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  • 1.
    Aggemyr, Elsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Auffret, Alistair G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jädergård, Love
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Species richness and composition differ in response to landscape and biogeography2018In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 2273-2284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Understanding how landscape patterns affect species diversity is of great importance in the fields of biogeography, landscape ecology and conservation planning, but despite the rapid advance in biodiversity analysis, investigations of spatial effects on biodiversity are still largely focused on species richness.

    Objectives We wanted to know if and how species richness and species composition are differentially driven by the spatial measures dominating studies in landscape ecology and biogeography. As both measures require the same limited presence/absence information, it is important to choose an appropriate diversity measure, as differing results could have important consequences for interpreting ecological processes.

    Methods We recorded plant occurrences on 112 islands in the Baltic archipelago. Species richness and composition were calculated for each island, and the explanatory power of island area and habitat heterogeneity, distance to mainland and structural connectivity at three different landscape sizes were examined.

    Results A total of 354 different plant species were recorded. The influence of landscape variables differed depending on which diversity measure was used. Island area and structural connectivity determined plant species richness, while species composition revealed a more complex pattern, being influenced by island area, habitat heterogeneity and structural connectivity.

    Conclusions Although both measures require the same basic input data, species composition can reveal more about the ecological processes affecting plant communities in fragmented landscapes than species richness alone. Therefore, we recommend that species community composition should be used as an additional standard measure of diversity for biogeography, landscape ecology and conservation planning.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Ahrné, Karin
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pyykönen, Markku
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Patterns and scale relations among urbanization measures in Stockholm, Sweden2009In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 24, p. 1331-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we measure urbanization based on a diverse set of 21 variables ranging from landscape indices to demographic factors such as income and land ownership using data from Stockholm, Sweden. The primary aims were to test how the variables behaved in relation to each other and if these patterns were consistent across scales. The variables were mostly identified from the literature and limited to the kind of data that was readily accessible. We used GIS to sample the variables and then principal component analyses to search for patterns among them, repeating the sampling and analysis at four different scales (250 × 250, 750 × 750, 1,250 × 1,250 and 1,750 × 1,750, all in meters). At the smallest scale most variables seemed to be roughly structured along two axes, one with landscape indices and one mainly with demographic factors but also impervious surface and coniferous forest. The other land-cover types did not align very well with these two axes. When increasing the scale this pattern was not as obvious, instead the variables separated into several smaller bundles of highly correlated variables. Some pairs or bundles of variables were correlated on all scales and thus interchangeable while other associations changed with scale. This is important to keep in mind when one chooses measures of urbanization, especially if the measures are indices based on several variables. Comparing our results with the findings from other cities, we argue that universal gradients will be difficult to find since city shape and size, as well as available information, differ greatly. We also believe that a multivariate gradient is needed if you wish not only to compare cities but also ask questions about how urbanization influences the ecological character in different parts of a city.

  • 3. Baggio, J. A.
    et al.
    Salau, K.
    Janssen, M. A.
    Schoon, M. L.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Landscape connectivity and predator-prey population dynamics2011In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes are increasingly fragmented, and conservation programs have started to look at network approaches for maintaining populations at a larger scale. We present an agent-based model of predator–prey dynamics where the agents (i.e. the individuals of either the predator or prey population) are able to move between different patches in a landscaped network. We then analyze population level and coexistence probability given node-centrality measures that characterize specific patches. We show that both predator and prey species benefit from living in globally well-connected patches (i.e. with high closeness centrality). However, the maximum number of prey species is reached, on average, at lower closeness centrality levels than for predator species. Hence, prey species benefit from constraints imposed on species movement in fragmented landscapes since they can reproduce with a lesser risk of predation, and their need for using anti-predatory strategies decreases.

