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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Palm, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    'More cure and less control' or 'more care and lower costs'? Recent changes in services for problem drug users in Stockholm and Sweden2009In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 479-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the development of drug services in Stockholm, Sweden since the mid-1990s. Initially, data were collected as part of a European Union comparative study of the development of drug services in six major European cities. However, the present article uses these data to analyse to what extent the traditional 'Swedish model' of dealing with narcotic drugs can be said to have come to a crossroad. The article describes and analyses changes in drug use, and in the structure, organization and utilization of social services based, as well as healthcare-based drug services in Stockholm during the past decade. As pointed out in the article, the 'drug-free society' is still the ultimate goal of Swedish drug policy. However, as the Stockholm example hints, when it comes to the care and treatment of individual drug problems, there seems to be an on-going shift, from in-patient treatment towards measures such as substitution treatment, outpatient care and housing. The article discusses whether these changes signify a softening of Sweden's restrictive drug policy, or whether they rather point to a 're-medicalization' of drug services, and shift in focus from 'cure' and social re-integration towards a focus on 'care' and on attempts to avoid 'public nuisance'.

  • 2. Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Hope, Ann
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alcohol survey measures for Europe: A literature review2013In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 348-360Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports the results of a purposive review of the different alcohol survey instruments currently used in survey research. The review was conducted to support the development of a standardized comparative survey methodology for Europe. It examines various types of instruments used to measure alcohol consumption, risky drinking, alcohol abuse and dependence, social consequences and third-party harm. The review of literature provides several insights for a European comparative survey. The beverage-specific quantity-frequency measure is recommended for use across countries. A reference period of 1 year for alcohol consumption is considered important if one is to link associated problems with alcohol intake. With regard to risky drinking, objective measures based on the quantity of approximately 60-70 g of ethanol per drinking occasion are preferable to subjective measures of drunkenness. In choosing an instrument for measuring abuse and dependence, the key issue is to decide whether the instrument is to serve as a screening or diagnostic tool. In the case of screening, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or the Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen-4 appears more appropriate. But if one desires to approximate a diagnostic category, then the Composite International Diagnostic Interview or another operationalization of ICD-10/DSM-IV criteria would be the better choice. Due to a lack of validated scales for social consequences and third-party harm, no recommendations are justified.

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  • 3. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.
    Roberts, Sarah C. M.
    Cook, Won
    Kuntsche, Sandra
    Grittner, Ulrike
    Graham, Kathryn
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Greenfield, TomK
    Wilsnack, Sharon
    A gender-focused multilevel analysis of how country, regional and individual level factors relate to harm from others' drinking2022In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine how gender, age and education, regional prevalence of male and female risky drinking and country-level economic gender equality are associated with harms from other people's drinking.

    Methods: 24,823 adults in 10 countries were surveyed about harms from drinking by people they know and strangers. Country-level economic gender equality and regional prevalence of risky drinking along with age and gender were entered as independent variables into three-level random intercept models predicting alcohol-related harm.

    Findings: At the individual level, younger respondents were consistently more likely to report harms from others' drinking, while, for women, higher education was associated with lower risk of harms from known drinkers but higher risk of harms from strangers. Regional rate of men's risky drinking was associated with known and stranger harm, while regional-level women's risky drinking was associated with harm from strangers. Gender equality was only associated with harms in models that did not include risky drinking.

    Conclusions: Youth and regional levels of men's drinking were consistently associated with harm from others attributable to alcohol. Policies that decrease the risky drinking of men would be likely to reduce harms attributable to the drinking of others.

  • 4.
    Edman, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Berndt, Josefine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    A thickening plot: components and complexities in the political framing of the smoking problem in Sweden 1957–19932020In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 145-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish state regulation of tobacco use came much later than the regulation of alcohol and drugs. Only in 1993 did the first more comprehensive regulatory act – the Swedish Tobacco Act – come intoforce. By examining the political prehistory of the act in 1957–1993, this article analyses the increasingly complex problem description that made the new legislation possible. The article shows that different parts of the problem description – harms to others, a connection to the public health discourse, and an increasing medicalisation – came to reinforce each other, but also that all essential componentswere in place from the outset and that research confirmed established descriptions rather than drovethe development.

