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  • 1. Bustamante, Mariona
    et al.
    Hernandez-Ferrer, Caries
    Sarria, Yaris
    Harrison, Graham I.
    Nonell, Lara
    Kang, Wenjing
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Friedlander, Marc R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Estivill, Xavier
    Gonzalez, Juan R.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Young, Antony R.
    The acute effects of ultraviolet radiation on the blood transcriptome are independent of plasma 25OHD(3)2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular basis of many health outcomes attributed to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that they may originate from transcriptional changes in blood cells. This was determined by assessing the effect of fluorescent solar simulated radiation (FSSR) on the transcriptional profile of peripheral blood pre- and 6 h, 24 h and 48 h post-exposure in nine healthy volunteers. Expression of 20 genes was down regulated and one was up-regulated at 6 h after FSSR. All recovered to baseline expression at 24 h or 48 h. These genes have been associated with immune regulation, cancer and blood pressure; health effects attributed to vitamin D via solar UVR exposure. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 [250HD(3)] levels increased over time after FSSR and were maximal at 48 h. The increase was more pronounced in participants with low basal 250HD(3) levels. Mediation analyses suggested that changes in gene expression due to FSSR were independent of 250HD(3) and blood cell subpopulations.

  • 2. Chen, Shuzhen
    et al.
    Wu, Desheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Adapting ecological risk valuation for natural resource damage assessment in water pollution2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 164, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological risk assessment can address requirements of natural resource damage assessment by quantifying the magnitude of possible damages to the ecosystem. This paper investigates an approach to assess water damages from pollution incident on the basis of concentrations of contaminants. The baseline of water pollution is determined with not-to-exceed concentration of contaminants required by water quality standards. The values of damage cost to water quality are estimated through sewage treatment cost. To get a reliable estimate of treatment cost, DEA is employed to classify samples of sewage plants based on their efficiency of sewage treatment. And exponential fitting is adopted to determine the relation between treatment cost and the decrease of COCs. The range of damage costs is determined through the fitting curves respectively based on efficient and inefficient samples.

  • 3. Chen, Yiqin
    et al.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Kaserzon, Sarit
    Wang, Xianyu
    Weijs, Liesbeth
    Gallen, Michael
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Li, Yan
    Aylward, Lesa L.
    Sly, Peter D.
    Mueller, Jochen E.
    Monthly variation in faeces: blood concentration ratio of persistent organic pollutants over the first year of life2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 147, p. 259-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that the concentrations of a range of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in faeces is linearly proportional to the POP concentrations in blood of human adults irrespective of age and gender. In order to investigate the correlation between POP concentrations in faeces and blood in infants, the monthly variation of POP concentrations in faeces over the first year of life of one infant was investigated in this study and compared to modelled blood concentrations. Faecal samples were collected from one male infant daily. The samples were pooled by month and analysed for three selected POPs (2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47)). The POP concentrations in faecal samples increased for the first four months by a factor of 2.9, 4.9 and 1.4 for PCB153, BDE47, and p,p'-DDE, respectively. The faecal concentrations of all POPs decreased rapidly following the introduction of formula and solid food to the diet and subsequent weaning of the infant. Further, a one-compartment model was developed to estimate the daily POP concentrations in the blood of the infant. The POP concentrations in blood were predicted to vary much less over the first year than those observed in faeces. The faeces:blood concentration ratio of selected POPs (K-fb) differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between the period before and after weaning, and observed changes in K-fb are far greater than the uncertainty in the estimated K-fb. A more stable K-fb after weaning indicates the possibility of applying the stable K-fb values for non-invasive assessment of internal exposure in infants after weaning. The intra-individual variation in K-fb in infants is worthy of further investigation.

