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  • 1.
    Andersson, Eva K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Osth, John
    Uppsala universitet.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Ethnic segregation and performance inequality in the Swedish school system: a regional perspective2010In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 2674-2686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is today an immigrant country with more than 14% foreign born. An increasing share of the immigrants comes from non-European countries. This implies that Sweden has been transformed from an ethnically homogenous country into a country with a large visible minority. In this paper we survey the effect of this change on school segregation. Building on Schelling's model for residential segregation, we argue that establishment of a visible minority has triggered a process of school segregation that in some respects can be compared with the developments in the United States. In order to test the validity of a Schelling-type process in Swedish schools we compare segregation levels in regions with different shares of visible minority students. We use data from the PISA 2003 survey in combination with register data on the ethnic composition of student population in different parts of Sweden. We find that school segregation is higher in regions with a large visible-minority population. We also find that, controlling for student background, there are smaller differences in performance across schools in regions with low shares of minority students.

  • 2.
    Borgström, Sara T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Patterns and challenges of urban nature conservation - a study of southern Sweden2009In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 2671-2685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current, dominating strategy of nature conservation within urban landscapes is to formally protect remaining patches of unexploited nature in nature reserves. However, integration of nature conservation frameworks into urban planning requires reconsideration of key issues, such as why, where, and how to protect nature in a purposeful way. As part of that process I statistically evaluate current nature conservation in 209 municipalities in southern Sweden by analysing the number, size, age, and land cover patterns of 1869 nature reserves in relation to the degree of urbanisation. The analyses reveal that in urban municipalities the nature reserves are fewer, but larger, and have a higher diversity of land covers. Having large nature reserves may be especially important in urban landscapes, since it is often highly fragmented. The land cover compositions show no differences between urban and rural nature reserves. However, urban nature reserves differ more from their surroundings compared with rural nature reserves, according to the identified changes in representation of land cover types with an increasing degree of urbanisation. The most urgent future challenge identified is to develop urban nature conservation strategies that are integrated into the urban context including other green areas and built-up areas, the land-use history, and the requirements for local ecosystem services across the landscape.

  • 3.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Governing the Clean Development Mechanism: global rhetoric versus local realities in carbon sequestration projects2009In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 2380-2395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global agreements have proliferated in the past ten years. One of these is the Kyoto Protocol, which contains provisions for emissions reductions by trading carbon through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM is a market-based instrument that allows companies in Annex I countries to offset their greenhouse gas emissions through energy and tree offset projects in the global South. I set out to examine the governance challenges posed by the institutional design of carbon sequestration projects under the CDM. I examine three global narratives associated with the design of CDM forest projects, specifically North-South knowledge politics, green developmentalism, and community participation, and subsequently assess how these narratives match with local practices in two projects in Latin America. Findings suggest that governance problems are operating at multiple levels and that the rhetoric of global carbon actors often asserts these schemes in one light, while the rhetoric of those who are immediately involved locally may be different. I also stress the alarmist's discourse that blames local people for the problems of environmental change. The case studies illustrate the need for vertical communication and interaction and nested governance arrangements as well as horizontal arrangements. I conclude that the global framing of forests as offsets requires better integration of local relationships to forests and their management and more effective institutions at multiple levels to link the very local to the very large scale when dealing with carbon sequestration in the CDM.

  • 4. Carse, Ashley
    et al.
    Lewis, Joshua
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Towards a Political Ecology of Maritime Transportation: Infrastructural Zones, Standardized Environments, and Collective ActionIn: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Carse, Ashley
    et al.
    Lewis, Joshua A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Tulane University, USA.
    Toward a political ecology of infrastructure standards: Or, how to think about ships, waterways, sediment, and communities together2017In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars have shown that technical standards play an important role in building global transportation and communication infrastructures, but the environmental standardization efforts associated with infrastructures have received far less attention. Combining scholarship from transportation geography, political ecology, and science and technology studies, we show how global connection is made, maintained, and contested through environmental management practices pegged to infrastructure standards. The Panama Canal expansion, completed in 2016, is a revealing illustration. The expansion has established the New Panamax shipping standard: the maximum allowable dimensions for vessels passing through the canal's massive new locks. The standard has become a benchmark for port modernization and channel deepening projects along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States and beyond. Because the maximum underwater depth, or draft, of ships transiting the new locks is much deeper than before (50 rather than 39.5 feet), geographically dispersed governments, firms, and port authorities have scrambled to reach that standard in hopes of attracting New Panamax ships and associated revenue streams. As this case shows, global transportation depends on the expensive, ecologically destabilizing, and often-contested practices of dredging and disposing of large volumes of sediment and organic matter. By showing how shipping networks and situated politics converge around infrastructure standards, we foreground the uneven environmental burdens and benefits of transportation.

