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  • 1. Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Addictions and European policy: Has the 'European project' stifled science-led policy?2011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 117-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Brunborg, Geir Scott
    et al.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Storvoll, Elisabet E.
    Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 389-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. To identify latent developmental episodic heavy drinking (EHD) trajectory groups for Norwegian adolescents, investigate risk factors associated with group membership and to assess differences in alcohol problems between different groups in early adulthood. Design and Methods. Data were from 1266 individuals measured at four time points from age 13/14years to age 26/27years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify groups with different EHD development. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigated if gender, impulsivity, school commitment, parents' socio-economic status, frequency of seeing parents drunk and parental knowledge could predict group membership. Differences in alcohol problem scores at age 26/27 were also assessed. Results. Four trajectory groups were identified: stable high', early increasers', late increasers' and stable low'. Membership of the high-risk trajectory groups stable high' and early increasers' was predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. The risk of alcohol problems at age 26/27 was greater for the stable high' group, the early increasers' and the late increasers' compared with the stable low' group. The stable high' and early increasers' had similar risk of alcohol problems. Discussion and Conclusions. Stable high and early increasing EHD in adolescence was associated with more alcohol problems in early adulthood. Such trajectories were predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. [Brunborg GS, Norstrom T, Storvoll EE. Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome.

  • 3. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Dietze, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Heavy drinking occasions in Australia: Do context and beverage choice differ from low-risk drinking occasions?2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 354-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. The aim of the current study is to look for differences in drink choice and drinking location between a recent heavy drinking occasion (RHDO) and usual low-risk occasions among those that recently had both types of drinking occasion. Design and Methods. Seven hundred and seventy-four respondents to a population-based survey reported having a RHDO [8 + Australian standard drinks (ASD) for females, 11 + ASD for males] in the past six months also reported that their usual drinking occasion in at least one location involved less than five ASD. Drink choice and drinking locations for the RHDO and usual low-risk occasions were compared using confidence intervals. Results. The RHDO was more likely than usual low-risk occasions to occur away from licensed premises (59%), despite a higher percentage of respondents reporting drinking at a pub, bar or nightclub on a RHDO (28%) than on a usual low-risk night (12%). A higher percentage of respondents nominated bottled spirits (33%) as their main drink for their RHDO, with 11% primarily drinking bottled spirits on a usual low-risk occasion; the converse was true for bottled wine (20% and 33%, respectively). Discussion and Conclusions. While the high proportion of RHDOs that occurred at least in part at pubs or nightclubs was not surprising, a high proportion also occur in private homes. Previously found links between heavy drinking and beer may be a reflection of the usual drink choice of heavier drinkers, rather a choice specific to a particularly heavy occasion.

  • 4. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Dietze, Paul M.
    How much alcohol is consumed outside of the lifetime risk guidelines in Australia?2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of long-term risky drinking within the Australian population and the proportion of standard drinks that is consumed outside of the long-term risk (LTR) guidelines of two Australian standard drinks (ASD) per day.

    Design and Methods. Recruited by phone, 2020 Australian adults with an oversampling of risky drinkers were asked detailed questions about how much alcohol they consumed at a range of locations in 2013. Descriptive statistical analyses of data weighted to be representative of the Australian adult population were undertaken, with a focus on the ASD consumed above the LTR guidelines.

    Results. Although 28% of respondents drink at levels above the LTR drinking guidelines, 56% of all ASD consumed are above the two per day recommended to reduce LTR. Three-quarters of cask wine and liqueurs were consumed outside of the LTR guidelines, as were 58% of all ASD consumed in the home, similar to the proportion of ASD consumed above the guidelines in pubs (55%).

    Discussion and Conclusions. While the minority of Australians drink to LTR levels, the majority of alcohol is consumed by long-term risky drinkers. More research and policy focus on the patterns of alcohol consumption that lead to long-term risk, particularly outside of licensed premises, is required.

  • 5. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia.
    Livingston, Michael
    Changes in Australian attitudes to alcohol policy: 1995–20102014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    In 2009 Wilkinson and colleagues reported a downward trend in support for alcohol policyrestrictions in Australia between 1995 and 2004. The aim of the current study is to examine more recent data on policy supportin Australia, specifically for policies covering alcohol availability up to 2010, and to examine specific demographic shifts insupport.

    Design and Methods

    Data was taken from the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys from 1995, 1998,2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010 (n = 80 846), primarily responses to attitude items on policy restriction and demographicquestions. The effects of age, sex, drinking patterns and income over time on three items addressing restriction of alcoholavailability were assessed using a factorial analysis of variance.

    Results

    Although availability items are among the lesspopular policy restrictions put forward in the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, 2004 actually represented a turningpoint in the decrease in popularity, with an increase in support since then.Though some groups show consistently higher ratesof support than others for policy restrictions, the rate of change in support was fairly uniform across demographic and drinkinggroups.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Despite the lack of an obvious catalyst, there has been an increase in support foralcohol policy restriction as it relates to general availability and accessibility since 2004. Furthermore, this increase does notappear to be a reflection of a change in a specific group of people, but appears to be occurring across the Australian population.

