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  • 1.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Childhood origins and adult destinations: The impact of childhood living conditions on coexisting disadvantages in adulthood2016In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse linkages between childhood living conditions and coexisting disadvantages in adulthood. Analyses were based on the Stockholm Birth Cohort, consisting of more than 14,000 individuals born in 1953, followed up until 2007. Based on education, labour market outcomes, economic poverty and health, four outcome profiles with varying levels of disadvantage were identified by means of latent class analysis. Coexisting disadvantages were present in approximately one-fifth of the individuals. Low educational attainment, social welfare recipiency and mental health problems simultaneously occurred in two of the profiles, suggesting that these dimensions are highly interconnected. Results from multinomial regression analysis showed that individuals who had experienced disadvantaged childhood conditions had particularly high risks of ending up in these two outcome profiles, with or without the presence of unemployment.

  • 2.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Editorial2016In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 213-214Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Editorial2015In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 209-209Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Editorial2015In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Editorial2014In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 238-239Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Editorial2018In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 213-214Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Editorial2017In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 205-205Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Editorial2018In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergmark, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Editorial2017In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Berlin, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), Sweden.
    Mensah, Tita
    Lundgren, Frida
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cederlund, Andreas
    Dental healthcare utilisation among young adults who were in societal out-of-home care as children: A Swedish National Cohort Study2018In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 325-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used Swedish national registers to analyse dental health care among young adults with childhood experience of out-of-home care (OHC), in Cox regression analyses. All 1.7 million Swedish residents born in 1980-1994 were included, of whom 4% had been in OHC. The population was followed up in the Dental Health Register from age 20 to 29, during the period 2009-2014. We found that persons with short or long OHC experience made emergency dental care visits more often than their majority-population peers: 17-23% versus 9-10%, (adjusted Hazard ratios [HR:s] 1.60-2.02); they more often had tooth extractions, 9-12% versus 3% (HR:s 2.33-3.03); but less regularly visited a dentist for planned check-ups, 61-77% versus 80-87% (HR:s 0.76-0.78). Since dental health in young adulthood reflects dental health and dental care in childhood, the findings of this study call for improved preventive dental health care for children in OHC.

  • 11.
    Billinger, Kajsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    A focus group investigation of care-provider perspectives in Swedish institutions for the coersive care of substance abusers2005In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatent processes, what is being done and why it is being done in treatment arrangements, is a field of substane abuse study in wich relatively little research has been done. There are several methodological problems. The method used in this study of care providers´perspectives in Swedish LVM-institutions (institutions för the coercive care of substance abusers) i the focus group. In order to get a comprehensive approach, a strategic selection of four institutions was made, based on the institutions´therapeutic or pedagogical viewpoint. The analyses reveal that it is impossible to discern an explicit description of what constitutesmotivational work at any of the LVM institutions, that the proveders at the four LVM institutions, that the providers at the four LVM institutions gave completely different pictures of coersive care and that they used different tools to accomplish ther central task - to motivate the clients. At three of the institutions the clients´abuse problems were only mentioned in passing in their treatment, and the staff spoke of the clients´resistance and negative attitudes against the coercion as obstacles the had to negotiate in order to continue the motivation work. The most radical strategy was to work as though the coercion did not exist.

  • 12.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Neighbourhood effects on young people’s future living conditions: longitudinal findings from Sweden2012In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 325-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbourhood effects on young people's future living conditions: longitudinal findings from Sweden Using extensive longitudinal data for three Swedish birth cohorts born in the late 1970s, this study asked whether the social characteristics of the neighbourhood affect future outcomes that are important for their living conditions (labour-market participation, economic hardship and criminality). To assist decision-making about the balance between area-targeted policies and wider form of social interventions at the individual level, this study also assessed whether the estimated impact of neighbourhood context has any bearing on the effect of preventive interventions directed at distressed neighbourhoods. The overall findings suggest that there is no clear evidence that the impact of neighbourhood varies sufficiently between the different types of neighbourhoods when selection and other confounding factors have been taken into consideration. It is concluded that the estimated effect of neighbourhood on youth development does not underpin area-targeted policies directed at distressed neighbourhoods.