  • 5.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Cannabis use under prohibitionism – the interplay between motives, contexts and subjects2020In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 368-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question in drugs research is why people use psychoactive substances. Diverse motives such as boredom, habit, and pain relief have served as explanations, but little is known about how adult cannabis users motivate their use in prohibitionist policy contexts, like Sweden. The aim is to explore what motives a sample of adult Swedish cannabis users refer to when they give meaning to their use. We ask: what aspects of cannabis use (e.g. drug effects, individual characteristics and social contexts) are emphasized in their accounts, and how are such aspects combined to describe motives and justify use? In this study, motives are perceived as culturally situated action, and our analysis is based on online text messages (n = 238) and interviews (n = 12). Participants emphasized either the characteristics of the use situation (motives such as party, relaxation and social function) or of him-/herself as an individual (motives such as mindfulness, identity marker and somatic function). They often mentioned medical and recreational motives in the same account, and carefully presented themselves as rational individuals. The motives reflect that the drugs discourse is increasingly medicalized, that responsibility is highly esteemed in contemporary societies, and that cannabis use is still stigmatized in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Media constructions of an illegal drug: the link between cannabis and organized crime in Swedish newspapers2023In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Lately, there has been massive media coverage of gang-related criminality in ‘exposed areas’ in Sweden. Politicians have blamed the illegal drugs trade without questioning the country’s prohibitionist drug policy. This study analyzes how cannabis is constructed in Swedish newspaper articles that mention both organized crime and cannabis. We ask how the drug and its buyers and sellers are described, what discourses are drawn upon, and discuss the relationship between media coverage and drug policy.

    Methods

    We analyzed recent (2021) articles from four newspapers (n = 71) through Critical Discourse Analysis.

    Results

    Cannabis was constructed as a commodity linked to violence and deviance. Agency was attributed to people with power and status (e.g. gang leaders), and recreational cannabis users were described as guilty of feeding organized crime. A combination of economic and moral discourses was used to make the reported events meaningful, and to motivate both prohibition and decriminalization/legalization.

    Conclusion

    The study shows that assumedly neutral journalistic voices emphasized the link between cannabis and violence and problematized cannabis buyers and sellers. This homogenous media coverage will probably contribute to keep the question of cannabis law reform discursively lifeless in Sweden.

  • 7.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Risk and responsibilization: resistance and compliance in Swedish treatment for youth cannabis use2020In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 60-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of research on how youth make sense of substance abuse treatment. The aim of this article was to explore how young people in Stockholm, Sweden, perceive outpatient treatment for cannabis use, position themselves as subjects in relation to it, and how they respond to staff’s appeals to rationality and responsible action. The data, consisting of 18 interviews with clients recruited from six treatment centers, were explored using narrative and thematic analysis. Results show that the young clients understood their histories in a responsibilized way where the risk information about cannabis they received was considered crucial. Those who resisted treatment rejected cannabis problematizations by staff, did not value interventions and felt that they had control over their use. Those who complied with treatment said that cannabis problematizations helped them acknowledge their own difficulties, handle substance dependence and mature. We conclude that treatment resistance among young cannabis users would perhaps be prevented if the adult world acknowledged that some believe it is rational and responsible to use cannabis. While the criminal offense of substance use is often expiated through ‘treatment’ in Sweden, young clients establishing a substance use identity could possibly be avoided if cannabis was not equated with risk.

  • 8.
    Heimdahl Vepsä, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Is it FASD? And does it matter? Swedish perspectives on diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders2021In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 547-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering a range of conditions related to prenatal alcohol exposure. In Sweden, only the most severe of these conditions, Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is used as a medical diagnosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the Swedish discussion on whether or not FASD conditions (other than FAS) should be actively diagnosed/identified. The data consisted of a webpage material from a FASD interest organization and a report from a Swedish authority. The analysis was informed by Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis and strived to pay attention to which discourses that were drawn upon, and how these discourses related to each other, and to a broader social context. The discussions on whether or not FASD should be actively diagnosed/identified were structured by three main discourses. These were: a scientific discourse, a pragmatic discourse, and an ethical discourse, with the scientific discourse taking a special position, often being present also when other discourses were drawn upon. Taken together, there is not yet any consensus around what the status of the FASD conditions should be in Sweden, neither regarding the usefulness of diagnosing/identifying, nor regarding the causality between prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.