  • 6. Dietze, Paul M.
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Callinan, Sarah
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The big night out: what happens on the most recent heavy drinking occasion among young Victorian risky drinkers?2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 346-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. In spite of the major focus on risky, single-occasion drinking by young people in Australia, littleis known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions.This study examines drinking behaviours and drinkingcontexts for the most recent risky, single-occasion drinking episode in a representative sample of young risky drinkers in Victoria,Australia. Design and Methods. A representative sample of 802 young risky drinkers was recruited across metropolitanMelbourne and surveyed about their drinking and related behaviours. Specific questions focused on participants’ most recenthigh-risk (>10 Australian standard drinks for males, >7 Australian standard drinks for females) drinking occasion in termsof self-reported amount drunk, alcohol expenditure (including buying rounds) and drinking partners for up to 10 differentdrinking settings. Results. Participants reported drinking a mean of 13 Australian standard drinks on their last episode ofrisky, single-occasion drinking; for half of the participants, this occurred less than 20 days prior to being surveyed.The majority(62%) of risky single occasion drinking sessions commenced at private homes in the company of close friends (81%). Around40% of the sample reported going to one (42%) or two (37%) drinking locations, and only 5% reported going to more thanthree drinking locations. Discussion and Conclusions. Contrary to public portrayals, a significant amount of riskydrinking by young people occurs in private settings.These contexts are rarely mentioned except in relation to underage drinking.Further work is needed to understand how these drinking behaviours and contexts link to harm.

  • 7. Gomes de Matos, Elena
    et al.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institute for Therapeutic Research, Germany.
    Hannemann, Tessa-Virginia
    Soellner, Renate
    Piontek, Daniela
    Cross-cultural variation in the association between family's socioeconomic status and adolescent alcohol use2017In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 797-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study estimates cross-country variation in socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use and identifies country-level characteristics associated with these disparities. Design and Methods. The association between socioeconomic status (family wealth and parental education) and alcohol use (lifetime use and episodic heavy drinking) of 15- to 16-year-olds from 32 European countries was investigated. Country-level characteristics were national income, income inequality and per capita alcohol consumption. Multilevel modelling was applied. Results. Across countries, lifetime use was lower in wealthy than in less wealthy families (odds ratio [OR]((girls))=0.95, OR(boys)=0.94). The risk of episodic heavy drinking, in contrast, was higher for children from wealthier families (OR(girls)=1.04, OR(boys)=1.08) and lower when parents were highly educated (ORs=0.95-0.98). Socioeconomic disparities varied substantially between countries. National wealth and income inequality were associated with cross-country variation of disparities in lifetime use in few comparisons, such that among girls, the (negative) effect of family wealth was greatest in countries with unequally distributed income (OR=0.86). Among boys, the (negative) effect of family wealth was greatest in low-income countries (OR=1.00), and the (positive) effect of mothers' education was greatest in countries with high income inequality (OR=1.11). Discussion and Conclusions. Socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use vary across European countries. Broad country-level indicators can explain this variation only to a limited extent, but results point towards slightly greater socioeconomic disparities in drinking in countries of low national income and countries with a high income inequality. [Gomes de Matos E, Kraus L, Hannemann T-V, Soellner R, Piontek D. Cross-cultural variation in the association between family's socioeconomic status and adolescent alcohol use.

  • 8. Jiang, Heng
    et al.
    Callinan, Sarah
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Correlates of caring for the drinkers and others among those harmed by another's drinking2015In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and AimsThis study identifies the correlates of caring for harmful drinkers and others, and examines how caring for that person impacts on respondents' well-being and use of services. Design and MethodsThe study utilises the data from the 2008 Australian Alcohol Harm to Others Survey (n=2649), in which 778 respondents reported they were harmed because of the drinking of someone they knew. Respondents were asked about the person they were most adversely affected by and whether they spent time caring for this person because of their drinking. Logistic regression models are developed to examine which factors were associated with the prevalence of caring for others. ResultsThe study reveals that the respondents who cared for others because of the other's drinking reported lower quality of life than the respondents who did not have to do this. The results of the logistic regression suggest that respondents were more likely to care for the drinker if the drinker drank more (as the usual quantity of alcohol consumed increased), but less likely to care for the drinker if the drinker drank five or more drinks on more than four days per week. Discussion and ConclusionsThe findings of the study suggest that the drinking of family and friends can be a substantial burden for their households, families, friends and others. Policy approaches that reduce the amount of heavy drinking, particularly heavy drinking in a single occasion, are likely to reduce the burden of caring for others because of other's drinking.

  • 9. Jiang, Heng
    et al.
    Callinan, Sarah
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Off-premise alcohol purchasing in Australia: Variations by age group, income level and annual amount purchased2017In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. To delineate what type and how much alcohol is purchased from different types of off-licence premises and how this varies across demographic sub-groups, as a basis for public debate and decisions on pricing and planning policies to reduce alcohol-related harm in Australia. Design and Methods. The data on alcohol purchasing from off-licence premises are taken from the Australian Alcohol Consumption and Purchasing surveya nationally representative landline and mobile telephone survey in 2013 on the experiences with alcohol consumption and purchasing of 2020 Australians aged 16+. The present analysis uses data from 1730 respondents who purchased alcohol from off-licence premises in the previous 6months. Results. The majority (54%) of alcohol purchased from off-licence premises was sold from liquor barns (large warehouse-style alcohol stores), with bottle shops (31%) the second most common outlet. Cask wine was the cheapest alcohol available at off-licence premises in Australia. Respondents in higher alcohol purchasing quintiles and with those with lower income purchased a higher percentage of cheaper alcohol in their total volume of purchasing than lower purchasing quintiles and those with middle and higher income, and younger respondents purchased more expensive alcohol than older age groups. Discussion and Conclusions. A minimum unit price or increasing alcohol taxes may effectively reduce alcohol purchasing for lower income heavy alcohol purchasers and older age groups from off-licence premise sources, and may be less effective on younger age groups.