  • 4.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Analysis of land-cover transitions based on 17th and 18th century cadastral maps and aerial photographs2001In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possibility of using non-geometric cadastral maps from the 17th and 18th century together with aerial photographs from 1945 and 1981 to analyse land-cover change in south-east Sweden. Habitats rich in plant species in the European rural landscape seem to be correlated with a long continuity of management. Accurate spatial data from historical data sources are fundamental to understand patterns of vegetation and biodiversity in the present-day landscape. However, traditional methods for rectification of non-geometric maps using corresponding points from orthophotos or modern maps are not satisfying, as internal inaccuracies will remain in the maps. This study presents a method to rectify the maps by local warping, thereby eliminating geometrical irregularities. Further, the land-cover changes were calculated and presented as transition matrices. The extent of arable fields and grasslands were analysed in relation to soil characteristics and continuity of management. The results show a dynamic relation between grassland and arable field, albeit the overall proportions remained almost the same between 17th and 18th centuries: 60% grassland to 32% arable field. The most substantial changes in land-cover were prior to 1945. Today there is 18% grasslands left in the study area, while 56% of the land-cover is arable field. Approximately 8% of present-day land-cover is semi-natural grassland 300 years of age or more. Compared to 300 years ago there is only 1% grassland left on peat and 2% on clay. In contrast, grassland covers associated with bare bedrock have been fairly stable in size. All semi-natural grasslands with a long continuity of management were situated on shallow soils, less than 50 cm depth. The major conclusions from this study are that (i) correctly rectified, old maps are very useful to address questions of land-cover changes in historical time, (ii) general trends in land use over 300 years in this hemi-boreal landscape seem to underestimate the full dynamics of land use change, and (iii) only a small proportion of the semi-natural grassland area had a 300 year continuity of management.

  • 5.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    The influence of management history and habitat on plant species richness in a rural hemiboreal landscape, Sweden2002In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 517-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored patterns of plant species richness at different spatial scales in 14 habitats in a Swedish rural landscape. Effects of physical conditions, and relationships between species richness and management history reaching back to the 17 (th) century were examined, using old cadastral maps and aerial photographs. The most species-rich habitats were dry open semi- natural grasslands, midfield islets and road verges. Alpha diversity (species richness within sites) was highest in habitats on dry substrates (excluding bedrock with sparse pines) and beta diversity (species richness among sites) was highest in moist to wet habitats. Alpha and beta components of species richness tended to be inversely related among habitats with similar species richness. Management history influenced diversity patterns. Areas managed as grasslands in the 17 th and 18 th century harboured more species than areas outside the villages. We also found significant relationships between species richness and soil type. Silt proved to be the most species- rich topsoil (10- 20 cm) in addition to thin soils top of on green- or limestone bedrock. The variation in species richness due to local relief or form of the site also showed significant relationships, where flat surfaces had the highest number of species. In contrast, no significant relationship was found between species richness and aspect. Our study suggests that present- day diversity patterns are much influenced by management history, and that small habitat, e. g., road verges and midfield islets, are important for maintaining species richness.

  • 6.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lavorel, Sandra
    Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Ev olutive, CNRS, Montpellier, France.
    Davies, Ian
    Ecosystem Dynamics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Australia.
    Modelling the effects of landscape pattern and grazing regimes on the persistence of plant species with high conservation value in grasslands in south-eastern Sweden2003In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 315-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-natural grasslands in Sweden are threatened by land-use change and lack of management with attendant risk to their biodiversity. We present a model to explore the effects of grazing frequency and intensity on plant species persistence, and the relative effects of grassland size and pattern. We used a landscape modelling platform, LAMOS (LAndscape MOdelling Shell), to design a landscape model of vegetation dynamics incorporating the effects of local succession, dispersal and grazing disturbance. Five plant functional groups (PFG), representing various combinations of persistence and dispersal character, light requirements and disturbance responses, were defined to model species dynamics. Based on old cadastral maps three different landscapes were designed representing specific time-layers, i.e., a historical (17th to 18th century), a pre-modern (1940s) and a present-day landscape. Simulations showed that a threshold was crossed when grasslands decreased in area to about 10 - 30% of the modelled area, and as a consequence the biomass of grassland-specific PFGs was strongly reduced. These competition sensitive groups did not persist in the model even with intense grazing in the present-day landscape, where grasslands occupy 11% of the total area. However, all grassland species would have been able to persist in the historical landscape, where grasslands occupied 59% of the total area, even without grazing. Our results suggest that continuous but low-intensity grazing is more positive for grassland PFGs than discontinuous but highly intensive grazing. This effect was particularly strong when the frequency and/or intensity of grazing dropped below a threshold of 20%. Simulations using three landscape maps designed to explore effects of further fragmentation and habitat loss showed that the spatial pattern of remaining grasslands is important for the persistence of grassland-specific PFG. The model presented here is an advance towards more realistic grazing models to explore the effects of prescribed grazing and landscape fragmentation on the persistence species or plant functional groups.