  • 9.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Fathers' alcohol consumption and risk of alcohol-related hospitalization in offspring before 60 years of age2017In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between exposure to fathers' alcohol consumption and offspring's own risk of alcohol-related hospitalization. Methods: Data on circumstances in childhood and adolescence, e.g. fathers' alcohol consumption at different levels (never, rarely, occasionally, often), parental divorce, as well as offspring's own risky use of alcohol, smoking and mental health were collected among 49,321 men (sons), born in 1949-51, during conscription for compulsory military training in 1969/70, i.e. at ages 18-20. Data on alcohol-related diagnoses were collected from the Swedish In-patient Care register 1973-2009. Results: The relative risk of alcohol-related diagnoses among sons after the age of 20 increased with increasing level of alcohol consumption in the fathers. Compared with sons whose fathers never drank alcohol, those with fathers who drank alcohol occasionally or often had an increased hazard ratio (HR) of later hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses of 1.77 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.57-1.99) and 3.69 (CI 95% = 3.16-4.32), respectively. The associations were markedly stronger when the men were followed from age 40 and onwards compared with follow-up between 20 and 40 years of age. Conclusion: Father's alcohol consumption was associated with an increased relative risk of alcohol-related hospitalization in offspring in adulthood.

  • 10. Höhne, Brigit
    et al.
    Pabst, Alexander
    Hannemann, Tessa-Virginia
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapiforschung, Germany.
    Patterns of concurrent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use in Germany: prevalence and correlates2014In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 102-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study investigated past month patterns and risk factors of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use by level of intensity in the German general population.

    Methods: Data from the 2006 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) were used. The cross-sectional random sample consisted of N = 7912 adults aged 18–64 years. The response rate was 45%. Intensive use of each substance was measured applying substance-specific cut-off points: alcohol: >20/30 g pure ethanol daily for women/men; tobacco: ≥20 cigarettes daily; cannabis: on ≥6 occasions monthly.

    Findings: The majority of substance users reported no intensive use of any of the three substances (77.5%) and 19.4% had used one of the three substances intensively. A total of 3.1% engaged in intensive use of multiple substances with alcohol and tobacco (2.3%) as the most prevalent pattern. A higher risk for intensive use of multiple substances was found among males, older individuals and those with a substance use disorder.

    Conclusions: Results of this study call for an integrated view on substance use and related disorders in prevention and treatment, taking diverse use patterns and specific needs of substance abusers into account.

  • 11. Jiang, Heng
    et al.
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Kuntsche, Sandra
    Callinan, Sarah
    Waleewong, Orratai
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    A multi-country analysis of informal caregiving due to others' drinking2022In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 702-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The burden of caring for drinkers is seldom articulated as a social concern, or integrated in service planning or alcohol policy. This study aims to examine prevalence and predictors of informal caregiving due to others' drinking cross-nationally by surveying 20,728 respondents (18-64 years) in 11 countries. The outcome variable was respondent-reported informal caregiving due to others' drinking, analysed by socio-demographic factors and drinking pattern using logistic regression and meta-analysis. Estimated overall prevalence of informal caregiving due to others' drinking ranged from 9% in Nigeria to 47% in Thailand. In most countries, females reported a higher rate than males of caring for children and other dependents, but males reported a higher rate of driving family or friends somewhere or picking them up. Logistic regression analysis found differences between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries in the relationship of caregiving with employment and household composition. Respondent's own drinking was positively correlated with the prevalence of caregiving in 10 out of 11 countries. In general, younger adults and those who are themselves risky drinkers are more likely to have had caring responsibilities. Although problematic drinking is concentrated in specific subpopulations, the burden of care for others' drinking extends widely across the population.

  • 12. Löfving, Sofia
    et al.
    Allebeck, Peter
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Early life predictors of high alcohol consumption in middle age2018In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 273-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A number of studies have investigated early life determinants of alcohol consumption in adolescence. In this study, we will investigate early life predictors of high alcohol consumption in middle age. Methods: Data on early life predictors, e.g. alcohol consumption and smoking, was collected from 49,321 Swedish men born 1949-1951 at conscription for military service in 1969/70. Follow-up data on alcohol consumption in the same men was collected from a random sample participating in one of the Swedish Survey of Living Condition in 1988/89, 1996/97 or 2004/05 (N=146), i.e. at age 37 or later. Odds Ratios (ORs) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated in logistic regression analysis for the association between factors measured in late adolescence and high alcohol consumption middle-age. Results: The proportion of high consumers of alcohol increased from late adolescence to middle age. Smoking (OR 2.9, CI95% 1.3-6.2) and low education (OR 2.0, CI95% 1.0-4.0) measured at the conscription examination in late adolescence were associated with high alcohol consumption in middle age. A few other factors measured at the conscription examination, e.g. high alcohol consumption (OR 1.8, CI95% 0.7-4.4), showed elevated ORs but the associations were not significantly increased. Conclusion: Smoking and low education measured in late adolescence were associated with high alcohol consumption in middle age.