  • 10.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany.
    Hay, Gordon
    Richardson, Clive
    Yargic, Ilhan
    Ilhan, Mustafa Necmi
    Ay, Pinar
    Karasahin, Füsun
    Pinarci, Mustafa
    Tuncoglu, Tolga
    Piontek, Daniela
    Schulte, Bernd
    Estimating high‐risk cannabis and opiate use in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir2017In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 626-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Information on high-risk drug use in Turkey, particularly at the regional level, is lacking. The present analysis aims at estimating high-risk cannabis use (HRCU) and high-risk opiate use (HROU) in the cities of Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir. Design and Methods. Capture–recapture and multiplier methods were applied based on treatment and police data stratified by age and gender in the years 2009 and 2010. Case definitions refer to ICD-10 cannabis (F.12) and opiate (F.11) disorder diagnoses from outpatient and inpatient treatment records and illegal possession of these drugs as recorded by the police. Results. High-risk cannabis use was estimated at 28 500 (8.5 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 7.3–10.3) and 33 400 (11.9 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 10.7–13.5) in Ankara and Izmir, respectively. Using multipliers based on capture–recapture estimates for Izmir, HRCU in Istanbul was estimated up to 166 000 (18.0 per 1000; range: 2.8–18.0). Capture–recapture estimates of HROU resulted in 4800 (1.4 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 0.9–1.9) in Ankara and multipliers based on these gave estimates up to 20 000 (2.2 per 1000; range: 0.9-2.2) in Istanbul. HROU in Izmir was not estimated due to the low absolute numbers of opiate users. Discussion and Conclusions. While HRCU prevalence in both Ankara and Izmir was considerably lower in comparison to an estimate for Berlin, the rate for Istanbul was only slightly lower. Compared with the majority of European cities, HROU in these three Turkish cities may be considered rather low. [Kraus L, Hay G, Richardson C, Yargic I, Ilhan N M, Ay P, Karasahin F, Pinarci M, Tuncoglu T, Piontek D, Schulte B Estimating high-risk cannabis and opiate use in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;00:000-000]

  • 11.
    Landberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alcohol and suicide in Eastern Europe2008In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 361-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The aim of this paper was to estimate how suicide rates in seven eastern European countries are affected by changes in population drinking and to put the results into a comparative perspective. DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included data on annual suicide mortality rates and per capita consumption for the post-war period from: Russia, Belarus, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, the former Czechoslovakia and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Overall and gender-specific models were estimated using the Box-Jenkins technique for time-series analysis. The estimates were pooled into two groups, i.e. spirits countries (Russia, Belarus and Poland) and non-spirits countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia and former GDR). RESULTS: All countries obtained positive alcohol effect estimates. The effects on the overall population were largest in the spirits countries, where a 1-litre increase in per capita consumption was associated with an increase in overall suicide rates of 5.7-7.5%. The effects were somewhat smaller in the non-spirits countries, 2.7-4.7%. The estimates for males were larger, but showed the same national variations as the overall population estimates. The female estimates were generally smaller than for men and did not differ between the two country groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that per capita consumption matters for suicide mortality in these eastern European countries, but that the strength of the relationship is contingent upon the drinking culture, so that it tends to be stronger in countries with detrimental drinking patterns.

  • 12. Laslett, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Jiang, Heng
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Alcohol's involvement in an array of harms to intimate partners2017In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionHarms from intimate partners' (IP) drinking range from frustration because the partner has not performed their role to assault. AimTo describe the prevalence and persistence of alcohol-related harms to IPs and assess which respondents are more likely to report discontinuation of this harm. Design and methodsCross-sectional (n=2649) and follow-up (n=1106) alcohol's harm to others telephone surveys in 2008 and 2011 (response rates of 35% and 15% of the original sample respectively) were used to elicit harms to respondents from their IP's drinking (by gender and relationship). To examine discontinuation, a sub-sample of 83 respondents was analysed in detail. ResultsA total of 6.7% of Australians were negatively affected by an IP's drinking in 2008. Women were more likely to report harm than men from an IP's drinking. Of the 1106 respondents who completed both surveys, the majority (90%) reported no harm from IPs although 3% reported harm in both surveys. No significant correlates of discontinuation of harm were identified. DiscussionMany Australian relationships are affected in a range of ways because of the drinking of their IPs. A minority of respondents were affected by their IP's drinking, yet over half (57%) of those harmed in 2008 continued to experience harm in 2011. Additionally, half (46.9%) of those who were not harmed in 2008 but did live with a heavy drinking IP did go on to be harmed in 2011. More research on the role of alcohol-related harm from IPs with larger samples is required to examine predictors of change. [Laslett A-M, Jiang H, Room R. Alcohol's involvement in an array of harms to intimate partners. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:72-79]