  • 7. Cumming, Graeme S.
    et al.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Chapin III, F. S.
    Holling, C. S.
    Resilience, experimentation, and scale mismatches in social-ecological landscapes2013In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1139-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing a resilient landscape depends heavily on finding an appropriate match between the scales of demands on ecosystems by human societies and the scales at which ecosystems are capable of meeting these demands. While the dynamics of environmental change and ecosystem service provision form the basis of many landscape ecology studies, enhancing landscape resilience is, in many ways, a problem of establishing relevant institutions that act at appropriate scales to modify and moderate demand for ecosystem services and the resulting exploitation of ecosystems. It is also of central importance for landscape sustainability that institutions are flexible enough to adapt to changes in the external environment. The model provided by natural ecosystems suggests that it is only by encouraging and testing a diversity of approaches that we will be able to build landscapes that are resilient to future change. We advocate an approach to landscape planning that involves growing learning institutions on the one hand, and on the other, developing solutions to current problems through deliberate experimentation coupled with social learning processes.

  • 8. De Smedt, Pallieter
    et al.
    Baeten, Lander
    Proesmans, Willem
    Berg, Matty P.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Deconchat, Marc
    Diekmann, Martin
    Gallet-Moron, Emilie
    Giffard, Brice
    Liira, Jaan
    Martin, Ludmilla
    Ooms, Astra
    Valdés, Alicia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Jules Verne University of Picardie, France.
    Wulf, Monika
    Hermy, Martin
    Bonte, Dries
    Verheyen, Kris
    Linking macrodetritivore distribution to desiccation resistance in small forest fragments embedded in agricultural landscapes in Europe2018In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 407-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the agricultural landscape in Europe, and elsewhere, consists of mosaics with scattered fragments of semi-natural habitat like small forest fragments. Mutual interactions between forest fragments and agricultural areas influence ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, a process strongly mediated by the macrodetritivore community, which is however, poorly studied. We investigated macrodetritivore distribution patterns at local and landscape-level and used a key functional trait (desiccation resistance) to gain mechanistic insights of the putative drivers.

  • 9. Dorresteijn, Ine
    et al.
    Schultner, Jannik
    Collier, Neil French
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Senbeta, Feyera
    Fischer, Joern
    Disaggregating ecosystem services and disservices in the cultural landscapes of southwestern Ethiopia: a study of rural perceptions2017In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 2151-2165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural landscapes provide essential ecosystem services to local communities, especially in poor rural settings. However, potentially negative impacts of ecosystems-or disservices-remain inadequately understood. Similarly, how benefit-cost outcomes differ within communities is unclear, but potentially important for cultural landscape management. Here we investigated whether distinct forest ecosystem service-disservice outcomes emerge within local communities. We aimed to characterize groups of community members according to service-disservice outcomes, and assessed their attitudes towards the forest. We interviewed 150 rural households in southwestern Ethiopia about locally relevant ecosystem services (provisioning services) and disservices (wildlife impacts). Households were grouped based on their ecosystem service-disservice profiles through hierarchical clustering. We used linear models to assess differences between groups in geographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as attitudes toward the forest. We identified three groups with distinct ecosystem service-disservice profiles. Half of the households fell into a lose-lose profile (low benefits, high costs), while fewer had lose-escape (low benefits, low costs) and win-lose (high benefits, high costs) profiles. Location relative to forest and altitude explained differences between the lose-escape profile and other households. Socioeconomic factors were also important. Win-lose households appeared to be wealthier and had better forest use rights compared to lose-lose households. Attitudes towards the forest did not differ between profiles. Our study demonstrates the importance of disaggregating both ecosystem services and disservices, instead of assuming that communities receive benefits and costs homogenously. To manage cultural landscapes sustainably, such heterogeneity must be acknowledged and better understood.

  • 10.
    Lemessa, Debissa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The effect of local and landscape level land-use composition on predatory arthropods in a tropical agricultural landscape2015In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the composition of different non-crop land-use types along with tree density regulate local biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. However, specific data is limited, not least from tropical regions. We examined how different land-use types and forest cover at different scales influenced the abundance and species composition of predatory arthropods in 40 homegardens of southwest Ethiopia. We collected specimens using pitfall traps during two separate months and related sample composition to land-use in the vicinity (1 ha plot, local scale, field data) and tree cover within 200 and 500 m radius zones (landscape scale, satellite data). Spiders, beetles and ants were most common. A high abundance of ants was found in tree-rich homegardens while the variation in abundance of spiders was best explained by the interaction between tree cover at the local and landscape scales. The highest spider abundances were found when either the homegarden or the surroundings had high tree-cover and was lower in both the most tree-rich and tree-poor landscape-garden combinations. In addition, open non-crop cover (mostly grasslands) and ensete (a banana-like perennial crop) favored spiders. This pattern demonstrates that different land-use types at different scales can interact to create variations in biodiversity across an agricultural landscape. To enhance numbers of predatory arthropods in homegardens, which may be beneficial for natural pest control, our results suggest that different strategies are needed depending on the target group or species. Grasslands, ensete fields and tree-rich habitats seem to play important roles.

