gap and to disentangle whether the gross wage penalty experienced by foreign-born residents can be explained by human capital-related factors and/or by migrants' occupational segregation. Estimating probit models with sample selection on European Labour Force Survey data (2009-2016), we find that both male and female migrants experienced a larger gross wage penalty in Southern Europe, where they had lower education levels and faced stronger occupational segregation. In the other countries under study, we find a smaller gross wage penalty among foreign-born women. Results show that migrants from Eastern Europe were not systematically less penalized than migrants from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, except for men in Italy and Greece. Wage penalties were higher among tertiary-educated migrants, compared to their less-educated counterparts, only in Mediterranean countries, where the former were mainly concentrated at the bottom of the occupational structure. Finally, the acquisition of the highest education after migration reduced migrants' wage penalty, thanks to a better match between educational credentials and job allocation, especially in Southern Europe. Focusing on the ethnic wage penalty and on both human capital- and occupation-related factors of ethnic penalization highlights cross-country differences not yet explored by existing comparative research, allowing a new and more comprehensive picture of migrants' penalization in Europe.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Realization of Short-Term Fertility Intentions Among Immigrants and Children of Immigrants in Norway and Sweden2023In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 979-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrant fertility and the realization of fertility intentions are two topics of considerable interest in contemporary demographic research. Yet very few studies have explored the relationship between intended and actual fertility among immigrants and their children. Using data from the Norwegian and Swedish Generations and Gender Surveys, this article analyzes how both positive and negative short-term fertility intentions stated by men and women at Wave 1 in 2007/08 (Norway) or 2012/13 (Sweden) had been realized at register-based follow-ups three years after the initial interview. Results show that second-generation women of non-Western origin were significantly less likely than native women (defined here as Swedish-born women with two Swedish-born parents) to realize a positive fertility intention, whereas first-generation men of Western origin were significantly more likely than native men to realize a positive fertility intention. Western-origin men were also significantly less likely than native men to have an unintended birth. These findings are robust to controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics at interview. Possible reasons for these intergroup realization differences include group differences in the ability to predict future changes to demographic and socioeconomic status and in the motivation to pursue the realization of a reported fertility intention. This article demonstrates that exploring immigrant-native differences in realization patterns can provide information about immigrants’ ideational and behavioral adaptation to the destination country’s fertility regime that cannot be attained by studying intended or actual fertility alone. 

  • 9.
    Engzell, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). University of Oxford, UK.
    Ichou, Mathieu
    Status Loss: The Burden of Positively Selected Immigrants2020In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 471-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants experience an ambiguous social position: on the one hand, they tend to be positively selected on resources from the origin country; on the other, they often occupy the lower rungs of the status ladder in receiving countries. This study explores the implications of this ambiguity for two important individual outcomes: subjective social status and perceived financial situation. We study the diverse sample of immigrants in the European Social Survey and use the fact that, due to country differences in educational distributions, a given education level can entail a very different rank in the sending and receiving countries. We document a robust relationship whereby immigrants who ranked higher in the origin than in the destination country see themselves as being comparatively worse off. This finding suggests that the social position before migration provides an important reference point by which immigrants judge their success in the new country.

  • 10. Goldscheider, Fran
    et al.
    Goldscheider, Calvin
    Bernhardt, Eva M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Creating Egalitarian Families among the Adult Children of Turkish- and Polish-Origin Immigrants in Sweden2011In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 68-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the factors shaping egalitarian family relationships among those with two Swedish-born parents and those with at least one parent born in Poland or Turkey. We ask: (1) What factors affect sharing domestic tasks and do they also shape the division of child care responsibilities? (2) Do these effects differ, depending on the extent of exposure to Swedish life? We analyze data from a longitudinal survey conducted between 1999 and 2003. Holding egalitarian work-family attitudes affects actual sharing of housework, but much more for those growing up in more socially integrated than in less integrated families.

  • 11. Hohn, Andreas
    et al.
    Kulu, Hill
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Campbell, Brad
    Childbearing Across Immigrants and Their Descendants in Sweden: The Role of Generation and Gender2024In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrants and their descendants increasingly shape fertility patterns in European societies. While childbearing among immigrants is well explored, less is known with respect to their descendants. Using Swedish register data, we studied differences in fertility outcomes between first- and second-generation individuals in Sweden and compared with the native Swedish population. We studied men and women separately, distinguished between high- and low-fertility backgrounds, and differentiated whether the descendants of immigrants were offspring from endogamous or exogamous relationships. For most migrants who arrived in Sweden as adults, we found elevated first birth rates shortly after arrival. First birth rates among the second generation were generally close to but lower than the rates observed among native Swedes. Male offspring from exogamous unions with a Swedish-born mother tended to have less depressed rates of first birth than other second-generation individuals. Second birth rates were very similar across population subgroups but generally lower among immigrants and their descendants compared to native Swedes. Third birth rates were often polarized into high- and low-fertility backgrounds, when compared to native Swedes. While fertility patterns among the second generation appeared to drift away from patterns of the first generation, the second generation remained a heterogeneous population subgroup. Nevertheless, and as childbearing patterns of the descendants with one immigrant parent increasingly resembled patterns of native Swedes, exogamous partnerships can likely be considered an important factor behind this gradual family-demographic assimilation process.

