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  • 1. Agardh, Emilie E.
    et al.
    Allebeck, Peter
    Flodin, Pär
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Knudsen, Ann Kristin
    Øverland, Simon
    Kinge, Jonas Minet
    Tollånes, Mette C.
    Eikemo, Terje A.
    Skogen, Jens Christoffer
    Mäkelä, Pia
    Gissler, Mika
    Juel, Knud
    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim
    McGrath, John J.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Alcohol-attributed disease burden in four Nordic countries between 2000 and 2017: Are the gender gaps narrowing? A comparison using the Global Burden of Disease, Injury and Risk Factor 2017 study2021Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 431-442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. The gender difference in alcohol use seems to have narrowed in the Nordic countries, but it is not clear to what extent this may have affected differences in levels of harm. We compared gender differences in all-cause and cause-specific alcohol-attributed disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years (DALY), in four Nordic countries in 2000-2017, to find out if gender gaps in DALYs had narrowed. Design and Methods. Alcohol-attributed disease burden by DALYs per 100 000 population with 95% uncertainty intervals were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease database. Results. In 2017, all-cause DALYs in males varied between 2531 in Finland and 976 in Norway, and in females between 620 in Denmark and 270 in Norway. Finland had the largest gender differences and Norway the smallest, closely followed by Sweden. During 2000-2017, absolute gender differences in all-cause DALYs declined by 31% in Denmark, 26% in Finland, 19% in Sweden and 18% in Norway. In Finland, this was driven by a larger relative decline in males than females; in Norway, it was due to increased burden in females. In Denmark, the burden in females declined slightly more than in males, in relative terms, while in Sweden the relative decline was similar in males and females. Discussion and Conclusions. The gender gaps in harm narrowed to a different extent in the Nordic countries, with the differences driven by different conditions. Findings are informative about how inequality, policy and sociocultural differences affect levels of harm by gender.

  • 2. Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Addictions and European policy: Has the 'European project' stifled science-led policy?2011Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 117-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Landberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Thern, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Using repeated measures to study the contribution of alcohol consumption and smoking to the social gradient in all‐cause mortality: Results from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort2023Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 42, nr 7, s. 1850-1859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The social gradient in consumption behaviours has been suggestedto partly explain health inequalities. The majority of previous studies have onlyincluded baseline measurements and not considered potential changes in behav-iours over time. The study aimed to investigate the contribution of alcohol con-sumption and smoking to the social gradient in mortality and to assess whetherthe use of repeated measurements results in larger attenuations of the main asso-ciation compared to using single baseline assessments.

    Methods: Longitudinal survey data from the population-based Stockholm PublicHealth Cohort from 2006 to 2014 was linked to register data on mortality until2018 for 13,688 individuals and analysed through Cox regression.

    Results: Low socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with increased mortal-ity compared with high SEP; hazard ratios 1.56 (95% CI 1.30–1.88) for occupa-tional status and 1.77 (95% CI 1.49–2.11) for education, after adjustment fordemographic characteristics. Using repeated measurements, alcohol consumptionand smoking explained 44% of the association between occupational status andall-cause mortality. Comparing repeated and baseline measures, the percentageattenuation due to alcohol consumption increased from 11% to 18%, whereas itremained similar for smoking (25–23%).

    Discussion and Conclusions: Smoking and alcohol consumption explained alarge part of the association between SEP and mortality. Comparing results fromtime-fixed and time-varying models, there was an increase in overall percentageattenuation that was mainly due to the increased proportion explained by alcoholconsumption. Repeated measurements provide a better estimation of the contri-bution of alcohol consumption, but not smoking, for the association between SEPand mortality.

  • 4. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Miller, Caroline
    Wilson, Carlene
    Parental drinking in Australia: Does the age of children in the home matter?2019Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 306-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims Parental role modelling of alcohol use is known to influence alcohol consumption in adolescence and in later life. This study aimed to assess relationships between parental status, child age and alcohol consumption, which have not been well documented. Design and Methods Data were sourced from the 2013 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Analyses were conducted for 25-55 year olds (n = 11 591) by parental status, gender and age of youngest child in the household, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Results Parents were less likely than non-parents to exceed the alcohol guideline for increased lifetime risk (18.2% vs. 24.2%) and short-term risk: at least weekly (14.2% vs. 21.2%); and at least monthly (27.5% vs. 35.9%). Fathers were just as likely to exceed the guidelines for lifetime risk as other men, but those with children aged 0-2, were less likely to exceed the guideline for short-term risk. Women were least likely to exceed the guideline for lifetime risk if they had children aged 0-2, 6-11 or 15 years and over, or the guideline for short-term risk, if they had children aged 0-2, or 15 years and over in the household. Parents were more likely to report drinking in the home. Discussion and Conclusions Parents were less likely to exceed alcohol guidelines than non-parents, especially mothers whose youngest child was an infant or in high school or older. Consistent with population rates in men, fathers were more likely to exceed alcohol guidelines than mothers, and this excess consumption warrants public health attention.

  • 5. Brunborg, Geir Scott
    et al.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Storvoll, Elisabet E.
    Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 389-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. To identify latent developmental episodic heavy drinking (EHD) trajectory groups for Norwegian adolescents, investigate risk factors associated with group membership and to assess differences in alcohol problems between different groups in early adulthood. Design and Methods. Data were from 1266 individuals measured at four time points from age 13/14years to age 26/27years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify groups with different EHD development. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigated if gender, impulsivity, school commitment, parents' socio-economic status, frequency of seeing parents drunk and parental knowledge could predict group membership. Differences in alcohol problem scores at age 26/27 were also assessed. Results. Four trajectory groups were identified: stable high', early increasers', late increasers' and stable low'. Membership of the high-risk trajectory groups stable high' and early increasers' was predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. The risk of alcohol problems at age 26/27 was greater for the stable high' group, the early increasers' and the late increasers' compared with the stable low' group. The stable high' and early increasers' had similar risk of alcohol problems. Discussion and Conclusions. Stable high and early increasing EHD in adolescence was associated with more alcohol problems in early adulthood. Such trajectories were predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. [Brunborg GS, Norstrom T, Storvoll EE. Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome.

  • 6. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Dietze, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Heavy drinking occasions in Australia: Do context and beverage choice differ from low-risk drinking occasions?2014Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 354-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. The aim of the current study is to look for differences in drink choice and drinking location between a recent heavy drinking occasion (RHDO) and usual low-risk occasions among those that recently had both types of drinking occasion. Design and Methods. Seven hundred and seventy-four respondents to a population-based survey reported having a RHDO [8 + Australian standard drinks (ASD) for females, 11 + ASD for males] in the past six months also reported that their usual drinking occasion in at least one location involved less than five ASD. Drink choice and drinking locations for the RHDO and usual low-risk occasions were compared using confidence intervals. Results. The RHDO was more likely than usual low-risk occasions to occur away from licensed premises (59%), despite a higher percentage of respondents reporting drinking at a pub, bar or nightclub on a RHDO (28%) than on a usual low-risk night (12%). A higher percentage of respondents nominated bottled spirits (33%) as their main drink for their RHDO, with 11% primarily drinking bottled spirits on a usual low-risk occasion; the converse was true for bottled wine (20% and 33%, respectively). Discussion and Conclusions. While the high proportion of RHDOs that occurred at least in part at pubs or nightclubs was not surprising, a high proportion also occur in private homes. Previously found links between heavy drinking and beer may be a reflection of the usual drink choice of heavier drinkers, rather a choice specific to a particularly heavy occasion.

  • 7. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Dietze, Paul M.
    How much alcohol is consumed outside of the lifetime risk guidelines in Australia?2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 42-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of long-term risky drinking within the Australian population and the proportion of standard drinks that is consumed outside of the long-term risk (LTR) guidelines of two Australian standard drinks (ASD) per day.