  • 13.
    Daly, Tamara
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Unheard voices, unmapped terrain: care work in long-term residential care for older people in Canada and Sweden2012In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 139-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to comparative welfare state research by analysing the everyday work life of long-term care facility workers in Canadaand Sweden. The study’s empirical base was a survey of fixed and open-ended questions. The article presents results from a subset of respondents (care aides and assistant nurses) working in facilities in three Canadian provinces (n = 557) and across Sweden (n = 292). The workers’ experiences were linked to the broader economic and organisational contexts of residential care in the two jurisdictions.We found a high degree of country-specific differentiation of work organisation:Canada follows a model of highly differentiated task-oriented work, whereasSweden represents an integrated relational care work model. Reflecting differences in the vertical division of labour, the Canadian care aides had more demanding working conditions than their Swedish colleagues. The consequences of these models for care workers, for older people and for their families are discussed.

  • 14. De Wilde, J.
    et al.
    Broekaert, E.
    Segraeus, Vera
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rosseel, Y.
    Is the Community as method approach gender sensitive?: Client and treatment characteristics in European Therapeutic Communities. Results of the BIOMED II (IPTRP) project.2006In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The BIOMED II project, ‘Improving Psychiatric Treatment in Residential Programmes for Newly Dependent Groups through Relapse Prevention’, provided a large database of characteristics of men and women in European therapeutic communities (TCs). One of the aims of the project was to improve the treatment of ‘emerging dependency groups’ through better assessment. Although American TC research has shown that there are important differences between men and women that should be taken into account when organising treatment, the BIOMED project failed to report on gender differences. This article tries to fill this gap by presenting an overview of the gender differences in the TC clients and lists the characteristics of the participating European TCs. The two overviews are given for each country separately. Descriptive methods were used. The authors discuss whether the TC programme considers the differences between men and women and whether the ‘community as method’ approach is gender sensitive.

  • 15.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Alcohol abuse, compulsory treatment and successive aftercare: A qualitative study of client perspectives2009In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 260-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the social welfare boards have a statutory duty to provide aftercare for compulsorily treated substance abusers. However, there are no data on how the aftercare is organised and how clients perceive this phase of the compulsory treatment process. The aim of the study is to analyse how a sample of compulsorily treated alcohol abusers (n = 12) characterise the current coercive treatment episode and evaluate previously experienced and forthcoming aftercare interventions. Qualitative interview-data were coded into themes and sub-themes encompassing relevant client perspectives. Results show that the alcohol abusers claimed to want (but be denied) adequate help for their problems, both during primary treatment and after discharge. Their perspectives on coercive care and aftercare interventions appeared related to their views on their own problems and on being incarcerated. For instance, those who recognised their own alcohol problems emphasised the importance of quitting consumption and were dissatisfied with interventions offered during and subsequent to compulsory treatment referrals.

  • 16.
    Esser, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Palme, Joakim
    Framtidsstudier.
    Do public pensions matter for health and well-being among retired persons?: Basic and income security pensions across 13 Western European countries2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no Supplement s1, p. s121-s130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mortality rates suggest that elderly people in the advanced welfare democracies have experienced dramatically improved health over the past decades. This study examined the importance of public pensions for self-reported health and wellbeing among retired persons in 13 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries in 2002–2005. New public pension data make it possible to distinguish between two qualities of pension systems: ‘basic security’ for those who have no or a short work history, and ‘income security’ for those with a more extensive contribution record. For enhanced cross-national comparison, relative measures of ill-health and wellbeing were constructed to account for cultural bias in responses to survey questions and heterogeneity among countries in the general level of population health. Overall, better health is found in countries with more generous pensions, although the results are gendered; for women's health, high basic security of the pension system appears to be particularly important. Women's wellbeing also tends to be more dependent on the quality of basic security.

  • 17.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family policy, economic development and infant mortality: a longitudinal comparative analysis2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no Supplement s1, p. s89-s102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the impact of family policy legislation and economic development on infant mortality was estimated. Time series analyses indicate that economic growth decreased infant mortality in the earlier part of the 20th century, while the postwar period showed a zero or even a reversed correlation between economic development and child health. The results from fixed effects modelling of data for 18 welfare democracies for the period 1970–2000 are in line with the hypothesis that the more generous the earnings-related parental leave benefits, the lower the infant mortality.