  • 13. Lee, Kim San Kylie
    et al.
    Chikritzhs, Tanya
    Wilson, Scott
    Wilkes, Edward
    Gray, Dennis
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Conigrave, Katherine M.
    Better methods to collect self-reported alcohol and other drug use data from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 466-472Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Nordström, T.
    et al.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Mortality and population drinking: a review of the literature2005In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 537-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review was to review research addressing the relationship between population drinking and health, particularly mortality. The review is based primarily on articles published in international journals after 1994 to February 2005, identified via Medline. The method used in most studies is time-series analysis based on autoregressive intergrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. The outcome measures covered included the following mortality indicators: mortality from liver cirrhosis and other alcohol-related diseases, accident mortality, suicide, homicide, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and all-cause mortality. The study countries included most of the EU member states as of 1995 (14 countries), Canada and the United States. For Eastern Europe there was only scanty evidence. The study period was in most cases the post-war period. There was a statistically significant relationship between per capita consumption and mortality from liver cirrhosis and other alcohol-related diseases in all countries. In about half the countries, there was a significant relationship between consumption, on one hand, and mortality from accidents and homicide as well as all-cause mortality on the other hand. A link between alcohol and suicide was found in all regions except for mid- and southern Europe. There was no systematic link between consumption and IHD mortality. Overall, a 1-litre increase in per capita consumption was associated with a stronger effect in northern Europe and Canada than in mid- and southern Europe. Research during the past decade has strengthened the notion of a relationship between population drinking and alcohol-related harm. At the same time, the marked regional variation in the magnitude of this relationship suggests the importance of drinking patterns for modifying the impact of alcohol. By and large, there was little evidence for any cardioprotective effect at the population level. It is a challenge for future research to reconcile this outcome with the findings from observational studies, most of which suggest a protective effect of moderate drinking.

  • 15.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Alcohol and homocide in the United States - is the link dependent on wetness?2011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 458-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Several aggregate-level studies have suggested that the relationship between alcohol and homicide is stronger in countries with an intoxication-oriented drinking pattern than in countries where drinking is more tempered. The present paper extends this research tradition by analysing the alcohol–homicide link in various regions in the USA.

    Design and Methods. I used annual time-series data for the US states covering the period 1950–2002. Alcohol sales figures were used as proxy for alcohol consumption. Mortality data were used as indicators of homicide. The states were sorted into three groups labelled Dry, Moderate and Wet, where the last group has the highest prevalence of hazardous drinking according to survey data. Group-specific data were analysed using (i) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and (ii) fixed effects modelling. All modelling was based on differenced data, thus eliminating time trends and interstate correlations, both of which may bias estimates.

    Results. The ARIMA estimates displayed a statistically significant gradient in alcohol effects; the effect was strongest in Wet, and weakest and insignificant in Dry states. The fixed-effects estimates showed a corresponding pattern, although the gradient was less steep and insignificant. The gradient was also weakened if the effects were expressed in absolute rather than relative terms. The spatial pattern revealed no ecological correlation between alcohol and homicide.

    Discussion and Conclusions. Results provided mixed support for the hypothesis that the relationship between alcohol and homicide is stronger in wet than in dry states in the USA. Future research should probe more specific indicators of homicide as well as alcohol consumption.

  • 16.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Drinking trajectories of at‐risk groups: Does the theory of the collectivity of drinking apply?2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no S1, p. S15-S21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Alcohol consumption among Swedish adolescents has halved during the last decade. We aim to: (i) investigate whether the overall decrease in drinking may conceal an underlying heterogeneity in drinking trajectories across at‐risk groups that differ with respect to risk for drinking and; (ii) assess to what degree alcohol‐related harm has responded to this decrease.

    Design and Methods

    Data were obtained from the nationally representative annual school survey of alcohol and drug habits among Swedish ninth‐grade students covering the period 2000–2012 (n ≈ 5000/year). Respondents were divided into five at‐risk groups ranging from low to high based on their relative ranking on a risk scale for drinking. Alcohol consumption was measured by beverage‐specific quantity and frequency items summarised into a measure of overall drinking in litres of 100% alcohol per year. Alcohol‐related harm was measured by eight items asking about whether the respondent had experienced various alcohol‐related negative consequences.

    Results

    Drinking and alcohol‐related harm decreased in all five at‐risk groups. There was a marked relation between the overall consumption and the mean consumption in each of the five at‐risk groups. Self‐reported alcohol‐related harm decreased during the study period to an extent that was expected from the decrease in alcohol consumption.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Alcohol consumption among Swedish youth has declined in five groups that were delineated based on their relative ranking on a risk factor index. The findings are consistent with Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking behaviour. [Norström T, Raninen J. Drinking trajectories of at‐risk groups: Does the theory of the collectivity of drinking apply?.