    Design and Methods. Recruited by phone, 2020 Australian adults with an oversampling of risky drinkers were asked detailed questions about how much alcohol they consumed at a range of locations in 2013. Descriptive statistical analyses of data weighted to be representative of the Australian adult population were undertaken, with a focus on the ASD consumed above the LTR guidelines.

    Results. Although 28% of respondents drink at levels above the LTR drinking guidelines, 56% of all ASD consumed are above the two per day recommended to reduce LTR. Three-quarters of cask wine and liqueurs were consumed outside of the LTR guidelines, as were 58% of all ASD consumed in the home, similar to the proportion of ASD consumed above the guidelines in pubs (55%).

    Discussion and Conclusions. While the minority of Australians drink to LTR levels, the majority of alcohol is consumed by long-term risky drinkers. More research and policy focus on the patterns of alcohol consumption that lead to long-term risk, particularly outside of licensed premises, is required.

  • 8. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Mojica-Perez, Yvette
    Wright, Cassandra J. C.
    Livingston, Michael
    Kuntsche, Sandra
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Kuntsche, Emmanuel
    Purchasing, consumption, demographic and socioeconomic variables associated with shifts in alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic2021Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 183-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims: Restrictions introduced to reduce the spread of COVID-19 have had major impacts on the living circumstances of Australians. This paper aims to provide insight into shifts in alcohol consumption and associated factors during the epidemic. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional convenience sample of 2307 Australians aged 18 and over who drank at least monthly was recruited through social media. Respondents were asked about their alcohol consumption and purchasing in 2019 prior to the epidemic plus similar questions about their experiences in the month prior to being surveyed between 29 April and 16 May 2020. Results: Reports of average consumption before (3.53 drinks per day [3.36, 3.71 95% confidence interval]) and during (3.52 [3.34, 3.69]) the pandemic were stable. However, young men and those who drank more outside the home in 2019 reported decreased consumption during the pandemic, and people with high levels of stress and those who bulk-bought alcohol when restrictions were announced reported an increase in consumption relative to those who did not. Discussion and Conclusions: A reported increase in consumption among those experiencing more stress suggests that some people may have been drinking to cope during the epidemic. Conversely, the reported decrease in consumption among those who drank more outside of their home in 2019 suggests that closing all on-trade sales did not result in complete substitution of on-premise drinking with home drinking in this group. Monitoring of relevant subgroups to assess long-term changes in consumption in the aftermath of the epidemic is recommended.

  • 9. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia.
    Livingston, Michael
    Changes in Australian attitudes to alcohol policy: 1995–20102014Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 227-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    In 2009 Wilkinson and colleagues reported a downward trend in support for alcohol policyrestrictions in Australia between 1995 and 2004. The aim of the current study is to examine more recent data on policy supportin Australia, specifically for policies covering alcohol availability up to 2010, and to examine specific demographic shifts insupport.

    Design and Methods

    Data was taken from the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys from 1995, 1998,2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010 (n = 80 846), primarily responses to attitude items on policy restriction and demographicquestions. The effects of age, sex, drinking patterns and income over time on three items addressing restriction of alcoholavailability were assessed using a factorial analysis of variance.

    Results

    Although availability items are among the lesspopular policy restrictions put forward in the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, 2004 actually represented a turningpoint in the decrease in popularity, with an increase in support since then.Though some groups show consistently higher ratesof support than others for policy restrictions, the rate of change in support was fairly uniform across demographic and drinkinggroups.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Despite the lack of an obvious catalyst, there has been an increase in support foralcohol policy restriction as it relates to general availability and accessibility since 2004. Furthermore, this increase does notappear to be a reflection of a change in a specific group of people, but appears to be occurring across the Australian population.

  • 10. Caluzzi, Gabriel
    et al.
    Pennay, Amy
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Callinan, Sarah
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Dwyer, Robyn
    Beyond ‘drinking occasions’: Examining complex changes in drinking practices during COVID-192022Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 1267-1274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: ‘Drinking occasions’ are commonly used to capture quantities of alcohol consumed. Yet this standardised terminology brings with it numerous assumptions and epistemological limitations. We suggest that social changes brought on by COVID-19 restrictions have influenced routines, patterns of time use and drinking practices, highlighting the need to re-examine how we conceptualise drinking and ‘drinking occasions’ in alcohol research. Methods: This analysis draws on data gathered from 59 qualitative interviews conducted during the second half of 2020 with Australian drinkers aged 18 and over. The interviews explored how COVID-19 restrictions impacted daily practices and alcohol consumption patterns. Findings: Participants spoke about their work, study and social routines changing, which influenced the times, timing and contexts of their drinking practices. We separated these shifts into four overarching themes: shifting of structures shaping drinking; the permeability of drinking boundaries; the extension of drinking occasions; and new contexts for drinking. Discussion and Conclusion: COVID-19 restrictions have led to shifts in the temporal boundaries and contexts that would otherwise shape people's drinking, meaning drinking practices may be less bound by structures, norms, settings and rituals. The drinking occasions concept, although a simple tool for measuring how much people drink, has not been able to capture these complex developments. This is a timely consideration given that COVID-19 may have enduring effects on people's lifestyles, work and drinking practices. It may be useful to examine drinking as practice, rather than just an occasion, in order to better contextualise epidemiological studies going forward. 

  • 11. Gomes de Matos, Elena
    et al.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institute for Therapeutic Research, Germany.
    Hannemann, Tessa-Virginia
    Soellner, Renate
    Piontek, Daniela
    Cross-cultural variation in the association between family's socioeconomic status and adolescent alcohol use2017Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 797-804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study estimates cross-country variation in socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use and identifies country-level characteristics associated with these disparities. Design and Methods. The association between socioeconomic status (family wealth and parental education) and alcohol use (lifetime use and episodic heavy drinking) of 15- to 16-year-olds from 32 European countries was investigated. Country-level characteristics were national income, income inequality and per capita alcohol consumption. Multilevel modelling was applied. Results. Across countries, lifetime use was lower in wealthy than in less wealthy families (odds ratio [OR]((girls))=0.95, OR(boys)=0.94). The risk of episodic heavy drinking, in contrast, was higher for children from wealthier families (OR(girls)=1.04, OR(boys)=1.08) and lower when parents were highly educated (ORs=0.95-0.98). Socioeconomic disparities varied substantially between countries. National wealth and income inequality were associated with cross-country variation of disparities in lifetime use in few comparisons, such that among girls, the (negative) effect of family wealth was greatest in countries with unequally distributed income (OR=0.86). Among boys, the (negative) effect of family wealth was greatest in low-income countries (OR=1.00), and the (positive) effect of mothers' education was greatest in countries with high income inequality (OR=1.11). Discussion and Conclusions. Socioeconomic disparities in adolescent alcohol use vary across European countries. Broad country-level indicators can explain this variation only to a limited extent, but results point towards slightly greater socioeconomic disparities in drinking in countries of low national income and countries with a high income inequality. [Gomes de Matos E, Kraus L, Hannemann T-V, Soellner R, Piontek D. Cross-cultural variation in the association between family's socioeconomic status and adolescent alcohol use.

  • 12. Gripe, Isabella
    et al.
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Thor, Siri
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Are the well‐off youth in Sweden more likely to use cannabis?2021Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 126-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Results from previous research are inconsistent regarding the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cannabis use among adolescents. Since there are risks associated with cannabis use, a social gradient in cannabis use may contribute to reproducing socioeconomic differences in life opportunities. The aim of this study was to assess the association between childhood SES and cannabis use among youth in Sweden. Design and Methods. We used repeated cross‐sectional data from three waves (2014–2016) of the Swedish national school survey among 11th graders. The analysis encompassed 9497 individuals in 668 school classes. Childhood SES was measured through parents' highest education, as reported by the students. Cannabis use was measured in terms of lifetime use and frequency of use. Data were analysed using multi‐level mixed‐effects Poisson regression. Results. Adolescents with at least 1 parent with university/college education had 17% (incidence rate ratio 1.17, confidence interval 1.05, 1.30) higher risk of lifetime use of cannabis compared with those whose parents had no university/college education, adjusting for sex, SES of the school environment, academic orientation, truancy, risk assessment and parental permissiveness. Among life‐time users of cannabis, risk for frequent cannabis use was 28% (incidence rate ratio 0.72, confidence interval 0.53, 0.97) lower for those with at least 1 parent with university or college education. Discussion and Conclusions. Childhood SES, in terms of parental education, was associated with cannabis use among Swedish adolescents. Adolescents from families with lower SES were less likely to ever try cannabis, but at higher risk for frequent use.