  • 18.
    Ferrarini, Tommy
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Social policy and health: transition countries in a comparative perspective2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, p. 60-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the development and design of unemployment insurance and family policy benefits and their links to health outcomes in Estonia, Poland, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary from the mid-1990s. Comparing these six transition countries with long-standing welfare democracies reveals important similarities and differences in policy and health. Unemployment benefit schemes resemble corporatist schemes in important respects, however, with lower coverage and average benefits. Subjective wellbeing is also comparatively low among both employed and unemployed in the transition countries. Several transition countries have mixed family policy strategies that simultaneously support dual-earner families and traditional gender roles. One clear exception is Slovenia, which has a highly developed dual-earner support. Family policy generosity is related to lower rates of poverty, infant mortality and child injuries. The article demonstrates the fruitfulness of institutional analyses of the link between social policy and population health in a broader welfare state context.

  • 19.
    Fritzell, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Ritakallio, Veli-Matti
    Societal shifts and changed patterns of poverty2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no s1, p. s25-s41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses data from the Luxembourg Income Study to analyse cross-national and cross-temporal poverty risks in 11 Western countries. We show that poverty risks have tended to increase from the early 1980s to 2000. In line with what we would expect based on the welfare state literature, the Nordic countries tend to have the lowest poverty rates. However, the proportion of the national population with a market income below the poverty threshold has increased in all countries and the cross-national variation in market income poverty is not apparently related to the type of welfare state regime. We perform a simulation analysis to test whether structural factors, that is, compositional differences in age, family and labour market behaviour, could account for the cross-national variation found. Our results demonstrate the increasing importance of household labour market attachment for alleviating poverty risks, as well as for explaining the cross-national variation in these risks.

  • 20.
    Ginner Hau, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Recidivism in convicted young offenders participating in community-based rehabilitative programmes: 18-month follow-up of 189 Swedish male offendersIn: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recidivism over 18 months was investigated in a representative group of Swedish male offenders, 15-17 years old, who had been referred to community based rehabilitative programmes (n=189). Also, registry data on earlier contacts with social services and previous convictions was collected.  Eighteen months after programme start, 60% of the young offenders were registered as suspected of new crimes, 48% for crime of violence.  Previous contacts with social services had been documented for 44%, and 30% were registered as previously convicted. However, the group was highly heterogeneous, and all registry data corresponded well with self-reported history of antisocial behaviour collected at programme start, by which three subgroups (n=60, 64 and 64, respectively)  with significantly different problem profiles had been identified. Results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of antisocial development, and the need to adher o the risk principle when designing interventions for young offenders. 

  • 21.
    Ginnner Hau, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Different problems – same treatment: Swedish juvenile offenders in community-based rehabilitative programmes2011In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young delinquents may be regarded as children in need of rehabilitation or as offenders deserving of consequences proportional to the committed crime. The focus has increasingly been on the latter, while research shows that individual risk assessment is essential for effective rehabilitation. This study explored self-reported history of antisocial behaviour among Swedish male offenders 15-17 years of age (n=189) who were sentenced to participate in rehabilitative programmes conducted by local social services. Antisocial behaviour was extensive and, according to a principal component analysis, consisted of three dimensions: (i) adolescent delinquency; (ii) violence and theft, (iii) drug-related crimes. Using cluster analysis, the participants were divided into four subgroups representing different levels and characteristics of delinquency, which explained 73 per cent of the variance in antisocial behaviour. The conclusion is that assignment to rehabilitative programmes appeared unrelated to subgroups, i.e. to risk level. Organisational obstacles to an evidence based practice are discussed.

  • 22.
    Ginnner Hau, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Young male offenders in community-based rehabilitative programmes: Self-reported history of antisocial behaviour predicts recidivism2011In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 413-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recidivism over 18 months was investigated in a representative group of young Swedish male offenders, 15-17 years old, referred to community-based rehabilitative programmes (n = 189). Registry data on their earlier contacts with social services and previous convictions were also collected. Eighteen months after programme start, 60 per cent of the young offenders were registered as suspected of new crimes, 48 per cent were registered for crimes of violence. Previous contacts with the social services had been documented for 44 per cent, and 30 per cent were registered as previously convicted. However, the group was highly heterogeneous, and all registry data corresponded well with self-reported history of antisocial behaviour collected at the start of the programme, which identified three subgroups (n = 60, 65 and 64, respectively) with significantly different problem profiles. Results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of antisocial development and the need to adhere to the risk principle when designing interventions for young offenders.