  • 17.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Pape, Hilde
    Social inequality in youth violence: The role of heavy episodic drinking2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Alcohol use is an important risk factor for violence, and violent behaviour is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups. The aim of this study was to examine whether the SES difference in youth violence can be explained by differential exposure to—and/or differential vulnerability to—heavy episodic drinking (HED). In the latter case, effect modification by impulsivity could be assumed. Design and Methods. We analysed cross-sectional data from a school survey of 15- to 17-year-olds in Norway (n = 9853). We employed two measures of low-SES group. Associations between SES, HED and violence were estimated by Poisson regressions, applying a residual centring procedure to test effect modification. Results. Violent behaviour frequency, HED frequency and impulsivity scores were all elevated in the low-SES group. The SES difference in violent behaviour was significantly reduced when adjusting for HED. The stronger association between HED and violence in the low, compared with the medium-SES/high-SES group, was modified when accounting for impulsivity. Sensitivity analyses suggested robust findings. Discussion and Conclusions. The findings lend support to both the differential exposure hypothesis and to the differential vulnerability hypothesis as well as the hypothesis of an enhancing effect of impulsivity on the HED—violence association. The SES difference in youth violence can be accounted for by: (i) an elevated prevalence of HED in low-SES groups; and (ii) a stronger than average link between HED and violence in low-SES groups due to their higher than average impulsivity score. [Norström T, Rossow I, Pape H. Social inequality in youth violence: The role of heavy episodic drinking. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]

  • 18.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Shibuya, Kenji
    The importance of alcoholic beverage type for suicide in Japan: A time-series analysis, 1963-20072012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Japan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Cohort analysis has suggested that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for suicide in Japan. However, this relationship has not been observed at the population level when a measure of per capita total alcohol consumption has been analysed. The present study employed a time-series analysis to examine whether these contradictory findings may be due to the existence of beverage-specific effects on suicide. Methods. An autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to assess the relationship between the consumption of different types of alcohol and suicide rates from 1963 to 2007. The data comprised age-adjusted suicide rates for the ages 15-69, and information on beverage-specific alcohol consumption per capita (15+). The unemployment rate was included as a control variable. Results. During 1963-2007, male suicide rates increased substantially whereas female rates decreased slightly. Consumption of distilled spirits was significantly related to male suicide rates (but not in women) with a 1 L increase in consumption associated with a 21.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.2-42.9) increase in male suicide rates. There was no statistically significant relationship between suicide and any other form of alcohol consumption (beer, wine, other alcohol). Conclusion. This is the first study that has shown an association between spirits consumption and male suicide in Japan. Potentially beneficial policy changes include increasing spirits prices through taxation, reducing the physical availability of alcohol and discouraging the practice of heavy drinking.

  • 19.
    Paglia, Angela
    et al.
    Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada.
    The international drug control system in the post-Cold War era: managing markets or fighting a war?1999In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 305-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The core institutions and scope of the international drug control system are described. The system has grown in participation and particularly in scope and ambitions since it was studied in the early 1970s by Bruun and colleagues. Its premises are notably in conflict with the currently dominant ideologies of a free-market global economy although, as earlier, the United States plays a dominant role in the drug control system. At a time when it is seen as a failure in its primary aims both from inside and from outside, defenses of the system have ranged from rousing rhetorical appeals to efforts to “de-sensationalize” the issues.

  • 20. Pape, Hilde
    et al.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research (SIRUS), Norway.
    Associations between emotional distress and heavy drinking among young people: A longitudinal study2016In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 170-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    This study adds to the meagre body of longitudinal research on the link between emotional distress and alcohol use among young people. We address the following research questions: Are symptoms of anxiety and depressed mood likely to be causally related to heavy episodic drinking (HED)? Does the association change as individuals move from adolescence to early adulthood?

    Design and Methods

    Data stemmed from a national sample of young people in Norway that was assessed in 1992 (T1; mean age = 14.9 years), 1994 (T2), 1999 (T3) and 2005 (T4) (response rate: 60%, n= 2171). We applied fixed-effects modelling, implying that intra-individual changes in the frequency of HED were regressed on intra-individual changes in emotional distress. Hence, confounding due to stable underlying influences was eliminated. Self-perceived loneliness was included as a time-varying covariate.

    Results

    Emotional distress was unrelated to HED in adolescence (T1 to T2). In the transition from adolescence to early adulthood (T2 to T3), changes in depressiveness were positively and independently associated with changes in HED, whereas changes symptoms of anxiety were not. A similar pattern emerged in early adulthood (T3 to T4).

    Discussion and Conclusions

    The potential causal relationship between emotional distress and heavy drinking did not manifest itself in adolescence, but increased symptoms of depressiveness were related to more frequent HED in subsequent periods of life. Hence, this study provides conditional support to the notion that emotional distress and HED may be causally related and indicates that the association among young people may be specific to depressiveness. [Pape H, Norström T. Associations between emotional distress and heavy drinking among young people: A longitudinal study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:170–6]

  • 21.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alcohol and suicide at the population level: the Canadian experience2005In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 203-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies suggest that the population level link between alcohol and suicide differs across countries and between men and women. The aim of this paper was to estimate the relationship between alcohol consumption and suicide in Canada and to put the results in a comparative perspective. The relationship was elucidated for whole Canada, different provinces and also separately for men and women. The total suicide rate in Canada increased significantly by around 4% as alcohol consumption increased by one litre per capita, suggesting that approximately 25 - 30% of Canadian suicides were related to alcohol. The relationship was stronger for women than for men. A significant effect was found in all provinces except from Quebec, but the overall regional variation was not statistically significant. In an international perspective, the relationship for women was somewhat weaker than in Sweden and Norway, but larger than in Finland, the United States and Southern European countries. For men, the association was similar to what is found in the United States and Finland, weaker than in Sweden, Norway and Russia but stronger than in Southern European countries. The results only partly support the idea that intoxication frequency explains national differences in this relationship. Possible explanations for the stronger association among women are also discussed.