  • 6.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Weaving protective stories:  connective practices to articulate holistic values in Stockholm National Urban Park2009In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1460-1479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With rapid worldwide urbanization it is urgent that we understand processes leading to the protection of urban green areas and ecosystems. Although natural reserves are often seen as preserving 'higher valued' rather than 'lower valued' nature, it is more adequate to describe them as outcomes of selective social articulation processes. This is illustrated in the Stockholm National Urban Park. Despite strong exploitation pressure, a diverse urban movement of civil society organizations has managed to provide narratives able to explain and legitimize the need for protection-a 'protective story'. On the basis of qualitative data and building on theories of value articulation, social movements, and actor-networks, we show how activists, by interlacing artefacts and discourses from cultural history and conservation biology, managed to simultaneously link spatially separated green areas previously seen as disconnected, while also articulating the interrelatedness between the cultural and the natural history of the area. This connective practice constructed holistic values articulating a unified park, which heavily influenced the official framing of the park's values and which now help to explain the success of the movement. In contrast to historically top-down-led designation of natural reserves, we argue that the involvement of civil society in protecting nature (and culture) is on the rise. This nonetheless begs the question of who can participate in these value-creating processes, and we also strive to uncover constraining and facilitating factors for popular participation. Four such factors are suggested: (i) the number and type of artefacts linked to an area; (ii) the capabilities and numbers of activists involved; (iii) the access to social arenas; and (iv) the social network position of actors.

  • 7.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Partner choice in Sweden: How distance still matters2019In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 440-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial homogamy, or the geographical closeness of life partners, has received little attention inrecent decades. Theoretically, partners may be found anywhere in the world, as increases ineducational participation, affluence, mobility and internet access have reduced the meaning ofgeographical distance in general. This paper examines whether geography still matters in theSwedish partner market, by examining distances between partners before co-residence overtime. Register data are used to track the residential histories (1990–2008) of couples whomarried or had a child in 1996, 2002 or 2008 (N¼292,652). With the couple as the unit ofanalysis, the distance between partners before co-residence is explained by geographical, socioeconomicand demographic indicators. I find that although the distance between partners hasincreased over time, it is still the case that half of all partners lived within 9 kilometres of eachother before moving in together. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics explain someof the variation in spatial homogamy, but geographical factors, such as previous place of residence,spatial mobility, degree of urbanization and nearness of parents, are crucial. Even in a globalizedsociety, most people still find their partners very close by. The findings are relevant to the familymigration literature, where residential mobility at the beginning of co-residence has received littleattention, despite long-lasting consequences of partner choice on social ties and people’s socioeconomiccareers. The results exemplify the importance of short geographical distances forintimate relationships.

  • 8. Hertin, J.
    et al.
    Turnpenny, J.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Russel, D.
    Rationalising the policy mess?: Ex ante policy assessment and the utilisation of knowledge in the policy process2009In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 1185-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Klocker, Natascha
    et al.
    Drozdzewski, Danielle
    University of New South Wales.
    Commentary: Career progress relative to opportunity2012In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1271-1277Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Anderson, Eva
    Subramanian, S V
    Links between ill health and regional economic performance: Evidence from Swedish longitudinal data2010In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1210-1220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While poor health has been associated with economic outcomes at the national level, its effect on economic outcomes at the individual and local level remains less well known. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from Sweden, we examined the extent to which an individual’s poor health leads to poor economic outcomes for that individual. In order to understand the effects of poor health at a regional level, we also examined the spillover effects of the individual’s poor health on the economic outcomes of the people linked to the individual. We report an association between an individual’s poor health and both that individual’s subsequent adverse economic outcomes and adverse economic outcomes of the individual’s network. Our study highlights the importance of the association between health and economic well-being as well as potential adverse spillover effects of poor health on local economies.

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