  • 23. Giuliani, Giuliana
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cash-for-care policy in Sweden: An appraisal of its consequences on female employment2017In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, Sweden introduced a cash-for-care benefit consisting of a flat-rate sum paid by municipalities to parents whose children were between the ages of one and three and who did not use publicly subsidised childcare. The main object of the reform was to increase parents' freedom to choose', but the policy was criticised because of its potentially negative effects on gender equality and mothers' employment. This study focuses on the effects of cash-for-care on female employment in Sweden. The study shows that the adoption of this policy had negative effects on female employment, although primarily in rural areas. Cash-for-care was abolished in Sweden in 2016. To evaluate the effects that the policy had on female employment during the time it was in place is important as it indicates what may happen if the policy is introduced again.

  • 24.
    Gunnarsson, Evy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The welfare state, the individual and the need for care: older people´s views2009In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 252-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this qualitative study was to study how older people experience aging and reflect on their need for care in the Swedish welfare context. Sixteen people were interviewed, aged between 77 and 92 years. Staying healthy and independent in their everyday lives were prized values for the informants. Some brushed aside thoughts of being in need of home help services in the future and others had a more reflecting attitude. The informants did not want to burden either society or their children. Through mass media and the experiences of their neighbours, they had gained a negative impression of eldercare. They were uncertain if there would be any helping hand of good quality in the future. On the other hand, informants who already had home help thought that it was helping them to maintain independence in everyday life and they were also satisfied with the help they received.

  • 25.
    Heap, Josephine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Thorslund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Coexisting disadvantages across the adult age span: A comparison of older and younger age groups in the Swedish welfare state2013In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 130-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heap J, Lennartsson C, Thorslund M. Coexisting disadvantages across the adult age span: a comparison of older and younger age groups in the Swedish welfare state To experience coexisting disadvantages the simultaneous lack of several different welfare resources implies a hampered ability to manage one's living conditions. Here, we study coexisting disadvantages in the oldest population compared with younger age groups in Sweden, by drawing on two linked, nationally representative surveys (n = 5,392). The measurement of coexisting disadvantages included physical health, psychological health, frequency of social contact, cash margin and political resources. The highest odds of coexisting disadvantages were found after age 75 age groups that are frequently excluded from studies of coexisting disadvantages. This pattern persisted when controlling for socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The age pattern was partly driven by the high prevalence of physical health problems in the older population. However, even when excluding physical health problems, the odds of coexisting disadvantages were highest among people older than 85 the fastest-growing segment of the population in many Western countries.

  • 26.
    Hjern, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajmil, Luis
    Kling, Stefan
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gender aspects of health-related quality of life of youth in secure residential care in Sweden2018In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 358-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined health-related quality of life of youth in secure residential care employing a gender perspective. The KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire was administered to 91 youths (46 boys and 45 girls) aged 13-17, admitted to four secure residential units in southern Sweden, in connection with a medical examination. Results were compared with a national Swedish survey from 2009 of 86,000 youths aged 15-16years old. In age-adjusted analyses, youth in secure residential care units reported lower levels of wellbeing for all but one KIDSCREEN measure, compared with the national survey, with moderate to large differences in effect size. In the residential care sample, female gender was associated will lower psychological wellbeing, poorer parental relations and less school satisfaction, while male gender was associated with lower self-perception and peer relations.

  • 27.
    Jegermalm, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Informal Care in Sweden: a Typology of Care and Caregivers2006In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 332-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes and analyses the types of informal care provided in Sweden and whether it is possible to distinguish different types of carers. Data were collected in a Swedish county in 2000, by means of telephone interviews. The net sample consisted of 2,697 individuals 18–84 years old, and the response rate was 61 per cent. The results showed that there were large differences in the numbers of male and female carers when the data were divided into a typology of care categories based on different caring tasks. Women were much more likely than men to be involved at the ‘heavy end’ of caring, i.e. providing personal care in combination with a variety of other caring tasks. Men were more likely to provide some kind of practical help for a mother or a neighbour/friend. Even though the Swedish welfare state has been described as universal and characterised by an extensive system of benefits and services intended to cover the entire population, the results here indicate that informal care plays an important role and that the gender role patterns are similar to those observed in other types of welfare state. When discussing support systems it is important for social policy to develop programmes that take into account the support needs of both caregivers and care recipients, and not to see their needs in isolation from the social care system as a whole

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Lis Bodil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    'More real than reality': A study of voice hearing2008In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 365-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing voices can be considered as elusive or illusory hallucinations in the sense that they are perceptions that have no external reason or even that they are divorced from reality. The aim of this article is to describe how participants in different focus groups account for and understand their voice-hearing experiences. The study shows that voice hearing can be such an overwhelming experience that it can even be experienced as 'more real than reality'. Voices are strong and powerful experiences that sometimes convey memories from the past or difficulties that the voice hearer would prefer to forget but in fact has had to confront. The voices also influence how the voice hearer sees his or her future. This study contributes to our knowledge of the world and language of voice hearers from the perspective of social work.