  • 22.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Fluctuations in male IHD-mortality in Russia – has alcohol been involved?2009In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 28, p. 390-395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Population drinking and homicide in Australia: A time series analysis of the period 1950-20032011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 466-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Despite a significant amount of research on alcohol and homicide in Australia, as yet there has been no study of the association at the aggregate level to reveal where Australia fits in with respect to the cultural differences found in the international research of this association. Aims. To analyse the temporal association between population drinking and homicide in Australia and to put the results in an international comparative perspective. Method. Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time series analysis, overall and gender-specific homicide rates from 1950 to 2003 were analysed in relation to alcohol consumption overall as well as to different beverages. Findings. A one-litre increase in per capita consumption was followed by an 8% increase in overall and male homicide rates and a 6% increase in female homicide rates. The effect was mainly driven by beer consumption. In a comparative perspective, the importance of population drinking was similar to what has been found inWestern Europe. Conclusions. Australia belongs to the group of countries where lowering population drinking is likely to be associated with lower homicide rates and reducing beer consumption seems to be the most efficient way to achieve this. [Ramstedt M. Population drinking and homicide in Australia: A time series analysis of the period 1950-2003.

  • 24. Ramstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Muller, Daniel
    Sundin, Erica
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Reducing youth violence related to student parties: Findings from a community intervention project in Stockholm2013In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 561-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundDuring the spring of 2007, the police reported a marked increase in violence and binge drinking related to high school student graduation parties on weekday nights at restaurants in Stockholm city. This spurred a multi-component community intervention project to reduce these problems. AimsThis study aims to evaluate the impact of the intervention on youth-related violence on weekday nights in 2008-2010. Design and MethodThe outcome measure entailed the number of violence-related emergency room visits on weekday nights (10:00 pm-6:00 am) by adolescents aged 18-20 years. The study period was 1 April-31 May, which is when most student graduation parties took place. The data covered the years 2005-2010, with three data points before the intervention, and three after the intervention was introduced. Because the intervention was expected to apply to weekdays only, the control series involved a corresponding indicator pertaining to weekend nights (10:00 pm-6:00 am). The intervention effect was assessed by means of difference-in-differences estimation. ResultsThe estimated intervention effect according to the difference-in-differences estimation models was a statistically significant 23% reduction of violence among young people. Discussion and ConclusionThis type of intervention is a promising measure of preventing youth violence and deserves to be continued. Such continuation would also provide additional data required for a more conclusive assessment.[Ramstedt M, Leifman H, Muller D, Sundin E, Norstrom T. Reducing youth violence related to student parties: Findings from a community intervention project in Stockholm. Drug Alcohol Rev 2013;32:561-565]

  • 25. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Guttormsson, Ulf
    Svensson, Johan
    Larm, Peter
    One explanation to rule them all? Identifying sub‐groups of non‐drinking Swedish ninth graders2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no S1, p. S42-S48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Researchers in a number of countries have recently identified major changes in adolescent alcohol consumption since the early 2000s, with the prevalence of teenage drinking more than halving in some countries. The major aims of the current study are to examine if there are sub‐groups among non‐drinking Swedish ninth graders and to describe how the prevalence of these groups has changed during the period 1999 to 2015.

    Design and Methods

    Data from five waves of the Swedish European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs study was used. The data covered 16 years and the total sample comprised 14 976 students. Latent class analysis was used to identify sub‐groups of non‐drinkers (n = 4267) based on parental approval towards drinking, parental monitoring, leisure time activities, school performance and use of other substances.

    Results

    Five latent classes were found: computer gamers (8.3%), strict parents (36.5%), liberal parents (27.0%), controlling but liberal parents (16.6%) and sports (11.6%). In the non‐drinking sub‐group the strict parents group increased most between 1999 and 2015.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    The results imply that there is notable within‐group diversity in non‐drinking youth. Several mechanisms and explanations are thus likely to be behind the decline in drinking participation among Swedish adolescents.

  • 26.
    Ritter, Alison
    et al.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Stenius, Kerstin
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Celebrating Robin Room2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 575-576Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Effects of alcohol controls: Nordic research traditions2004In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a recent review of studies of the impact of alcohol control changes in the Nordic countries (particularly Finland, Norway and Sweden), this paper reviews the development of research traditions of such studies in the Nordic countries. From the Nordic experience, there is evidence of variation in the effects of policy changes by demographic segment, by type of problem and by drinking pattern and amount. Policy changes have often had their greatest effect on heavier drinkers. Big reductions in alcohol taxes in Denmark in 2003 and Finland in 2004 offer a new chance to study whose drinking changes how much, and in what contexts, in a collaborative study comparing northern Sweden with Finland, Denmark and southern Sweden.