  • 11.
    Lindgren, Jessica P.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Island biogeography theory outweighs habitat amount hypothesis in predicting plant species richness in small grassland remnants2017In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 1895-1906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    The habitat amount hypothesis has rarely been tested on plant communities. It remains unclear how habitat amount affect species richness in habitat fragments compared to island effects such as isolation and patch size.

    Objectives

    How do patch size and spatial distribution compared to habitat amount predict plant species richness and grassland specialist plant species in small grassland remnants? How does sampling area affect the prediction of spatial variables on species richness?

    Methods

    We recorded plant species density and richness on 131 midfield islets (small remnants of semi-natural grassland) situated in 27 landscapes in Sweden. Further, we tested how habitat amount, compared to focal patch size and distance to nearest neighbor predicted species density and richness of plants and of grassland specialists.

    Results

    A total of 381 plant species were recorded (including 85 grassland specialist species). A combination of patch size and isolation was better in predicting both density and richness of species compared to habitat amount. Almost 45% of species richness and 23% of specialist species were explained by island biogeography parameters compared to 19 and 11% by the amount of habitat. A scaled sampling method increased the explanation level of island biogeography parameters and habitat amount.

    Conclusions

    Habitat amount as a concept is not as good as island biogeography to predict species richness in small habitats. Priority in landscape planning should be on larger patches rather than several small, even if they are close together. We recommend a sampling area scaled to patch size in small habitats.

  • 12. Ludford, Adam
    et al.
    Cole, Victoria J.
    Porri, Francesca
    McQuaid, Christopher D.
    Nakin, Motebang D. V.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Testing source-sink theory: the spill-over of mussel recruits beyond marine protected areas2012In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 859-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Source-sink theory has contributed to our understanding of the function of protected areas, particularly due to their role as population sources. Marine reserves are a preferred management tool for the conservation of natural populations, creating areas of good quality habitat and thus improving population connectivity by enhancing larval supply and recruitment among shores. Despite recent advances in the study of protected areas in the context of the source-sink theory, rigorous and empirical testing of marine reserves as metapopulation sources for the adjacent areas remain largely unexplored. We investigated the role of marine reserves as population sources, whether there was spill-over beyond the reserve boundaries and if so, whether spill-over was directional. We measured percentage cover and recruitment of mussels (Perna perna) at two reserves and two comparably sized exploited control areas on the south-east coast of South Africa where unprotected populations are severely affected by artisanal exploitation. Adult abundances were enhanced within reserves, but decreased towards their edges. We predicted that recruitment would mirror adult abundances and show directionality, with northern shores having greater recruitment following the prevalent northward flow of near-shore currents. There were, however, no correlations between adult abundances and recruitment for any months or shores, and no clear spatial patterns in recruitment (i.e. similar patterns occurred at reserves and controls). The results emphasise that, while reserves may act as important refuges by protecting adult abundances, their influence on promoting recovery of near-by exploited shores through larval spill-over may be overestimated.

  • 13.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Cleary, Grainne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Linkages beyond borders: targeting spatial processes in fragmented urban landscapes2008In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 717-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of ecosystems often focuses on specific species chosen for their habitat demand, public appeal, or levels of threat. We propose a complementary framework for choosing focal species, the mobile link concept, which allows managers to focus on spatial processes and deal with multi-scale ecological dynamics. Spatial processes are important for three reasons: maintenance, re-organization, and restoration of ecological values. We illustrate the framework with a case study of the Eurasian Jay, a mobile link species of importance for the oak forest regeneration in the Stockholm National Urban Park, Sweden, and its surroundings. The case study concludes with a conceptual model for how the framework can be applied in management. The model is based on a review of published data complemented with a seed predation experiment and mapping of Jay territories to reduce the risk of applying non-urban site-specific information in an urban setting. Our case study shows that the mobile link approach has several advantages: (1) Reducing the vulnerability of ecological functions to disturbances and fluctuations in resources allocated to management, (2) Reducing management costs by maintaining natural processes, and (3) Maintaining gene flow and genetic diversity at a landscape level. We argue that management that includes mobile link organisms is an important step towards the prevention of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss in increasingly fragmented landscapes. Identifying and managing mobile links is a way to align management with the ecologically relevant scales in any landscape.