  • 29.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundström, Tommy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Effects of psychosocial interventions on behavioural problems in youth: A close look at Cochrane and Campbell reviews2017In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 177-187Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that a number of psychosocial interventions are effective for reducing behavioural problems in youth. These interventions are now often included on best practice lists aiming to facilitate informed treatment choices among practitioners. However, analyses in neighbouring research areas have highlighted serious shortcomings in how primary studies are analysed and how studies are synthesised in research reviews. This study took a closer look at the evidence of efficacy for psychosocial interventions that aim to reduce behavioural problems in youth, as shown in systematic research reviews by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations (n = 8). The findings suggest a bias towards overemphasising the efficacy of the interventions in several reviews, an over-confidence in the validity of the findings in some reviews and, overall, a somewhat uncertain evidence base for the efficacy of the interventions. Systematic reviews are crucial for summarising research but more attention to methodological issues may be needed in this area.

  • 30.
    Korpi, Walter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Class and gender inequalities in different types of welfare states: the Social Citizenship Indicator Program (SCIP): (Supplement 1)2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no Supplement 1, p. s14-s24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers the role of legislated welfare state institutions as mediators of effects of political and structural forces on citizens' levels of living of relevance to inequalities in health and mortality. The focus is on institutional structures of welfare state programmes relevant to class inequality, as indicated by income inequalities, and to gender inequality, conceived of as differences in agency. I introduce the Social Citizenship Indicator Program, a database providing quantitative and qualitative information on structures of main social insurance programmes in 18 countries from 1930 to 2000, on about 300,000 data points. It is used to delineate types of distributive institutions of relevance for income inequality. Institutions relevant for gendered agency inequality affect choices by women, especially mothers, between unpaid and paid work. Driving forces behind the emergence of differences in distributive institutions are discussed, and patterns of class and gender inequalities are outlined.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Sam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sjöblom, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perspectives on narrative methods in social work research2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 272-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Int J Soc Welfare 2010: 19: 272-280 (C) 2009 The Author, Journal compilation (C) 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and the International Journal of Social Welfare. The narrative turn has entered many different academic disciplines and is now also emerging in social work. This article focuses on a discussion of the possibilities and limitations of doing narrative research in social work, including a scrutiny of definitions and of a number of theoretical and methodological arguments often used by some of the leading narrative researchers.

  • 32.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Need and support: determinants of intra-familial financial transfers in Sweden2011In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 66-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined downward inter-generational intra-family financial transfers in Sweden made in the form of money transactions or gifts. The research questions focus on whether recipients of intra-family financial transfers are children in 'need' of such support, and whether early family environment has any consequences for later financial transfers. Using data from a nationally representative survey, the results suggest that childhood disadvantages have long-term consequences in connection with intra-family financial transfers. Disadvantages and inequalities in childhood are likely to remain into adulthood, and children who experience adverse childhood conditions are less often recipients of later intra-family financial support. Intra-family transfers are also related to the 'needs' of the younger generation. Single parents and students from higher social class families are more often beneficiaries of financial support. In contrast, family support was no higher for unemployed children, for children lacking financial security in the form of a cash margin or for children reporting poor health.

  • 33.
    Lundberg, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Åberg Yngwe, Monica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Kölegård, Maria L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    The potential power of social policy programmes: income redistribution, economic resources and health2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no s1, p. s2-s13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Supplement includes a number of articles dealing with the role of social policy schemes for public health across the life course. As a key social determinant of health, poverty and its consequences have historically been at the forefront of the public health discussion. But also in rich countries today, economic resources are likely to be important for health and survival, both on an individual and an aggregate level. This introductory article serves as a background for the more specific analyses that follow. The focus is on why income and income inequality could have an effect on individual and population health. We discuss relationships between the individual and population levels and between income and health, and some of the possible mechanisms involved. We also present arguments for why welfare state institutions may matter.