  • 28.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Griffith Edwards: an appreciation2013In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Stigma, social inequality and alcohol and drug use2005In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 143-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A heavy load of symbolism surrounds psychoactive substance use, for reasons which are discussed. Psychoactive substances can be prestige commodities, but one or another aspect of their use seems to attract near--universal stigma and marginalization. Processes of stigmatization include intimate process of social control among family and friends; decisions by social and health agencies; and governmental policy decisions. What is negatively moralized commonly includes incurring health, casualty or social problems, derogated even by other heavy users; intoxication itself; addiction or dependence, and the loss of control such terms describe; and in some circumstances use per se. Two independent literatures on stigma operate on different premises: studies oriented to mental illness and disability consider the negative effects of stigma on the stigmatized, and how stigma may be neutralized, while studies of crime generally view stigma more benignly, as a form of social control. The alcohol and drug literature overlap both topical areas, and includes examples of both orientations. Whole poverty and heavy substance use are not necessary related, poverty often increases the harm for a given level of use. Marginalization and stigma commonly add to this effect. Those in treatment for alcohol or drug problems are frequently and disproportionately marginalized. Studies of social inequality and substance use problems need to pay attention also to processes of stigmatization and marginalization and their effect on adverse outcomes.

  • 30.
    Room, Robin
    School of Population Health, University of Melbourne, Australien.
    Taking stock: Australian responses to alcohol and other drugs in the longer term2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Turning Point, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Callinan, Sarah
    Dietze, Paul
    Influences on the drinking of heavier drinkers: Interactional realities in seeking to 'change drinking cultures'2016In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. 'Changing drinking culture' is a prominent goal in the Australian state of Victoria's current alcohol strategy-seeking a shift so that 'excessive drinking isn't seen as the norm'. As a social activity, there is a strong collective aspect to drinking and associated behaviour: customs within the drinking group and at the level of social worlds of drinking operate both to increase and to control drinking patterns and associated behaviours. The paper considers how risky drinkers and those in social worlds of heavy drinking experience others' expectations about drinking.

    Design and Methods. Using Victorian population survey responses (n = 2092 adults who had consumed alcohol in previous year) to identify those in a social world of group drinking, and a subcategory who are also risky drinkers, the paper explores pressures on those in these categories both to drink more and to drink less, whether from family members, from work colleagues, or from friends.

    Results. Those who are both risky and social drinkers are much more likely than other drinkers to report pressures to drink more from friends and workmates, and even from family members, although they more often report pressures from family members to drink less than to drink more.

    Discussion and Conclusions: Efforts to change a drinking culture, it is argued, must take account of the collective nature of drinking and of the interplay of influences at interpersonal and subcultural levels if they are to be effective in reducing rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems.

  • 32.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Rehm, Juergen
    Clear criteria based on absolute risk: Reforming the basis of guidelines on low-risk drinking2012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 135-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues. The paper discusses the approach behind the Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking of 2009. The Guidelines involved a new approach to the central conundrum of low-risk drinking guidelines: how to set a guideline threshold on smooth risk curves. Approach. The context of the 2009 Guidelines is discussed in terms of previous Australian guidelines and of risk analyses and threshold setting for other risks to health and well-being, such as environmental and food toxins. The Guidelines were accordingly based on new lifetime risk modelling of absolute risk, with specification of the risk attached to the guideline thresholds of 1 in 100 lifetime mortality risk. The Guidelines thus specify no more than two Australian standard drinks a day, and no more than four drinks on any occasion. Implications and Conclusions. The approach described brings alcohol guidelines within a general analytical frame of guidelines and standards for hazards to health. At the level of 1 in 100 lifetime risk, there is little justification for different guidelines for men and women. On grounds of differential risk, separate guidelines for young adults might be considered, but could not be based on lifetime risk. [ Room R, Rehm J. Clear criteria based on absolute risk: Reforming the basis of guidelines on low-risk drinking.

  • 33.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Stockwell, Tim
    Centre for Addictions Research of BC, Department of Psychology, University of Victoria Victoria, Canada.
    Constructing and responding to low-risk drinking guidelines: conceptualisation, evidence and reception2012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 121-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Studying alcohol in its societal context: The Finnish tradition of analysis of population surveys2012In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 829-830Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Scheffel Birath, Christina
    et al.
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Stenbacka, Marlene
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Women with alcohol problems: The possible significance of personality clustering for treatment planning2011In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Establishing subgroups in clinical practice is important for treatment planning. The aim of the study was to cluster the study group subjects according to personality traits and psychological health variables and to establish possible differences in treatment outcome in terms of: (i) drinking outcomes (gram and number of drinking days); (ii) perceived physiological health; and (iii) use of treatment resources (length of time in treatment and number of visits) among 134 treatment-seeking women with alcohol problems in a clinical context, between the two clusters obtained. Design and Methods. Data were collected from 134 consecutive women at a Swedish clinic specialised in treating women with alcohol problems. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the basis of self-rated personality scale scores and psychological health variables. Results. Two clusters were identified: one in which the women displayed personality and psychological health scores indicating problems (Cluster 1); and another where the women showed personality and psychological health scores within the norm range (Cluster 2). Alcohol consumption rates at the start of treatment were the same in both clusters. The consumption rates were also the same at the end of treatment for the cluster, showing a significant decrease in alcohol consumption in each. The Cluster 1 women, however, had a significantly higher number of visits at the clinic, and rated the consequences of their alcohol drinking as being significantly worse than Cluster 2 women. Discussion and Conclusions. The importance of individual differences according to personality traits for treatment planning is discussed in terms of the need for variation in treatment time and methods.