  • 14. Martin, Tyson S. H.
    et al.
    Olds, Andrew D.
    Olalde, Asier B. H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gilby, Ben L.
    Schlacher, Thomas A.
    Butler, Ian R.
    Yabsley, Nicholas A.
    Zann, Maria
    Connolly, Rod M.
    Habitat proximity exerts opposing effects on key ecological functions2018In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1273-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity is an important property of landscapes that shapes populations and ecosystem functioning. We do not know, however, whether and how different types of spatial linkages combine to influence ecological functions, and this hampers their integration into conservation planning. We used coral reef seascapes in eastern Australia as a model system to test whether the proximity of other reefs (habitat proximity) or the proximity of other habitats (seascape proximity) exert stronger effects on two key ecological functions (herbivory and piscivory). We measured rates of herbivory (on fleshy macroalgae) and piscivory (on prey fish) on reefs that differed in their proximity to both other reefs and nearby mangroves and seagrass. The extent of habitat proximity between reefs significantly influenced both ecological functions, but in different ways: isolated reefs supported high herbivory but low piscivory, whilst, conversely, reefs that were closer to other reefs supported high piscivory but low herbivory. This was not caused by herbivores avoiding their predators, as the dominant piscivores (small predatory snappers) were too small to consume the dominant herbivores (large rabbitfishes). Seascape proximity (e.g., distance to mangroves or seagrass) was less important in shaping ecological functions on reefs in this system. We suggest that the effects of seascape configuration on ecological functions depends on the type of spatial linkage, and the ecological functions in question. To better integrate connectivity into conservation, we must develop a deeper understanding of how different spatial linkages combine to shape ecosystem functioning across landscapes.

  • 15. Pena, Tania S.
    et al.
    Watson, James R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gonzalez-Guzman, Laura I.
    Keitt, Timothy H.
    Step-wise drops in modularity and the fragmentation of exploited marine metapopulations2017In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1643-1656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    Many nearshore species are distributed in habitat patches connected only through larval dispersal. Genetic research has shown some spatial structure of such metapopulations and modeling studies have shed light onto possible patterns of connectivity and barriers. However, little is known about human impact on their spatial structure and patterns of connectivity.

    Objectives

    We examine the effects of fishing on the spatial and temporal dynamics of metapopulations of sedentary marine species (red sea urchin and red abalone) interconnected by larval dispersal.

    Methods

    We constructed a metapopulation model to simulate abalone and sea urchin metapopulations experiencing increasing levels of fishing mortality. We performed the modularity analysis on the yearly larval connectivity matrices produced by these simulations, and analyzed the changes of modularity and the formation of modules over time as indicators of spatial structure.

    Results

    The analysis revealed a strong modular spatial structure for abalone and a weak spatial signature for sea urchin. In abalone, under exploitation, modularity takes step-wise drops on the path to extinction, and modules breakdown into smaller fragments followed by module and later metapopulation collapse. In contrast, sea urchin showed high modularity variation, indicating high- and low-mixing years, but an abrupt collapse of the metapopulation under strong exploitation.

    Conclusions

    The results identify a disruption in larval connectivity and a pattern of collapse in highly modular nearshore metapopulations. These results highlight the ability of modularity to detect spatial structure in marine metapopulations, which varies among species, and to show early changes in the spatial structure of exploited metapopulations.

  • 16. Quintas-Soriano, Cristina
    et al.
    García-Llorente, Marina
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Meacham, Megan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Castro, Antonio J.
    Integrating supply and demand in ecosystem service bundles characterization across Mediterranean transformed landscapes2019In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 1619-1633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ContextHumans continually transform landscapes, affecting the ecosystem services (ES) they provide. Thus, the spatial relationships among services vary across landscapes. Managers and decision makers have access to a variety of tools for mapping landscapes and analyzing their capacity to provide multiple ES.ObjectivesThis paper characterizes and maps ES bundles across transformed landscapes in southeast Spain incorporating both the ecological and social perspectives. Our specific goals were to: (1) quantify ES biophysical supply, (2) identify public awareness, (3) map ES bundles, and (4) characterize types of ES bundles based on their social-ecological dimensions.MethodsBiophysical models and face-to-face social surveys were used to quantify and map ES bundles and explore the public awareness in a highly transformed Mediterranean region. Then, we classified ES bundles into four types using a matrix crossing the degree of biophysical ES supply and the degree of social awareness.ResultsResults mapped seven ES bundles types representing diverse social-ecological dynamics. ES bundles mapped at the municipality level showed mismatches between their biophysical provision and the public awareness, which has important implications for operationalizing the bundles concept for landscape planning and management. ES bundles characterization identified four types of bundles scenarios.ConclusionsWe propose an ES bundles classification that incorporates both their social and ecological dimensions. Our findings can be used by land managers to identify areas in which ES are declining as well as priority areas for maximizing ES provision and can help to identify conflicts associated with new management and planning practices.

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