  • 4. Christia, Christina
    et al.
    Poma, Giulia
    Harrad, Stuart
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sjöström, Ylva
    Leonards, Pim
    Lamoree, Marja
    Covaci, Adrian
    Occurrence of legacy and alternative plasticizers in indoor dust from various EU countries and implications for human exposure via dust ingestion and dermal absorption2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 171, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasticizers are a category of chemicals extensively used in consumer products and, consequently, their presence is ubiquitous in the indoor environment. In the present study, an analytical method has been developed for the quantification of plasticizers (7 legacy phthalate esters (LPEs) and 14 alternative plasticizers (APs)) in indoor floor dust based on ultrasonic and vortex extraction, Florisil fractionation and GC-(EI)-MS analysis. Dust samples (n = 54) were collected from homes, offices, and daycare centers from different EU countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden). Method LOQs ranged from 0.2 to 5 mu g/g. Tri-n-hexyl trimellitate (THTM) was not detected in any sample, whereas dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diphenyl phthalate and acetyl triethyl citrate (ATEC) were detected only in 6, 2 and 1 out of 54 samples, respectively. The highest concentrations of plasticizers were measured in Swedish offices, at a mean concentration of total plasticizers of 1800 mu g/g, followed by Swedish daycare centers at 1200 and 670 mu g/g for winter and spring sampling, respectively. Generally, the contribution of APs was slightly higher than for LPEs for all indoor environments (mean contribution 60% and 40%, respectively based on contributions per indoor environment). For the APs, main contributors were DINP in Belgian homes (28%), Swedish offices (60%), Swedish daycare centers (48%), and Dutch offices (31%) and DEHT in Belgian (28%), Irish (40%) and Dutch homes (37%) of total APs. The predominant LPE was bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) with a mean contribution varying from 60% to 85% of total LPEs. Human exposure was evaluated for dust ingestion and dermal absorption using hazard quotients (HQs) of plasticizers (ratio between average daily doses and the reference dose). None of the HQs of plasticizers exceeded 1, meaning that the risk for adverse human health effects from these plasticizers via dust ingestion and dermal absorption is unlikely.

  • 5. England-Mason, Gillian
    et al.
    Grohs, Melody N.
    Reynolds, Jess E.
    MacDonald, Amy
    Kinniburgh, David
    Liu, Jiaying
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Lebel, Catherine
    Dewey, Deborah
    White matter microstructure mediates the association between prenatal exposure to phthalates and behavior problems in preschool children2020In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 182, article id 109093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research reports associations between prenatal exposure to phthalates and childhood behavior problems; however, the neural mechanisms that may underlie these associations are relatively unexplored. Objective: This study examined microstructural white matter as a possible mediator of the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and behavior problems in preschool-aged children. Methods: Data are from a subsample of a prospective pregnancy cohort, the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study (n = 76). Mother-child pairs were included if mothers provided a second trimester urine sample, if the child completed a successful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at age 3-5 years, and if the Child Behavior Checklist was completed within 6 months of the MRI scan. Molar sums of high (HMWP) and low molecular weight phthalates (LMWP) were calculated from levels in urine samples. Associations between prenatal phthalate concentrations, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in 10 major white matter tracts, and preschool behavior problems were investigated. Results: Maternal prenatal phthalate concentrations were associated with MD of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), right pyramidal fibers, left and right uncinate fasciculus (UF), and FA of the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Mediation analyses showed that prenatal exposure to HMWP was indirectly associated with Internalizing (path ab = 0.09, CI.95 = 0.02, 0.20) and Externalizing Problems (path ab = 0.09, CI.95 = 0.01, 0.19) through MD of the right IFO, and to Internalizing Problems (path ab = 0.11, CI.95 = 0.01, 0.23) through MD of the right pyramidal fibers. Discussion: This study provides the first evidence of childhood neural correlates of prenatal phthalate exposure. Results suggest that prenatal phthalate exposure may be related to microstructural white matter in the IFO, pyramidal fibers, UF, and ILF. Further, MD of the right IFO and pyramidal fibers may transmit childhood risk for behavioral problems.