  • 13. Jiang, Heng
    et al.
    Callinan, Sarah
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Turning Point, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Correlates of caring for the drinkers and others among those harmed by another's drinking2015Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 162-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and AimsThis study identifies the correlates of caring for harmful drinkers and others, and examines how caring for that person impacts on respondents' well-being and use of services. Design and MethodsThe study utilises the data from the 2008 Australian Alcohol Harm to Others Survey (n=2649), in which 778 respondents reported they were harmed because of the drinking of someone they knew. Respondents were asked about the person they were most adversely affected by and whether they spent time caring for this person because of their drinking. Logistic regression models are developed to examine which factors were associated with the prevalence of caring for others. ResultsThe study reveals that the respondents who cared for others because of the other's drinking reported lower quality of life than the respondents who did not have to do this. The results of the logistic regression suggest that respondents were more likely to care for the drinker if the drinker drank more (as the usual quantity of alcohol consumed increased), but less likely to care for the drinker if the drinker drank five or more drinks on more than four days per week. Discussion and ConclusionsThe findings of the study suggest that the drinking of family and friends can be a substantial burden for their households, families, friends and others. Policy approaches that reduce the amount of heavy drinking, particularly heavy drinking in a single occasion, are likely to reduce the burden of caring for others because of other's drinking.

  • 14. Jiang, Heng
    et al.
    Callinan, Sarah
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Off-premise alcohol purchasing in Australia: Variations by age group, income level and annual amount purchased2017Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 210-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. To delineate what type and how much alcohol is purchased from different types of off-licence premises and how this varies across demographic sub-groups, as a basis for public debate and decisions on pricing and planning policies to reduce alcohol-related harm in Australia. Design and Methods. The data on alcohol purchasing from off-licence premises are taken from the Australian Alcohol Consumption and Purchasing surveya nationally representative landline and mobile telephone survey in 2013 on the experiences with alcohol consumption and purchasing of 2020 Australians aged 16+. The present analysis uses data from 1730 respondents who purchased alcohol from off-licence premises in the previous 6months. Results. The majority (54%) of alcohol purchased from off-licence premises was sold from liquor barns (large warehouse-style alcohol stores), with bottle shops (31%) the second most common outlet. Cask wine was the cheapest alcohol available at off-licence premises in Australia. Respondents in higher alcohol purchasing quintiles and with those with lower income purchased a higher percentage of cheaper alcohol in their total volume of purchasing than lower purchasing quintiles and those with middle and higher income, and younger respondents purchased more expensive alcohol than older age groups. Discussion and Conclusions. A minimum unit price or increasing alcohol taxes may effectively reduce alcohol purchasing for lower income heavy alcohol purchasers and older age groups from off-licence premise sources, and may be less effective on younger age groups.

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Is there a gender paradox in the association between conduct problems and cannabis use? A cohort-study among Swedish adolescents2024Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 294-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Conduct problems (CP) predict cannabis use prospectively but the research is mixed as to whether this association is stronger among girls. A stronger association among girls would suggest a ‘gender paradox’ as both CP and cannabis use is less common in this group. This study aimed to assess whether the longitudinal association between CP and cannabis use in Swedish adolescents is stronger among girls.

    Methods

    Data from two waves of a nationally representative cohort study of Swedish adolescents born in 2001 were used. Baseline measurements were collected in 9th grade (at age 15–16) and follow-up measures at 11th grade (at age 17–18).

    Results

    CP at baseline were significantly associated with cannabis use at follow-up adjusted for hyperactivity problems, emotional problems, socio-demographics, parental monitoring, school grades and truancy at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.24) but not when also adjusting for substance use at baseline. Boys were more likely to have used cannabis during the past year, even when controlling for prior substance use (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.76–2.98). The association between CP and cannabis use was significantly weaker for boys (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72–0.95 in the fully adjusted model). The predicted probability of cannabis use was stable at 0.13 for boys across levels of CP, but ranged from 0.05 to 0.16 for girls.

    Discussion and Conclusion

    The longitudinal association between CP and cannabis use was stronger among girls. The findings are indicative of a ‘gender paradox’ in the association between CP and cannabis use.

  • 16.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany.
    Hay, Gordon
    Richardson, Clive
    Yargic, Ilhan
    Ilhan, Mustafa Necmi
    Ay, Pinar
    Karasahin, Füsun
    Pinarci, Mustafa
    Tuncoglu, Tolga
    Piontek, Daniela
    Schulte, Bernd
    Estimating high‐risk cannabis and opiate use in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir2017Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 626-632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Information on high-risk drug use in Turkey, particularly at the regional level, is lacking. The present analysis aims at estimating high-risk cannabis use (HRCU) and high-risk opiate use (HROU) in the cities of Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir. Design and Methods. Capture–recapture and multiplier methods were applied based on treatment and police data stratified by age and gender in the years 2009 and 2010. Case definitions refer to ICD-10 cannabis (F.12) and opiate (F.11) disorder diagnoses from outpatient and inpatient treatment records and illegal possession of these drugs as recorded by the police. Results. High-risk cannabis use was estimated at 28 500 (8.5 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 7.3–10.3) and 33 400 (11.9 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 10.7–13.5) in Ankara and Izmir, respectively. Using multipliers based on capture–recapture estimates for Izmir, HRCU in Istanbul was estimated up to 166 000 (18.0 per 1000; range: 2.8–18.0). Capture–recapture estimates of HROU resulted in 4800 (1.4 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 0.9–1.9) in Ankara and multipliers based on these gave estimates up to 20 000 (2.2 per 1000; range: 0.9-2.2) in Istanbul. HROU in Izmir was not estimated due to the low absolute numbers of opiate users. Discussion and Conclusions. While HRCU prevalence in both Ankara and Izmir was considerably lower in comparison to an estimate for Berlin, the rate for Istanbul was only slightly lower. Compared with the majority of European cities, HROU in these three Turkish cities may be considered rather low. [Kraus L, Hay G, Richardson C, Yargic I, Ilhan N M, Ay P, Karasahin F, Pinarci M, Tuncoglu T, Piontek D, Schulte B Estimating high-risk cannabis and opiate use in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;00:000-000]

  • 17.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Seitz, Nicki-Nils
    Loy, Johanna Katharina
    Trolldal, Björn
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Has beverage composition of alcohol consumption in Sweden changed over time? An age-period-cohort analysis2022Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 153-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. In recent years, beverage composition of total alcohol consumption has changed substantially in Sweden. As beverage choice is strongly associated with drinking practices, our paper aims to analyse trends in beverage composition of alcohol consumption by age, period and cohort. Methods. Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was conducted using monthly data from the Swedish Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2003-2018). The sample consisted of n = 260 633 respondents aged 16-80 years. APC analysis was conducted on drinkers only (n = 193 954; 96 211 males, 97 743 females). Beverage composition was defined as the beverage-specific proportion of total intake in litre ethanol. Fractional multinomial logit regression was applied to estimate the independent effects of age, period and cohort on trends in beverage composition. Results. Regression models revealed statistically significant effects of age on all beverages except for medium-strength beer and spirits in males. Controlling for age and cohort, decreasing trends were found over time for medium-strength beer and spirits. The proportion of regular beer increased statistically significantly in males and the proportion of wine in females, whereas the trends for the opposite sex remained stable in each case. Predictions for cohorts showed statistically significant decreasing trends for medium-strength beer in males, lower proportions for regular beer and higher proportions for spirits in the youngest cohorts. Discussion and Conclusions. The increasing proportion of wine drinking, which is associated with less risky drinking practices, may decrease alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Increasing proportions of spirits in the youngest cohorts raises concerns of a possible revival in spirits consumption among the youngest.