  • 13.
    Månsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Heimdahl Vepsä, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Atmospheres of craving: a relational understanding of the desire to use drugs2024In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Craving is commonly described as an ‘intense desire’ to use drugs. Due to its relevance for addiction theories and treatment, much effort has been put into understanding how and when craving occurs. An undisputed definition of craving is however still lacking. The aim of this article is to explore how craving is experienced and resisted after cessation of substance use.

    Methods: This article analyses interviews with former addiction treatment clients. By analyzing the described event of craving, the study shows the complexities in such narratives.

    Findings: We found that the interaction between temporal, relational and material forces move people toward or away from craving. Craving thus seemed to be both relational and located in-between forces.

    Conclusions: We conclude that craving appeared in the studied narratives to emanate from different atmospheres, with a concurrent focus on settings rather than on substances. A relational understanding of craving can add to the typical, but limited, account of craving as an individual issue. It also avoids stigmatizing ideas that people who do not resist cravings simply fail to say no. We end by asking if craving is a relevant concept within the addiction field at all.

  • 14. Norman, Thomas
    et al.
    Anderson-Luxford, Dan
    O'Brien, Paula
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Regulating alcohol advertising for public health and welfare in the age of digital marketing: challenges and options2024In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 70-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This narrative review considers traditional strategies for regulating alcohol marketing and their applicability to digital media.

    Method: Drawing on international research, case studies, and reports, we examine the applicability of (1) comprehensive or partial bans; (2) placement restrictions; (3) content restrictions; and (4) counter-advertising.

    Results: Comprehensive bans on advertising are generally the most effective option. A partial ban applying to digital media would make some lesser contribution to reducing exposure, but will usually simply result in the promotional budget being shifted to whichever media remain less strictly regulated. Limits on the placement of marketing have more salience for traditional media than for most digital media, which can be individualized and targeted. Content restrictions play a limited role in reducing exposure as they are not concerned with marketing volume, but with the way in which alcohol is represented.

    Conclusions: Although these traditional strategies have a role in regulating digital media and are applied in certain international jurisdictions, new regulatory approaches are needed. These may include the use of artificial intelligence for monitoring, transparency requirements, and privacy law rights and duties. Opportunities to regulate alcohol marketing online will need to be addressed and seized as they arise in the current volatile policy environment concerning the governance of social media.

  • 15.
    Reitan, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Substance abuse during pregnancy: a 5-year follow-up of mothers and children2019In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study investigates health and social conditions among pregnant substance abusers and the children that were born from these pregnancies, and analyses outcomes in relation to type of substance abuse.

    Methods: Register data concerning 97 pregnant substance abusers and 104 children, at birth and 5 years on, were analysed with descriptive statistics and chi square tests.

    Results: The women presented a multitude of problems, including low education, substance abusing partners, and elevated smoking rates. Compared with the population, more children were born prematurely and average birth weight was almost 350 g lower. About 14% were diagnosed as being affected by maternal substance abuse. During follow-up, 5 women died and 88% showed continued substance-related mental and health problems. All children survived and 85% experienced placement in out-of-home care. Purchase of psychotropic drugs and mental health problems were more common among women with alcohol as one drug of preference.

    Conclusions: Parenthood did not represent a turning point for pregnant substance abusers. Comprehensive and persistent support is necessary, but in the short-term, efforts should be made to curb excessive smoking rates. The children faced several disadvantages at birth, but a longer follow-up is required to assess the impact of maternal substance abuse properly.