  • 12.
    Johannesson, Livia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring the “Liberal Paradox” from the Inside: Evidence from the Swedish Migration Courts2018In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 1162-1185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Courts are influential actors during the implementation of immigration policies in liberal democracies. The “liberal paradox” thesis stipulates that courts are driven by logics that hamper restrictionist immigration policies. This study contributes to this theory by exploring the norm construction of impartiality among judicial workers in Swedish migration courts when deciding asylum appeals. Its findings contradict the liberal paradox assumption that courts act according to inner logics that benefit immigrants’ rights. At Sweden’s migration courts, judicial workers show impartiality by using a skeptical approach to asylum applicants and do so to distance themselves from the political discourse of generosity that has dominated Swedish political debate for decades. The broader implications of these findings are that immigration policy theories can benefit from qualitative research exploring informal norm constructions in courts, as such work can offer new insights about the role of courts in the implementation of immigration policies.

  • 13.
    Mahmutovic, Adnan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The True, the Good, the Spiteful: An Auto(bio)psy of Bosnian Refugee Experience in Sweden2024In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article employs the Bosnian notion of “inat,” often translated as spite, to perform auto(bio)psy of my writing about refugee lives in Sweden. Methodologically speaking, I begin with an assertion that the hybrid form of auto(bio)psy, a method that entangles creative and critical reflection, helps capture what it means to live with the traumas of war, especially in the face of genocide denial and genocide triumphalism. The value of such a reflection that is neither entirely academic nor entirely artistic, neither a court testimony nor data gathered by a disinterested scholar, lies in the possibility of accessing truths that are as material and as emotional as they can be and hopefully, help us better understand uprooted families from 1990s Bosnia and beyond. Following Wendy Pearlman, I argue for the value of emotional sensibility for more profound scientific discoveries. Furthermore, I argue for the need to reconsider the form-content question in the scholarly understanding and analyses of displacement.

  • 14.
    Skeie Hermansen, Are
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Hundebo, Pal Oskar
    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth
    Spatial Assimilation at a Halt? Intergenerational Persistence in Neighborhood Contexts among Immigrant Minorities in Norway2022In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 1069-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial assimilation theory claims that immigrants' acculturation and socioeconomic progress will lead to converging neighborhood attainment relative to non-migrant natives. Recently, it has been argued that equalization of local services and life chances across neighborhoods in egalitarian welfare states may delay spatial assimilation by reducing immigrants' incentives to move out of low-income areas with many (co-ethnic) immigrant neighbors. In this article, we extend this argument to study whether neighborhood equalization also contributes to intergenerational persistence in neighborhood contexts among descendants of immigrants in Norway. Using administrative data, we find that immigrant descendants as adults often remain in neighborhood contexts that resemble their childhood neighborhoods, characterized by relative economic disadvantage and comparatively few ethnic majority residents. Intergenerational persistence in neighborhood contexts is strongest among descendants of immigrants from Pakistan, the Middle East, and Africa. The remaining immigrant-native gaps in spatial economic inequality largely reflect differences in individuals' education and earnings, family background, and childhood neighborhood context, but these factors matter less for ethnic neighborhood segregation. For both economic and ethnic dimensions of neighborhood attainment, childhood neighborhood context is the factor that matters most in accounting for immigrant-native gaps, whereas individual socioeconomic attainment is the least important. Overall, our findings point to a pattern of uneven assimilation among immigrant descendants, where spatial assimilation is slow despite rapid socioeconomic progress across immigrant generations in the egalitarian Norwegian welfare state.

  • 15.
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
    The Intergenerational Assimilation of Completed Fertility: Comparing the Convergence of Different Origin Groups2019In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 429-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have highlighted the need for new research on intergenerational assimilation and how it varies for different origin groups. This article responds by studying the intergenerational assimilation of completed fertility in the United Kingdom. The results provide evidence of assimilation for some origins, in particular for women from Ireland and Jamaica. Yet results also show evidence against assimilation for second-generation Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. The ability of the method used to distinguish between origin groups highlights the importance of a robust statistical approach that takes account of heterogeneity, an approach that can also be used to study outcomes other than fertility.

  • 16. Xiang, Biao
    et al.
    Lindquist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Migration Infrastructure2014In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 48, p. s122-S148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the authors' long-term field research on low-skilled labor migration from China and Indonesia, this article establishes that more than ever labor migration is intensively mediated. Migration infrastructure - the systematically interlinked technologies, institutions, and actors that facilitate and condition mobility - serves as a concept to unpack the process of mediation. Migration can be more clearly conceptualized through a focus on infrastructure rather than on state policies, the labor market, or migrant social networks alone. The article also points to a trend of infrastructural involution, in which the interplay between different dimensions of migration infrastructure make it self-perpetuating and self-serving, and impedes rather than enhances people's migratory capability. This explains why labor migration has become both more accessible and more cumbersome in many parts of Asia since the late 1990s. The notion of migration infrastructure calls for research that is less fixated on migration as behavior or migrants as the primary subject, and more concerned with broader societal transformations.

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