  • 18.
    Landberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Alcohol and suicide in Eastern Europe2008Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 361-373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The aim of this paper was to estimate how suicide rates in seven eastern European countries are affected by changes in population drinking and to put the results into a comparative perspective. DESIGN AND METHODS: The analysis included data on annual suicide mortality rates and per capita consumption for the post-war period from: Russia, Belarus, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, the former Czechoslovakia and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Overall and gender-specific models were estimated using the Box-Jenkins technique for time-series analysis. The estimates were pooled into two groups, i.e. spirits countries (Russia, Belarus and Poland) and non-spirits countries (Hungary, Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia and former GDR). RESULTS: All countries obtained positive alcohol effect estimates. The effects on the overall population were largest in the spirits countries, where a 1-litre increase in per capita consumption was associated with an increase in overall suicide rates of 5.7-7.5%. The effects were somewhat smaller in the non-spirits countries, 2.7-4.7%. The estimates for males were larger, but showed the same national variations as the overall population estimates. The female estimates were generally smaller than for men and did not differ between the two country groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that per capita consumption matters for suicide mortality in these eastern European countries, but that the strength of the relationship is contingent upon the drinking culture, so that it tends to be stronger in countries with detrimental drinking patterns.

  • 19.
    Landberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Trolldal, Björn
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Is the theory of collectivity of drinking cultures valid across educational groups?2021Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 472-480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction 

    To explore whether Skog's theory of collectivity of drinking cultures is valid across groups with different socioeconomic position (SEP).

    Methods

    Individual‐level information on alcohol consumption and SEP for the years 2004–2014 were retrieved from the Monitoring Project; a nationally representative monthly alcohol use survey. The analytical sample consisted of 162 369 respondents aged 25–79 years. SEP was measured by education level. Alcohol use was measured by yearly volume of consumption and frequency of heavy episodic drinking (HED). Respondents were divided into six SEP‐groups based on their education level and sex. Mean yearly volume consumption and prevalence of monthly HED was calculated for each group and graphically plotted against the overall mean volume of consumption.

    Results

    The yearly changes in overall mean consumption during the study period reflected a collective shift in drinking across groups with basic, intermediate and high education. There were also indications that changes in overall mean consumption reflected collective shifts in the prevalence of HED across the SEP‐groups. Moreover, while the magnitude of the associations for both average volume and HED differed somewhat in strength across the SEP‐groups, they were clearly in the same, positive, direction.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Our findings add support for including a socioeconomic dimension to Skog's theory of collectivity of drinking cultures. Future studies should replicate our analyses on cases and periods with more tangible changes in the price and availability of alcohol.

  • 20. Laslett, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Jiang, Heng
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Alcohol's involvement in an array of harms to intimate partners2017Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 72-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionHarms from intimate partners' (IP) drinking range from frustration because the partner has not performed their role to assault. AimTo describe the prevalence and persistence of alcohol-related harms to IPs and assess which respondents are more likely to report discontinuation of this harm. Design and methodsCross-sectional (n=2649) and follow-up (n=1106) alcohol's harm to others telephone surveys in 2008 and 2011 (response rates of 35% and 15% of the original sample respectively) were used to elicit harms to respondents from their IP's drinking (by gender and relationship). To examine discontinuation, a sub-sample of 83 respondents was analysed in detail. ResultsA total of 6.7% of Australians were negatively affected by an IP's drinking in 2008. Women were more likely to report harm than men from an IP's drinking. Of the 1106 respondents who completed both surveys, the majority (90%) reported no harm from IPs although 3% reported harm in both surveys. No significant correlates of discontinuation of harm were identified. DiscussionMany Australian relationships are affected in a range of ways because of the drinking of their IPs. A minority of respondents were affected by their IP's drinking, yet over half (57%) of those harmed in 2008 continued to experience harm in 2011. Additionally, half (46.9%) of those who were not harmed in 2008 but did live with a heavy drinking IP did go on to be harmed in 2011. More research on the role of alcohol-related harm from IPs with larger samples is required to examine predictors of change. [Laslett A-M, Jiang H, Room R. Alcohol's involvement in an array of harms to intimate partners. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:72-79]

  • 21. Lindeman, Mikaela
    et al.
    Katainen, Anu
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. University of Helsinki, Finland; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Kauppila, Emmi
    Hellman, Matilda
    Compliance with regulations and codes of conduct at social media accounts of Swedish alcohol brands2019Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 386-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aims

    This study has, for the first time, mapped the extent to which alcoholic beverage brands operating on the Swedish market follow national advertising regulations and industry self-regulating codes in their postings on social media.

    Design and methods

    All social media content posted on YouTube, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram by 52 brands operating in the Swedish market was gathered from three sample months in 2014, 2016 and 2017. A content analysis was performed.

    Results

    An audit of the 1204 posts shows that the brands' social media content conforms rather well with the industry's own self-regulation codes. However, the studied beverage brands had alarmingly inadequate age-gates to social media accounts. Advertisements for alcoholic beverages must be clearly distinguishable from advertisements for non-alcoholic beverages, according to the Swedish Alcohol Act criteria. These criteria are fulfilled to a varying degree among the posts in the analysed data. Advertisements for non-alcoholic beverages give companies a greater leeway in terms of shape and content of the post through logotypes, settings and connotations. However, advertisements of non-alcoholic beverages continue to convey the brand connotations and image to consumers.

    Discussion and conclusions

    Regulating alcohol advertising in online milieus can be very difficult because of the complex mixture between quickly evolving techniques and the diverse nature of communication messages targeting consumers. Many countries, including Sweden, are now focusing on how to enforce effective policies. This short report strives to shed some light on the scope and content of commercial messages on Swedish social media platforms.

  • 22. Miller, Mia
    et al.
    Wilkinson, Claire
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    O'Brien, Paula
    Townsend, Belinda
    Schram, Ashley
    Gleeson, Deborah
    Industry submissions on alcohol in the context of Australia's trade and investment agreements: A content and thematic analysis of publicly available documents2021Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 22-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, responsible for 3 million deaths in 2016. The alcohol industry is a powerful player in shaping trade and investment rules in ways that can constrain the ability of governments to regulate alcoholic beverages to reduce harm. This paper analyses publicly available submissions about alcohol in the context of Australia's free trade agreements to determine the key themes put forward by industry. Design and Methods: We searched for submissions made to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade by alcohol industry trade associations, alcohol manufacturers, distributors and retailers, general industry association, and government agencies with responsibilities for alcohol trade, about specific free trade agreements involving Australia. Thirty-one submissions in relation to eight trade agreements were included for analysis. The analysis involved both descriptive content analysis and thematic analysis. Results: Findings suggest that industry is actively seeking to shape trade negotiations around alcohol. Priority issues for the industry include improving market access, harmonising regulation, improving clarity and transparency, reducing the burden of regulation and preventing monopolies on product names. Discussion and Conclusion: The alcohol industry and associated business and government organisations are actively working to influence trade agreement negotiations for industry economic gain, arguing for rules which may undermine public health goals. The analysis suggests that public health experts should pay attention to trade and investment agreements and develop counter frames to ensure agreements do not create barriers for coherent health policies.