  • 36.
    Stenbacka, Marlene
    et al.
    Karolinska Hospital Stockholm Sweden.
    Leifman, Anders
    Karolinska Hospital Stockholm Sweden.
    Romelsjö, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Department of Public Health Sciences Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    The impact of methadone treatment on registered convictions and arrests in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men and women with one or more treatment periods2003In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates criminality among 331 opiate abusers admitted to Stockholm's methadone maintenance programme (SMMP) between 1988 and 1992, and a comparison group of 1483 untreated opiate abusers. Information on arrests, criminal convictions, and intravenous drug abuse was obtained from official records. For both genders the annual rate of convictions decreased from 2.2 convictions per year during the 4 years prior to the first treatment, to 0.5 convictions during treatment, compared to 2.0 convictions for the comparison group. There was an even greater decrease in the rate of arrests for patients on methadone treatment. The decline was observed for both genders and in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Rates of convictions among patients who had more than one treatment period were clearly reduced during each treatment period, and while the rate increased after they were expelled from treatment it remained at a lower level than during the 4 years prior to treatment. Thus, the methadone treatment is shown to have a profound positive effect on arrests and convictions, not only for patients remaining in treatment but also for those patients who were expelled from treatment involuntarily.

  • 37.
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Implications of enrolment eligibility criteria in alcohol treatment outcome research: generalisability and potential bias in 1- and 6-year outcomes2014In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 604-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been acknowledged that participants in clinical trials differ from real-world service users,primarily due to the extensive use of research eligibility criteria (EC). Generalisability and outcome bias become pressing issueswhen evidence-based treatment guidelines, crystallised from outcome research, influence treatment provision.This study reportson the effects of EC on generalisability and short- and long-term outcomes among real-world treatment-seekers.

    Ten of the most commonly used EC were operationalised and applied to a large representative service user sample(n = 1125) from Stockholm County, Sweden, to determine the percentage of real-world problem alcohol users that would havebeen excluded by each EC and the extent to which EC bias the 1 and 6-year alcohol outcomes.

    Individual EC excluded between 5% and 80% of real-world service users and 96% would have been excluded by at least one EC. Most of the EC introduced a positive/upwards bias in 1- and 6-year outcomes. Most notably, the removal of the unmotivated/non-compliantservice users caused an upwards bias that would considerably boost estimates of treatment effectiveness. Other bias effects weresmaller. Six-year effects were generally higher than for 1 year.

    Outcome studies that excludecomplex and non-compliant cases are not representative of real-world service users, and thus effectiveness estimates from clinicaltrials are biased by several commonly used EC.EC should be used judiciously and be taken into account in practice guidelines.This burgeoning research area should be further developed. [Storbjörk J. Implications of enrolment eligibility criteria inalcohol treatment outcome research: Generalisability and potential bias in 1- and 6-year outcomes.

  • 38.
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    One model to rule them all? Governing images in the shadowof the disease model of addiction2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 726-728Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment providers demonstrate a quite strong support for a disease model of addiction, particularly so in the United States. However, conceptions vary and the problems may be perceived as primarily a disease, moral or social problems, or a combination of these (Barnett et al. in press). This commentary discusses the ongoing and dynamic process of defining addiction problems and notes that non-medical perspectives often appear in the shadow of and tend to oppose the disease model that stands quite inviolable – i.e., like the One Ring to rule them all by citing The Lord of the Rings. Recent changes in the Swedish Addiction treatment system, well known for its social perspective on the nature and handling of addiction problems, are highlighted to demonstrate that the world may be changing, or not. It is argued that there cannot be just one model. 

  • 39. Sundin, Erica
    et al.
    Landberg, Jonas
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Are differences in population prevalence of alcohol's harm to others related to survey administration mode?2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 375-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study assessed the comparability of estimates of alcohol's harm to others across different administration modes in Swedish general population surveys. Harm was categorised as harm from strangers' drinking and harm from heavy drinkers known to the respondent. Design and Methods. Three surveys were conducted in 2011/2012 (n=6841), including identical questions. One was based on self-administered postal or Web questionnaires, and two were based on computer-assisted telephone interviews of which one included a more ambitious procedure in terms of for example monetary incentives to the respondents. Pearson (2)-tests were used to compare differences in the prevalence of harm. To estimate potential effects of survey mode, the samples were pooled, and multivariate Poisson regression models with mode as explanatory variable were used, adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Results. Respondents in the two computer-assisted telephone interviews were more likely to report harm from strangers' drinking compared with respondents in the self-administered postal or Web questionnaires. However, no significant differences were found between survey modes concerning reports of harm from known people's drinking. Discussion and Conclusions. A survey mode based on interviews seems to facilitate reports of harm from strangers' drinking. This does not apply to reports of harm from known people's drinking. Therefore, the comparability of estimates of alcohol's harm to others between survey modes depends on the type of harm being studied.

  • 40.
    Wilkinson, C
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Warnings on alcohol containers and advertisements: international experience and evidence on effects.2009In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 28, p. 426-435Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Wilkinson, C
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Livingston, M
    Mapping Australian public opinion on alcohol policies in the new millenium.2009In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 28, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 41 of 41
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