  • 34. Löfholm, Cecilia Andree
    et al.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Olsson, Martin
    Hansson, Kjell
    Treatment as usual in effectiveness studies: what is it and does it matter?2013In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hallmark of an evidence-based practice (EBP) is the systematic appraisal of research related to the effectiveness of interventions. This study addressed the issue of interpreting results from effectiveness studies that use treatment-as-usual (TAU) as a comparator. Using randomised controlled studies that evaluate the effectiveness of multisystemic therapy as an illustrative example, we show that TAU includes a wide variety of treatment alternatives. Estimated treatment effects on recidivism suggest that TAU seems to contain a greater variation in underlying risk than experimental conditions, supporting the hypothesis that the content of TAU could affect outcomes. Implications for the realisation of an EBP are discussed.

  • 35. Marklund, Staffan
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansen, Vegard
    Solheim, Liv Johanne
    Previous sickness presence among long-term sick-listed in Norway and Sweden: A retrospective study of prevalence and self-reported reasons2015In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 376-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to analyse previous sickness presence among long-term sick-listed individuals in Norway and Sweden and the reasons given for sickness presence. The study was based on survey data for 3,312 persons in Norway and Sweden who had been sick-listed for at least 30 days. Two questions were used. One measured prevalence: During the last 12 months prior to your current sick leave, did you go to work even when feeling so ill that you should have taken sick leave? The second question concerned reasons for sickness presence. Large differences were found between Norway and Sweden in the prevalence of sickness presence. More long-term sick-listed Norwegians than Swedes reported sickness presence [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for Sweden 0.65 (0.53-0.80)]. The Swedes more often reported financial reasons for sickness presence [adjusted OR 2.77 (2.1 to -3.54)], while the Norwegians more often gave positive reasons related to work. The national differences may be related to differences in sickness insurance strategies.

  • 36.
    Minas, Renate
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Intake strategies: organizing the intake of new social assistance inquirers2006In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 63-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Minas, Renate
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    One-stop shops: Increasing employability and overcoming welfare state fragmentation?2014In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 23, p. S40-S53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fragmentation of social security systems hasemerged as a policy problem in Western Europe, result-ing in the emergence of integrated service models, forexample so-called one-stop shops. Bridging severalpolicy domains, integrated services can be assumed toaffect the institutional structure of benefits and ser-vices, such as entitlement criteria, target groups orgovernance processes. This article focuses on inte-grated service models that provide benefits and ser-vices to unemployed people who are receiving eithersocial assistance or unemployment compensation.Recent reforms in Denmark, Finland, Germany, theNetherlands, Norway and the UK are analysed fromboth an organisational and a labour market perspec-tive. The analysis shows that integrated service provi-sion entails the risk of introducing stricter workconditionality for broad and vulnerable groups withoutfulfilling the promises of seamless services.

  • 38.
    Minas, Renate
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Social expenditures and public administration: are local social assistance costs in Sweden a matter of organisation?2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 215-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the connection between organisational factors and local social assistance expenditures in Swedish municipalities. The organisation of social assistance units, particularly those for the intake of social assistance inquirers, and the possible implications for local social assistance costs are highlighted. The study is based on interview data from medium-sized Swedish municipalities combined with register data covering the years from 1997 to 2001. The results show that socioeconomic factors have an overall dominant effect, but also that organisational factors co-vary with local social assistance expenditures. The results show a cost-reducing effect for special intake units: firstly, when these units are analysed together with other forms of specialisation and secondly, when staff resources are taken into account. Thus, specialised intake organisation by itself does not play a cost-reducing role, but does so in combination with certain other factors that characterise the internal organisation of the social welfare office.

  • 39.
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lagging behind in good times:  immigrants and the increased dependence on social assistance in Sweden2011In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the 1990s recession in Sweden, social assistance (SA) recipiency decreased to levels that were clearly lower than before the recession. However, this decrease masked a strong polarisation: the number of short-term recipients fell, but the number of long-term recipients was higher than before the recession. This article shows how SA recipiency and dependence changed over a whole economic cycle in Sweden's largest city, Stockholm, and asks whether the increasing dependence can be explained by immigration. It is shown that the relative increase of long-term SA is similar among immigrants and native-born, but decomposition analysis reveals that the increase among native-born is of minor importance for the overall increase. Nearly half the increase can be attributed instead to the increased representation of immigrants in the population, and another 38 per cent to increased dependence among immigrants. Only 15 per cent of the total increase in long-term SA is a result of increased dependence among native-born.