  • 23. Mugavin, Janette
    et al.
    MacLean, Sarah
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Callinan, Sarah
    Subgroups of adults who drink alcohol at low-risk levels: Diverse drinking patterns and demography2020Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 39, nr 7, s. 975-983Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. A significant minority of Australians drink within the 2009 national guidelines. Despite encouragement of low-risk drinking as opposed to consumption patterns associated with greater harm, little is known about the drinking patterns of this group. This paper identifies subgroups of low-risk drinkers and their distinguishable characteristics. Methods. Data were sourced from the 2016 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, specifically 8492 adults (18+) who consumed 1-730 Australian standard drinks (ASD; 10 g ethanol) in the past year, and never 5+ ASD on a single occasion. Cluster analysis enabled identification of subgroups from drinking variables. Drinking patterns, socio-demographic characteristics, drinking context and alcohol-related perceptions of subgroups were examined. Results. Three subgroups were identified.Special occasion drinkers(64.6%) drank low to moderate amounts very infrequently.Regular moderates(19.6%) andRegular sippers(15.8%) drank 5-6 days a week on average, with the average number of ASD per day 1.2 and 0.5, respectively.Special occasion drinkerstended to be younger than members of more regular drinking subgroups. Perceptions of regular alcohol use also differed betweenSpecial occasion drinkersand members of the other subgroups. Discussion. Alcohol consumption patterns among low-risk drinkers are not homogeneous. Younger drinkers who consume at low-risk levels are more likely to report infrequent consumption than moderate regular consumption. A better understanding of low-risk drinkers may help increase the prominence and acceptability of this type of drinking, challenge the normativity of heavier drinking norms and help target campaigns as new information emerges on health risks associated with low-level drinking.

  • 24. Nordström, T.
    et al.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Mortality and population drinking: a review of the literature2005Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 537-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review was to review research addressing the relationship between population drinking and health, particularly mortality. The review is based primarily on articles published in international journals after 1994 to February 2005, identified via Medline. The method used in most studies is time-series analysis based on autoregressive intergrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. The outcome measures covered included the following mortality indicators: mortality from liver cirrhosis and other alcohol-related diseases, accident mortality, suicide, homicide, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and all-cause mortality. The study countries included most of the EU member states as of 1995 (14 countries), Canada and the United States. For Eastern Europe there was only scanty evidence. The study period was in most cases the post-war period. There was a statistically significant relationship between per capita consumption and mortality from liver cirrhosis and other alcohol-related diseases in all countries. In about half the countries, there was a significant relationship between consumption, on one hand, and mortality from accidents and homicide as well as all-cause mortality on the other hand. A link between alcohol and suicide was found in all regions except for mid- and southern Europe. There was no systematic link between consumption and IHD mortality. Overall, a 1-litre increase in per capita consumption was associated with a stronger effect in northern Europe and Canada than in mid- and southern Europe. Research during the past decade has strengthened the notion of a relationship between population drinking and alcohol-related harm. At the same time, the marked regional variation in the magnitude of this relationship suggests the importance of drinking patterns for modifying the impact of alcohol. By and large, there was little evidence for any cardioprotective effect at the population level. It is a challenge for future research to reconcile this outcome with the findings from observational studies, most of which suggest a protective effect of moderate drinking.

  • 25.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Alcohol and homocide in the United States - is the link dependent on wetness?2011Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 458-465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Several aggregate-level studies have suggested that the relationship between alcohol and homicide is stronger in countries with an intoxication-oriented drinking pattern than in countries where drinking is more tempered. The present paper extends this research tradition by analysing the alcohol–homicide link in various regions in the USA.

    Design and Methods. I used annual time-series data for the US states covering the period 1950–2002. Alcohol sales figures were used as proxy for alcohol consumption. Mortality data were used as indicators of homicide. The states were sorted into three groups labelled Dry, Moderate and Wet, where the last group has the highest prevalence of hazardous drinking according to survey data. Group-specific data were analysed using (i) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling and (ii) fixed effects modelling. All modelling was based on differenced data, thus eliminating time trends and interstate correlations, both of which may bias estimates.

    Results. The ARIMA estimates displayed a statistically significant gradient in alcohol effects; the effect was strongest in Wet, and weakest and insignificant in Dry states. The fixed-effects estimates showed a corresponding pattern, although the gradient was less steep and insignificant. The gradient was also weakened if the effects were expressed in absolute rather than relative terms. The spatial pattern revealed no ecological correlation between alcohol and homicide.

    Discussion and Conclusions. Results provided mixed support for the hypothesis that the relationship between alcohol and homicide is stronger in wet than in dry states in the USA. Future research should probe more specific indicators of homicide as well as alcohol consumption.

  • 26.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Landberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The link between per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol‐related harm in educational groups2020Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 656-663Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Research based on individual‐level data suggests that the same amount of alcohol yields more harm in low‐socioeconomic status (SES) groups than in high‐SES groups. Little is known whether the effect of changes in population‐level alcohol consumption on harm rates differs by SES‐groups. The aim of this study was to elucidate this issue by estimating the association between per capita alcohol consumption and SES‐specific rates of alcohol‐related mortality.

    Design and Methods

    Per capita alcohol consumption was proxied by Systembolaget's alcohol sales (litres 100% alcohol per capita 15+). Quarterly data on mortality and alcohol consumption spanned the period 1991Q1‐2017Q4. We used two outcomes: (i) alcohol‐specific mortality (deaths with an explicit alcohol diagnosis); and (ii) violent deaths. SES was measured by education. We used three educational groups: (i) low (<10 years); (ii): intermediate (10–12 years); and (iii) high (13+ years). We applied error correction modelling to estimate the association between alcohol and alcohol‐specific mortality, and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average‐modelling to estimate the association between alcohol and violent deaths.

    Results

    The estimated associations between per capita consumption and the two outcomes were positive and statistically significant in the two groups with low and intermediate education, but not in the high education group. There was a significant gradient in the level of association between alcohol consumption and alcohol‐related harm by educational group; the association was stronger the lower the educational group.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Our findings suggest that the association between per capita consumption and alcohol‐related harm was stronger the lower the educational group.

  • 27.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Landberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Trolldal, Björn
    Drinking and acquisition of unrecorded alcohol across educational groups in Sweden2022Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 160-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is estimated that 18.5% of total alcohol consumption in Sweden in 2018 was unrecorded. However, little is known about the socio-economic profile of consumers of unrecorded alcohol. The aim of this study was to elucidate this issue by analysing data from a unique Swedish national repeated cross-sectional alcohol use survey.

    Methods: Individual-level information on alcohol consumption and socio-economic status (SES) for the years 2013–2018 was retrieved from the Monitoring Project; a nationally representative monthly alcohol use survey. The analytical sample comprised 64 375 respondents aged 25–74 years. SES was measured by educational level. We used three educational groups: (i) low (<10 years); (ii) intermediate (10–12 years); and (iii) high (13+ years). We included indicators of the following sources of unrecorded alcohol consumption: travellers' import, smuggled alcohol, home production, internet and illicit home-distilling. We estimated adjusted SES-specific means of the various forms of unrecorded consumption. The means were adjusted for the effects of age, sex and region.

    Results: There were no significant educational differences in the total of unrecorded alcohol consumption; the same holds true for home-production and internet. However, with respect to smuggled and home-distilling, a statistically significant educational gradient was observed with the lowest educational group scoring approximately four times higher than the highest.

    Discussion and Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are no differences across educational groups in the consumption of unrecorded alcohol as a whole. However, consumption of smuggled alcohol and illicitly distilled spirits is elevated in the low educational group.

  • 28.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mäkelä, Pia
    The connection between per capita alcohol consumption and alcohol-specific mortality accounting for unrecorded alcohol consumption: The case of Finland 1975-20152019Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 38, nr 7, s. 731-736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption has increased strongly in Finland after 1995 when the country joined the European Union. This development may have rendered alcohol sales less trustworthy as a proxy for population drinking, and less powerful as predictor of alcohol‐related harm. The study aims to test this contention by analyzing the association between recorded and unrecorded alcohol consumption on the one hand, and alcohol‐specific mortality on the other.