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  • 16. Rolando, Sara
    et al.
    Beccaria, Franca
    Tigerstedt, Christoffer
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    First drink: What does it mean? The alcohol socialization process in different drinking cultures2012In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this qualitative research is to show how the alcohol socialization process - i.e. the ways children and young people get acquainted with alcohol - can generate very diverse experiences and meanings in different cultural contexts. Method: A total of 16 focus groups were conducted in Italy and Finland, divided by age (4 groups), gender and socio-cultural level. A total of 190 participants took part in the study. Findings: The findings support the hypothesis that the alcohol socialization process takes place in very different ways and assumes diverse meaning in the two countries involved in the study. In Italy the relationship with alcohol takes place as part of a gradual process and participants' first memories of drinking alcohol are connected to positive values. In Finland, on the other hand, often the first experiences of drinking overlap with the first experiences of intoxication and alcohol images reflect an ambiguous relation with this substance, closely related to its intoxicating effects. Conclusions: Results show that the alcohol socialization process can take very different forms and meanings according to a specific drinking cultures. Thus, further comparative research should take into more consideration the implication of these substantial differences.

  • 17.
    Room, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    MacLean, Sarah
    Pennay, Amy
    Dwyer, Robyn
    Turner, Karen
    Saleeba, Emma
    Changing risky drinking practices in different types of social worlds: concepts and experiences2022In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 32-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 'social worlds' concept has been underutilized in alcohol research. This is surprising given that drinking is primarily a social activity, often a secondary part of a sociable occasion in a social world whose members come together around something they have in common, such as an occupation, a hobby, or an identity. Social worlds which include drinking in their practices often entail encouragements or pressures to drink more, though they may also try to impose some limits on drinking or related behavior. Heavy drinking social worlds may be a useful target for public health interventions aimed at supporting less harmful drinking practices, and this paper moves beyond a theoretical discussion of social worlds and their utility to suggest how the concept might be applied in practical terms. We discuss the various influences and actors that potentially impact on heavy drinking social worlds, and suggest a pragmatic typology of social worlds in terms of five features: activity-based, identification-based, settings-based, worldview-based and social position-based. Most social worlds will be characterized by more than one feature, although it is likely that one will predominate in a given social world. Examples are discussed of changes in drinking norms in heavy-drinking social worlds primarily characterised in terms of each of the five features. Implications are considered for public health programming to reduce risky drinking in such social worlds.

  • 18. Savic, Michael
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; Melbourne University, Australia.
    Mugavin, Janette
    Pennay, Amy
    Livingston, Michael
    Defining drinking culture: A critical review of its meaning and connotation in social research on alcohol problems2016In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 270-282Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been growing academic interest in drinking cultures as targets of investigation and intervention, driven often by policy discourse about changing the drinking culture. In this article, we conduct a critical review of the alcohol research literature to examine how the concept of drinking culture has been understood and employed, particularly in work that views alcohol through a problem lens. Much of the alcohol research discussion on drinking culture has focussed on national drinking cultures in which the cultural entity of concern is the nation or society as a whole (macro-level). In this respect, there has been a comparative tradition concerned with categorising drinking cultures into typologies (e.g. wet and dry cultures). Although overtly focused on patterns of drinking and problems at the macro-level, this tradition also points to a multifaceted understanding of drinking cultures. Even though norms about drinking are not uniform within and across countries there has been relatively less focus in the alcohol research literature on cultural entities below the level of the culture as a whole (micro-level). We conclude by offering a working definition, which underscores the multidimensional and interactive nature of the drinking culture concept.

  • 19. Simonen, Jenni
    et al.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Older women’s experiences, identities and coping strategies for dealing with a problem-drinking male family member2017In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 409-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: In this study, we highlight the identities and actions of women with a problem-drinking relative by analysing autobiographies of women born between the 1920s and the 1950s. We ask how women describe their relationship and the problems arising because of a significant other’s drinking and how they cope with these problems. Methods: In the analysis, we pay attention to the power dynamics between family members. We, first, trace what kind of positions or identities the protagonists take in relation to the drinker. Second, we examine what kinds of harms and emotional reactions significant other’s drinking causes. Third, we consider how writers identify or take distance from events described in the autobiographies. Findings: Our analysis reveals four main identities and coping strategies: the positions of victim, helper, boundary setter and fighter. The victim and helper positions often entail women’s weakness and oppressed role, while the positions of boundary setter and fighter express women’s own power and reflexivity in action. Conclusions: Knowledge of the identities and coping strategies is important for understanding the power aspects of a relationship and developing appropriate support for women suffering from family member’s drinking.