  • 40.
    Nelson, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Social assistance and minimum income benefits in old and new EU democracies2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 367-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, social assistance developments are analysed in a large number of European Union (EU) member states, including European transition countries and the new democracies of southern Europe. The empirical analysis is based on the unique and recently established SaMip Dataset, which provides social assistance benefit levels for 27 countries from 1990 to 2005. It is shown that social assistance benefits have had a less favourable development than that of unemployment provision. Hardly any of the investigated countries provide social assistance benefits above the EU near-poverty threshold. Social assistance benefit levels have not converged in Europe. Instead, divergence can be observed, which is due mainly to lagging developments in eastern and southern Europe.

  • 41.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Palme, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Public pension institutions and old-age mortality in comparative perspective2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no Supplement s1, p. s121-s130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of changes in pension rights on old-age mortality. We made a distinction between two dimensions of pension benefits, one of providing basic security (BASIC), and the other of providing income security (INCOME). Analyses were based on data for 18 OECD countries during the post-war period. The outcome comprised old-age excess mortality, defined as the ratio of the mortality rate 65+ to the mortality rate in the age group 30–59 years. The latter was regarded as a proxy for unobserved factors potentially related to old-age mortality as well as pension rights. The pooled cross-sectional time series data were analysed through fixed effects modelling. The results suggest that BASIC (but not INCOME) has a beneficial impact on old-age excess mortality, which was statistically significant. We interpret the results in terms of the poverty-reducing effects of pension entitlements with a basic security orientation.

  • 42.
    Nybom, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Activation and 'coercion' among Swedish social assistance claimants with different work barriers and socio-demographic characteristics: What is the logic?2013In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study analysed how the work barriers and socio‐demographic characteristics of both activated and non‐activated social assistance claimants influence their participation in activation and exposure to coercion, measured as two opposite indicators – sanctions and exemptions. The study covered 372 social assistance claimants in four municipalities during a period of 1 year. The results suggest that resource activation, which entails education and/or work practice in regular workplaces, often targets claimants who lack work motivation, whereas job activation, which aims at quick entry into the labour market, targets young claimants and claimants who lack formal skills (education and/or work experience). Swedish men older than 25 years appear to run the highest risk of facing sanctions irrespective of participation in activation. Exemptions vary more than sanctions between activated and non‐activated claimants. The results are discussed in terms of five logics operating in social work.

  • 43.
    Palm, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Women and men – same problems, different treatment2006In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on difference between men and women has been important in the development of gender-specific treatment for alcohol and drug problems. The aim of this article is to examine the views of alcohol and drug treatment staff on differences between men and women in treatment and compare men and women in treatment on issues related to staff attitudes. One data set consists of questionnaires sent to staff working with alcohol and drug problems in Stockholm County (n = 918). Another data set consists of interviews with women and men in treatment for alcohol and drug problems in Stockholm (n = 1865). The results show that staff experience differences between men and women both in their problems and in how they should be treated. Some of these differences are supported by the comparison of women and men in the client-data, but mostly the differences are relatively small or even non-existent.

  • 44.
    Schlytter, Astrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Linell, Hanna
    FoU-Nordväst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Girls with honour-related problems in a comparative perspective2010In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 152-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to learn to perceive the indicators of honour-related problems in a girl's everyday life. Our investigation included all girls aged 13-18 years who were about to be taken into care in 2006. The comparative analysis was based on 37 County Court cases in Stockholm County. The girls' exposure to harm in 13 of the 37 cases could be coupled to the demands and values of the honour culture. All the girls in the 'honour' group had been victims of mental abuse; they were more isolated than the girls in the 'other reason' group and none of the girls in the 'honour' group chose to meet their parents in court. We found that the honour culture life situation is new to the social services, which for these girls can mean that they do not have access to the same legal protection as other girls.