    Design and Methods

    We analysed age‐standardised rates of alcohol‐specific deaths for the working‐age (15–64 years) population. For alcohol consumption, we used (i) alcohol sales in litres of 100% alcohol per capita, and (ii) estimated unrecorded consumption in litres of 100% alcohol per capita. The data spanned the period 1975–2015. As the data were cointegrated, the relations between mortality and the alcohol indicators were estimated through time‐series analysis of the raw data.

    Results

    A one litre increase in alcohol sales was associated with an increase in alcohol‐specific deaths of 7.590 deaths per 100 000; the corresponding figure for unrecorded consumption was 9.112 deaths per 100 000. Both estimates were statistically significant (P < 0.001), but the difference between them was not significant (P = 0.293). Although recoded consumption captured the main feature of the trends in alcohol‐specific mortality, it accounted for only half of its marked increase in 1975–2007, while unrecorded consumption explained the remaining part.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Our study confirms previous findings that recorded alcohol consumption is an important determinant of alcohol‐specific mortality in Finland. A more novel insight is the importance of unrecorded consumption in this context.

  • 29.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Sweden.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Drinking trajectories of at‐risk groups: Does the theory of the collectivity of drinking apply?2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr S1, s. S15-S21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Alcohol consumption among Swedish adolescents has halved during the last decade. We aim to: (i) investigate whether the overall decrease in drinking may conceal an underlying heterogeneity in drinking trajectories across at‐risk groups that differ with respect to risk for drinking and; (ii) assess to what degree alcohol‐related harm has responded to this decrease.

    Design and Methods

    Data were obtained from the nationally representative annual school survey of alcohol and drug habits among Swedish ninth‐grade students covering the period 2000–2012 (n ≈ 5000/year). Respondents were divided into five at‐risk groups ranging from low to high based on their relative ranking on a risk scale for drinking. Alcohol consumption was measured by beverage‐specific quantity and frequency items summarised into a measure of overall drinking in litres of 100% alcohol per year. Alcohol‐related harm was measured by eight items asking about whether the respondent had experienced various alcohol‐related negative consequences.

    Results

    Drinking and alcohol‐related harm decreased in all five at‐risk groups. There was a marked relation between the overall consumption and the mean consumption in each of the five at‐risk groups. Self‐reported alcohol‐related harm decreased during the study period to an extent that was expected from the decrease in alcohol consumption.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Alcohol consumption among Swedish youth has declined in five groups that were delineated based on their relative ranking on a risk factor index. The findings are consistent with Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking behaviour. [Norström T, Raninen J. Drinking trajectories of at‐risk groups: Does the theory of the collectivity of drinking apply?.

  • 30.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Pape, Hilde
    Social inequality in youth violence: The role of heavy episodic drinking2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 162-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. Alcohol use is an important risk factor for violence, and violent behaviour is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups. The aim of this study was to examine whether the SES difference in youth violence can be explained by differential exposure to—and/or differential vulnerability to—heavy episodic drinking (HED). In the latter case, effect modification by impulsivity could be assumed. Design and Methods. We analysed cross-sectional data from a school survey of 15- to 17-year-olds in Norway (n = 9853). We employed two measures of low-SES group. Associations between SES, HED and violence were estimated by Poisson regressions, applying a residual centring procedure to test effect modification. Results. Violent behaviour frequency, HED frequency and impulsivity scores were all elevated in the low-SES group. The SES difference in violent behaviour was significantly reduced when adjusting for HED. The stronger association between HED and violence in the low, compared with the medium-SES/high-SES group, was modified when accounting for impulsivity. Sensitivity analyses suggested robust findings. Discussion and Conclusions. The findings lend support to both the differential exposure hypothesis and to the differential vulnerability hypothesis as well as the hypothesis of an enhancing effect of impulsivity on the HED—violence association. The SES difference in youth violence can be accounted for by: (i) an elevated prevalence of HED in low-SES groups; and (ii) a stronger than average link between HED and violence in low-SES groups due to their higher than average impulsivity score. [Norström T, Rossow I, Pape H. Social inequality in youth violence: The role of heavy episodic drinking. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]

  • 31.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Stickley, Andrew
    Shibuya, Kenji
    The importance of alcoholic beverage type for suicide in Japan: A time-series analysis, 1963-20072012Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 251-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Japan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Cohort analysis has suggested that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for suicide in Japan. However, this relationship has not been observed at the population level when a measure of per capita total alcohol consumption has been analysed. The present study employed a time-series analysis to examine whether these contradictory findings may be due to the existence of beverage-specific effects on suicide. Methods. An autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to assess the relationship between the consumption of different types of alcohol and suicide rates from 1963 to 2007. The data comprised age-adjusted suicide rates for the ages 15-69, and information on beverage-specific alcohol consumption per capita (15+). The unemployment rate was included as a control variable. Results. During 1963-2007, male suicide rates increased substantially whereas female rates decreased slightly. Consumption of distilled spirits was significantly related to male suicide rates (but not in women) with a 1 L increase in consumption associated with a 21.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.2-42.9) increase in male suicide rates. There was no statistically significant relationship between suicide and any other form of alcohol consumption (beer, wine, other alcohol). Conclusion. This is the first study that has shown an association between spirits consumption and male suicide in Japan. Potentially beneficial policy changes include increasing spirits prices through taxation, reducing the physical availability of alcohol and discouraging the practice of heavy drinking.

  • 32.
    Paglia, Angela
    et al.
    Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada.
    The international drug control system in the post-Cold War era: managing markets or fighting a war?1999Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 305-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The core institutions and scope of the international drug control system are described. The system has grown in participation and particularly in scope and ambitions since it was studied in the early 1970s by Bruun and colleagues. Its premises are notably in conflict with the currently dominant ideologies of a free-market global economy although, as earlier, the United States plays a dominant role in the drug control system. At a time when it is seen as a failure in its primary aims both from inside and from outside, defenses of the system have ranged from rousing rhetorical appeals to efforts to “de-sensationalize” the issues.

  • 33. Pape, Hilde
    et al.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research (SIRUS), Norway.
    Associations between emotional distress and heavy drinking among young people: A longitudinal study2016Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 170-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    This study adds to the meagre body of longitudinal research on the link between emotional distress and alcohol use among young people. We address the following research questions: Are symptoms of anxiety and depressed mood likely to be causally related to heavy episodic drinking (HED)? Does the association change as individuals move from adolescence to early adulthood?

    Design and Methods

    Data stemmed from a national sample of young people in Norway that was assessed in 1992 (T1; mean age = 14.9 years), 1994 (T2), 1999 (T3) and 2005 (T4) (response rate: 60%, n= 2171). We applied fixed-effects modelling, implying that intra-individual changes in the frequency of HED were regressed on intra-individual changes in emotional distress. Hence, confounding due to stable underlying influences was eliminated. Self-perceived loneliness was included as a time-varying covariate.

    Results

    Emotional distress was unrelated to HED in adolescence (T1 to T2). In the transition from adolescence to early adulthood (T2 to T3), changes in depressiveness were positively and independently associated with changes in HED, whereas changes symptoms of anxiety were not. A similar pattern emerged in early adulthood (T3 to T4).

    Discussion and Conclusions

    The potential causal relationship between emotional distress and heavy drinking did not manifest itself in adolescence, but increased symptoms of depressiveness were related to more frequent HED in subsequent periods of life. Hence, this study provides conditional support to the notion that emotional distress and HED may be causally related and indicates that the association among young people may be specific to depressiveness. [Pape H, Norström T. Associations between emotional distress and heavy drinking among young people: A longitudinal study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:170–6]

  • 34. Patsouras, Maree
    et al.
    Riordan, Benjamin C.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Kuntsche, Emmanuel
    Support for policies restricting alcohol exposure in films: Does feeding back the amount of alcohol in films increase support?2024Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 132-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Alcohol exposure is common in popular films, and research has demonstrated a link between alcohol exposure and use. The likelihood of implementing specific policies to reduce the amount of film exposure is dependent on the level of public support; however, evidence is currently lacking. This study investigated how supportive people are of film-related alcohol policies and whether providing information about the amount of film exposure increased support.