  • 20. Simonen, Jenni
    et al.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Tigerstedt, Christoffer
    Scheffels, Janne
    Synnøve Moan, Moan
    Karlsson, Nina
    Do teenagers’ and parents’ alcohol-related views meet? Analysing focus group data from Finland and Norway2019In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 88-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study analyses how Finnish and Norwegian teenagers and parents of teenagers perceive the appropriateness, desirability or harmfulness of different drinking situations. The focus is on whether teenagers and parents perceive the situations similarly or differently.

    Methods: Our data consist of focus group interviews from Finland and Norway with teenagers aged 14–17 years (n = 8 groups, n = 44 participants) and parents (n = 8 groups, n = 38). Three pictures portraying different drinking situations were presented to the participants, who were asked to describe (1) what kind of situation the picture depicts, (2) whether the way of drinking in the picture was acceptable or not and (3) whether they identified with the situation or not.

    Findings: Our analysis showed that teenagers and parents defined the situations similarly and applied rather similar criteria when assessing the appropriateness of drinking. The most important criteria related to the amount and the way of drinking, and whether or not children were present in the situation. Regarding the identification with the situations, teenagers seemed to have somewhat stricter attitudes towards intoxication than adults, which can be perceived as a sign of an ongoing trend of decreasing youth drinking.

    Conclusions: Overall, our analysis suggests that the alcohol worlds of parents and teenagers resembled each other, supporting the notion that the generational gap between parents and teenagers is diminishing.

  • 21.
    Stenius, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    On private policing: different European versions of 'we', 'them' and the State (Commentary)2004In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 191-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following block of texts is a result of co-operation within the International Society of Addiction Journal Editors. Three editors, Betsy Thorn, Irmgard Eisenbach-Stangl and Kerstin Stenius decided to compile a group of commentaries upon a theme that seems to be of interest in different parts of Europe: The changes in the division of labour between the public sector and civil society in the control and enforcement of public order, drug use and criminality. These four texts give examples of how the civil society presently reacts to social insecurity and fear of drug users, street violence and criminality.

  • 22.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Analyzing agency and identity navigation in addiction stories by drawing on actor-network theory and narrative positioning analysis2023In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addiction stories in which dependence is experienced as an antagonistic force, agency manifests as enigmatic. As narrators in these stories usually describe how they lost their agency to a substance, we may ask who then acts. By drawing on the actor-network theory, I propose that addiction stories should be approached with an ontology that allows agency also to non-human actors and conceptualizes both human and non-human agencies as relational. Moreover, I argue that addiction stories perform complex identity navigation that can be captured by analysing them from the dimensions of ‘story,’ ‘interaction,’ and ‘identity claim’. As addiction stories describe what kinds of unique human and non-human elements and assemblages have contributed to the development of addiction, they provide expressive material to analyze how their narrators reassemble their addictive past (story), justify it to their audience (interaction) and articulate who they are (identity claim). By approaching addiction stories through these dimensions, we can produce knowledge on what kinds of identity alignments with particular human and non-human actors promote or hinder addiction as part of specific assemblages. This knowledge can help health practitioners focus their treatment interventions on the relational identities that act as barriers or facilitators of recovery. 

  • 23.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Recovery and identity: a five-year follow-up of persons treated in 12-step-related programs2021In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recovery is an established term used to describe positive processes of change concerning problems related to alcohol and other drugs (AOD). The present article investigates first-person experiences of recovery self-identification over time in clients who have completed 12-step programs with a positive outcome (sobriety). The data comprises qualitative interviews with 47 individuals five years after the first post-treatment interview, analyzed in a process inspired by reflexive thematic analysis. Although all the individuals had continued their recovery, their recovery paths and how they identified themselves in relation to their AOD problems had taken different directions. Thus, many of the individuals described their recovery in a broader sense which ranges from abstinence to moderation. Some individuals perceived themselves as no longer in recovery. The multitude of recovery processes described in the study underlines the need for acceptance and respect for individual identity processes. Furthermore, the importance is stressed of supporting an individual’s perceptions of how their recovery process should best be outlined. The results should not be interpreted as a critique of the 12-step approach. Instead, there is a need for variety over time in the support and treatment options available for people in need of treatment for AOD problems. 

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