  • 45.
    Sjöberg, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Labour Market Mobility and Workers' Skills in a Comparative Perspective: Exploring the Role of Unemployment Insurance Benefits2008In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 74-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article argues that there might be important efficiency gains for countries to provide generous unemployment insurance benefits. Firstly, generous unemployment benefits might reduce the risks, real or perceived, associated with labour market transitions such as changing employer and/or career. Secondly, such benefits might increase workers’ skills levels, both by functioning as a form of insurance for workers’ investments in skills that are not easily transferable between employers and by facilitating the accumulation of skills that are developed through experience with different employers. These arguments are supported by empirical data, covering 14 countries, from the Eurobarometer survey.

  • 46.
    Sohlberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    There Nothing beyond Postmodernism and the ”Theoretical Other”? The Need for Balancing Universalism and Diversity in Social Work2009In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 317-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In his article, ‘Against difference and diversity in social work: the case of human rights’, Stephen Webb captures several important problems concerning the application of a postmodern human rights perspective in social work. Although accepting Webb's diagnosis, for example that the postmodern discourse neglects basic structural conditions essential for understanding social problems and thus leads to a policy of symbols and rhetoric, this article argues that Webb reifies the perspectives of diversity and universalism and misses the need for balancing these aspects in the practice of social work. Some general argumentative techniques in the postmodern discourse are identified, and it is argued that several of Webb's conclusions are reached via those argumentative techniques, particularly when it comes to his claim that the philosopher Alain Badiou could play a central role for social work. The possibility of implementing in social work general philosophical programmes such as Alain Badiou's is questioned.

  • 47.
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    On the significance of social control: Treatment-entry pressures, self-choice and alcohol and drug dependence criteria one year after treatment2012In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 160-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores howself-choice and treatment-entry pressuresare associated with one-year treatment outcome (dependencesymptoms, 0–6, 12 months) among alcohol and drugmisusers, respectively. Informal pressures (from family andfriends), formal pressures (related to work, healthcare, socialservices, social allowances, child custody) and legal pressures(related to the police, criminal justice system, compulsorytreatment) were analysed.A sample (N = 1,210) representativeof the addiction treatment system of Stockholm County wasinterviewed when starting a new treatment episode and afterone year. Regression analyses indicated that self-choice andpressures are associated with outcome among alcohol misusersbut not among drug misusers when controlling for backgroundfactors and severity. Self-choice (without pressures) correlatedwith a good outcome (a lower number of dependence criteria).Pressures were generally associated with poorer outcome.Alcohol misusers who had experienced threats regarding childcustody did better in comparison with those not experiencingsuch pressure. The difference in results by drug type andimplications were discussed.

  • 48. te Grotenhuis, Manfred
    et al.
    Pelzer, Ben
    Eisinga, Rob
    Nieuwenhuis, Rense
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Schmidt-Catran, Alexander
    Konig, Ruben
    A novel method for modelling interaction between categorical variables2017In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 427-431Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Theobald, Hildegard
    et al.
    Szebehely, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Saito, Yayoi
    Ishiguro, Nobu
    Marketisation policies in different contexts: Consequences for home-care workers in Germany, Japan and Sweden2018In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market-oriented restructurings of long-term care policies contribute significantly to the aggravation of care workers’ situations. This article focuses on the effects of broader long-term care policy developments on market-oriented reforms. Germany, Japan and Sweden are three countries that have introduced market-oriented reforms into home-based care provision embedded in distinct long-term care policy developments. Conceptually, this article draws on comparative research on care to define the institutional dimensions of long-term care policies. Empirically, the research is based on policy analyses, as well as on national statistics and a comparative research project on home-care workers in the aforementioned countries. The findings reveal the mediating impact of the extension and decline of long-term public care support and the corresponding development of the care infrastructure on both the restructuring of care work and the assessments of the care workers themselves.

  • 50.
    Trydegård, Gun-Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Thorslund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Inequality in the welfare state?: Local variation in old-age care – the case of Sweden2003In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 174-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses Sweden as an example to describe and analyse municipal variation in services and care for elderly people. Responsibility for these services lies with the municipalities. National statistical data on municipalities are analysed to map out the variations in old-age care; to study compensating factors in the care system; and to explore the connection with municipal structural and political conditions. The overall finding of the bivariate analyses was that most relations with structure and policy were weak or non-existent. The final multivariate model explained only 15% of the variance. The large differences between municipalities makes it more appropriate to talk about a multitude of 'welfare municipalities' rather than one single welfare state. The article concludes that this municipal disparity constitutes a greater threat to the principle of equality in care of the elderly than gender and socio-economic differences.

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