    Methods: Australian adults (N = 252) first provided estimates of how much alcohol they thought were in popular films and then were randomised to either see an infographic about the amount of alcohol in films or not. All participants rated how supportive they were of eight policies.

    Results: The items ‘alcoholic beverages and consumption should not be shown in G or PG rated films’ (M = 3.54) and ‘alcohol should not be glorified in films’ (M = 3.49) were rated significantly higher than the scale's midpoint of 3 (p < 0.001). Participants who were older, female or reported lower alcohol use were more supportive of the policies. Only one policy item, ‘information about alcohol sponsorship should be provided’ received higher support from those who received the infographic compared to those who did not (M = 3.53 vs. M = 3.05; t(250) = −3.09, p = 0.002).

    Discussion and Conclusion: Participants were relatively supportive of film alcohol policies. However, providing information about the amount of alcohol in films did not make a difference on the level of support for most film alcohol policies.

  • 35. Pennay, Amy
    et al.
    Holmes, John
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Livingston, Michael
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Researching the decline in adolescent drinking: The need for a global and generational approach2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, s. 115-119Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent alcohol consumption has been in decline across many high-income countries since the early to mid-2000s. This is a significant public health trend, with few documented examples from history where such a global downward shift in alcohol consumption has occurred primarily among the adolescent segment of the population. In this commentary we describe the nature and breadth of the trend; reflect on the environmental, social and policy factors that have been proffered; and argue that to adequately understand and support the maintenance of these trends, three important methodological considerations are needed for future research. Firstly, longitudinal panel and qualitative studies are needed to complement and inform continuing cross-sectional research. Secondly, a collaborative cross-cultural approach is needed to contextualise the international scale of the trend and thirdly, future research must be situated within a historical and generational perspective to understand declines in adolescent drinking in the context of a broader shift in adolescent behaviours.

  • 36. Raitasalo, Kirsimarja
    et al.
    Rossow, Ingeborg
    Moan, Inger Synnøve
    Bye, Elin K.
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Thor, Siri
    Stockholms universitet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Ola
    Pisinger, Veronica
    Arnarsson, Ársæll
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Changes in co-use of alcohol and cannabis among Nordic adolescents in the 21st century: Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs study2024Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 616-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the 21st century, there has been a decline in alcohol use among adolescents in most Nordic countries, while trends of cannabis use have diverged. We explore how alcohol and cannabis use, respectively, and co-use of the two substances, have changed among Nordic adolescents. Three hypotheses are used to frame the study: (i) cannabis use has substituted alcohol use; (ii) there has been a parallel decline in both substances; and/or (iii) there has been a ‘hardening’ of users, implying that alcohol users increasingly use cannabis.

    Methods: Data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, conducted among 15- to 16-year-olds in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (N = 74,700, 49% boys), were used to explore trends of past-year alcohol and cannabis use in the period 2003–2019.

    Results: The proportion of adolescents reporting alcohol use decreased significantly in all Nordic countries except Denmark. The proportion of those using cannabis only was low (0.0%–0.7%) and stable in all countries. The total number of substance use occasions declined among all adolescents in all countries but Denmark. Among alcohol users, cannabis use became increasingly prevalent in all countries but Denmark.

    Discussion and Conclusions: We found no support for the ‘parallel decline hypothesis' in alcohol and cannabis use among Nordic adolescents. Partially in line with the ‘substitution hypothesis’, cannabis use accounted for an increasing proportion of all substance use occasions. Our results suggests that the co-use of alcohol and cannabis has become more common, thus also providing support to the ‘hardening’ hypothesis.

  • 37.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Alcohol and suicide at the population level: the Canadian experience2005Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 203-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies suggest that the population level link between alcohol and suicide differs across countries and between men and women. The aim of this paper was to estimate the relationship between alcohol consumption and suicide in Canada and to put the results in a comparative perspective. The relationship was elucidated for whole Canada, different provinces and also separately for men and women. The total suicide rate in Canada increased significantly by around 4% as alcohol consumption increased by one litre per capita, suggesting that approximately 25 - 30% of Canadian suicides were related to alcohol. The relationship was stronger for women than for men. A significant effect was found in all provinces except from Quebec, but the overall regional variation was not statistically significant. In an international perspective, the relationship for women was somewhat weaker than in Sweden and Norway, but larger than in Finland, the United States and Southern European countries. For men, the association was similar to what is found in the United States and Finland, weaker than in Sweden, Norway and Russia but stronger than in Southern European countries. The results only partly support the idea that intoxication frequency explains national differences in this relationship. Possible explanations for the stronger association among women are also discussed.

  • 38.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Fluctuations in male IHD-mortality in Russia – has alcohol been involved?2009Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 28, s. 390-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Population drinking and homicide in Australia: A time series analysis of the period 1950-20032011Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 466-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Despite a significant amount of research on alcohol and homicide in Australia, as yet there has been no study of the association at the aggregate level to reveal where Australia fits in with respect to the cultural differences found in the international research of this association. Aims. To analyse the temporal association between population drinking and homicide in Australia and to put the results in an international comparative perspective. Method. Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time series analysis, overall and gender-specific homicide rates from 1950 to 2003 were analysed in relation to alcohol consumption overall as well as to different beverages. Findings. A one-litre increase in per capita consumption was followed by an 8% increase in overall and male homicide rates and a 6% increase in female homicide rates. The effect was mainly driven by beer consumption. In a comparative perspective, the importance of population drinking was similar to what has been found inWestern Europe. Conclusions. Australia belongs to the group of countries where lowering population drinking is likely to be associated with lower homicide rates and reducing beer consumption seems to be the most efficient way to achieve this. [Ramstedt M. Population drinking and homicide in Australia: A time series analysis of the period 1950-2003.

  • 40. Ramstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Muller, Daniel
    Sundin, Erica
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Reducing youth violence related to student parties: Findings from a community intervention project in Stockholm2013Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 561-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundDuring the spring of 2007, the police reported a marked increase in violence and binge drinking related to high school student graduation parties on weekday nights at restaurants in Stockholm city. This spurred a multi-component community intervention project to reduce these problems. AimsThis study aims to evaluate the impact of the intervention on youth-related violence on weekday nights in 2008-2010. Design and MethodThe outcome measure entailed the number of violence-related emergency room visits on weekday nights (10:00 pm-6:00 am) by adolescents aged 18-20 years. The study period was 1 April-31 May, which is when most student graduation parties took place. The data covered the years 2005-2010, with three data points before the intervention, and three after the intervention was introduced. Because the intervention was expected to apply to weekdays only, the control series involved a corresponding indicator pertaining to weekend nights (10:00 pm-6:00 am). The intervention effect was assessed by means of difference-in-differences estimation. ResultsThe estimated intervention effect according to the difference-in-differences estimation models was a statistically significant 23% reduction of violence among young people. Discussion and ConclusionThis type of intervention is a promising measure of preventing youth violence and deserves to be continued. Such continuation would also provide additional data required for a more conclusive assessment.[Ramstedt M, Leifman H, Muller D, Sundin E, Norstrom T. Reducing youth violence related to student parties: Findings from a community intervention project in Stockholm. Drug Alcohol Rev 2013;32:561-565]

  • 41.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Larm, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Livingston, Michael
    Children with problem drinking parents in Sweden: Prevalence and risk of adverse consequences in a national cohort born in 20012022Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 625-632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. To estimate the prevalence of children with problem drinking parents in Sweden and the extent to which they have an elevated risk of poor health, social relationships and school situation in comparison with other children. Methods. Survey with a nationally representative sample of Swedish youth aged 15-16 years (n = 5576) was conducted in 2017. A short version of The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6) was used to identify children with problem drinking parents. Health status, social relations and school situation were measured by well-established measures. Overall prevalences for girls and boys were presented as well as relative risks (RR) of harm for children with problem drinking parents compared with other children. Results. A total of 13.1% of the sample had at least one problem drinking parent during adolescence according to CAST-6-a higher proportion of girls (15.4%) than boys (10.8%). This group had an elevated risk of poor general health as well psychosomatic problems compared with other children (RR 1.2-1.9). They were also more likely to use medication for depression, sleeping difficulties and anxiety (RR 2.2-2.6). Their social relations were also worse especially with their father (RR 3.1) and they had more problems at school (RR 2.6). Discussion and Conclusions. The risk of problems related to parental drinking goes beyond the most severe cases where parents have been in treatment for their alcohol problem. This is important knowledge since the majority of problem drinkers never seek treatment and the major part of parental problem drinking is found in population samples.

  • 42. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Holmes, John
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Larm, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Declining youth drinking: A matter of faith?2022Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 721-723Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Youth drinking has declined in many high-income countries for two decades. This development is still largely unexplained. Developing evidence and extending our understanding as to the mechanisms behind these changes is imperative for advising governments and policy makers on how to support and maintain the trends. Given the international scope of the trends, comparative studies have been suggested for improving our understanding of the development. In this commentary, we explore the patterns observed across several waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs between 1999 and 2019, and how these match-up with the World Values Survey. We found that the declines in youth drinking are limited to a smaller number of countries and that in Europe these are all found in two groups from the World Values Survey, protestant Europe and English-speaking countries. If the declines in youth drinking are systematic and limited to a smaller number of countries, this challenges some of the hypothesised drivers of this development, but can also help guide future research.

  • 43. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Guttormsson, Ulf
    Svensson, Johan
    Larm, Peter
    One explanation to rule them all? Identifying sub‐groups of non‐drinking Swedish ninth graders2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr S1, s. S42-S48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    Researchers in a number of countries have recently identified major changes in adolescent alcohol consumption since the early 2000s, with the prevalence of teenage drinking more than halving in some countries. The major aims of the current study are to examine if there are sub‐groups among non‐drinking Swedish ninth graders and to describe how the prevalence of these groups has changed during the period 1999 to 2015.

    Design and Methods

    Data from five waves of the Swedish European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs study was used. The data covered 16 years and the total sample comprised 14 976 students. Latent class analysis was used to identify sub‐groups of non‐drinkers (n = 4267) based on parental approval towards drinking, parental monitoring, leisure time activities, school performance and use of other substances.

    Results

    Five latent classes were found: computer gamers (8.3%), strict parents (36.5%), liberal parents (27.0%), controlling but liberal parents (16.6%) and sports (11.6%). In the non‐drinking sub‐group the strict parents group increased most between 1999 and 2015.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    The results imply that there is notable within‐group diversity in non‐drinking youth. Several mechanisms and explanations are thus likely to be behind the decline in drinking participation among Swedish adolescents.

  • 44. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Landberg, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    To drink or not to drink: A study of the association between rates of non-drinkers and per drinker mean alcohol consumption in the Swedish general population2022Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 1475-1483Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Understanding how the mean consumption per drinker and rates of non-drinking interplay to form overall per capita alcohol consumption is imperative for our understanding of population drinking. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between rates of non-drinkers and per drinker mean alcohol consumption in the Swedish adult population and for different percentiles of drinkers.

    Methods: Data came from a monthly telephone survey of drinking habits in the Swedish adult population between 2002 and 2013. Alcohol consumption and non-drinking during the last 30 days were measured by beverage-specific quantity-frequency questions. Regression models estimated the association between the rate of non-drinkers and per drinker volume on annual data. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time-series models estimated the association on monthly data.

    Results: A significant (P < 0.01) negative association (−0.849) was found between the rate of non-drinkers and per drinker mean volume on annual data. A unit increase in non-drinking was associated with a decline of 0.85 cl of pure alcohol among drinkers. This finding was mirrored across all percentiles of consumption. The semi-log models found that a 1% unit increase in the rate of non-drinkers was followed by a 2% reduction in per drinker mean consumption. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time-series models verified these results.

    Discussion and Conclusions: There is a significant association between the proportion of non-drinkers and the amount of drinking among drinkers. The theory of collectivity of drinking cultures should also include the non-drinking part of the population. 

  • 45. Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Thor, Siri
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Mind the gap! Gender differences in alcohol consumption among Swedish ninth graders 1989–20212024Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 596-603Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: To examine gender differences in drinking habits among Swedish ninth graders over the period 1989–2021.

    Methods: Annual school surveys with nationally representative samples of ninth-grade students in Sweden covering the period 1989–2021, total sample of 180,538 students. Drinking habits were measured with self-reports of frequency and quantity of use and frequency of heavy episodic drinking. Differences between genders were compared annually and differences were tested using logistic and ordinary least square regression models with cluster robust standard errors.

    Results: Small gender differences in the prevalence of alcohol use during the first part of the study period were followed by an increasing gap over the past decade with girls being more likely to drink alcohol than boys. Boys consumed larger amounts of alcohol than girls during the first three decades of the studied period but no gender differences were found in later years. Binge drinking was more prevalent among boys during 1989 to 2000 but no systematic gender difference was found during the past 15 years.

    Discussion and Conclusions: There used to be clear gender differences in drinking habits among ninth graders in Sweden with boys drinking more than girls. This gap has narrowed over the past three decades and among contemporary adolescents, no gender differences are found neither in binge drinking nor volume of drinking and the prevalence of drinking is even higher among girls.

  • 46.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Effects of alcohol controls: Nordic research traditions2004Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 43-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on a recent review of studies of the impact of alcohol control changes in the Nordic countries (particularly Finland, Norway and Sweden), this paper reviews the development of research traditions of such studies in the Nordic countries. From the Nordic experience, there is evidence of variation in the effects of policy changes by demographic segment, by type of problem and by drinking pattern and amount. Policy changes have often had their greatest effect on heavier drinkers. Big reductions in alcohol taxes in Denmark in 2003 and Finland in 2004 offer a new chance to study whose drinking changes how much, and in what contexts, in a collaborative study comparing northern Sweden with Finland, Denmark and southern Sweden.

  • 47.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Griffith Edwards: an appreciation2013Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 3-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Managed alcohol programs: Reducing social and injury harm, but what about long-term health harm?2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr S1, s. 197-198Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Smashing the liquor machine: A global history of prohibition2022Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 1003-1003Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Stigma, social inequality and alcohol and drug use2005Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 143-155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A heavy load of symbolism surrounds psychoactive substance use, for reasons which are discussed. Psychoactive substances can be prestige commodities, but one or another aspect of their use seems to attract near--universal stigma and marginalization. Processes of stigmatization include intimate process of social control among family and friends; decisions by social and health agencies; and governmental policy decisions. What is negatively moralized commonly includes incurring health, casualty or social problems, derogated even by other heavy users; intoxication itself; addiction or dependence, and the loss of control such terms describe; and in some circumstances use per se. Two independent literatures on stigma operate on different premises: studies oriented to mental illness and disability consider the negative effects of stigma on the stigmatized, and how stigma may be neutralized, while studies of crime generally view stigma more benignly, as a form of social control. The alcohol and drug literature overlap both topical areas, and includes examples of both orientations. Whole poverty and heavy substance use are not necessary related, poverty often increases the harm for a given level of use. Marginalization and stigma commonly add to this effect. Those in treatment for alcohol or drug problems are frequently and disproportionately marginalized. Studies of social inequality and substance use problems need to pay attention also to processes of stigmatization and marginalization and their effect on adverse outcomes.

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