  • 6.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Alves, Andreia
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    Schütze, André
    Koch, Holger M.
    Haug, Line S.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Magnér, Jörgen
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Evaluation of exposure to phthalate esters and DINCH in urine and nails from a Norwegian study population2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 151, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) used as additives in numerous consumer products are continuously released into the environment, leading to subsequent human exposure which might cause adverse health effects. The human biomonitoring approach allows the detection of PEs and DINCH in specific populations, by taking into account all possible routes of exposure (e.g. inhalation, transdermal and oral) and all relevant sources (e.g. air, dust, personal care products, diet). We have investigated the presence of nine PE and two DINCH metabolites and their exposure determinants in 61 adult residents of the Oslo area (Norway). Three urine spots and fingernails were collected from each participant according to established sampling protocols. Metabolite analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS. Metabolite levels in urine were used to back-calculate the total exposure to their corresponding parent compound. The primary monoesters, such as monomethyl phthalate (MMP, geometric mean 89.7 ng/g), monoethyl phthalate (MEP, 104.8 ng/g) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, 893 ng/g) were observed in higher levels in nails, whereas the secondary bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DINCH oxidative metabolites were more abundant in urine (detection frequency 84-100%). The estimated daily intakes of PEs and DINCH for this Norwegian population did not exceed the established tolerable daily intake and reference doses, and the cumulative risk assessment for combined exposure to plasticizers with similar toxic endpoints indicated no health concerns for the selected population. We found a moderate positive correlation between MEP levels in 3 urine spots and nails (range: 0.56-0.68). Higher frequency of personal care products use was associated with greater MEP concentrations in both urine and nail samples. Increased age, smoking, wearing plastic gloves during house cleaning, consuming food with plastic packaging and eating with hands were associated with higher levels in urine and nails for some of the metabolites. In contrast, frequent hair and hand washing was associated with lower urinary levels of monoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), respectively.

  • 7. Gyllenhammar, Irina
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Germany.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McCleaf, Philip
    Euren, Karin
    Eriksson, Sara
    Ahlgren, Sven
    Lignell, Sanna
    Aune, Marie
    Kotova, Natalia
    Glynn, Anders
    Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum - A case study from Uppsala, Sweden2015In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 140, p. 673-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high Sigma PFAA levels (> 100 ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  • 8.
    Luo, Cuicui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Wu, Desheng
    Environment and economic risk: An analysis of carbon emission market and portfolio management2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, p. 297-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has been one of the biggest and most controversial environmental issues of our times. It affects the global economy, environment and human health. Many researchers find that carbon dioxide (CO2) has contributed the most to climate change between 1750 and 2005. In this study, the orthogonal GARCH (OGARCH) model is applied to examine the time-varying correlations in European CO2 allowance, crude oil and stock markets in US, Europe and China during the Protocol's first commitment period. The results show that the correlations between EUA carbon spot price and the equity markets are higher and more volatile in US and Europe than in China. Then the optimal portfolios consisting these five time series are selected by Mean-Variance and Mean-CVAR models. It shows that the optimal portfolio selected by MV-OGARCH model has the best performance.

  • 9.
    Ndungu, Kuria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Dissolved silver in the Baltic Sea2011In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of silver as a biocide in nanoparticle formulations has heightened concern on possible environmental implications owing to its toxicity. There is however very little data on the concentration levels of silver in marine and freshwaters. Here. I report data on dissolved (<0.4 mu m filter) silver concentration in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea, the first such data reported for a European coastal water body. Levels of dissolved silver in the Baltic are comparable to those reported for other American estuarine waters and range from non-detectable in the open Baltic Sea Proper (<1 pM) to 9.4 pM (1 ng/L) in the Stockholm Archipelago, with a mean of 2.8 pM (0.2 ng/L). Inputs from wastewater treatment are clearly discernable and might constitute the main source of silver to the Stockholm Archipelago and possibly the Baltic Sea Proper.

  • 10. Nyanza, Elias C.
    et al.
    Bernier, Francois P.
    Manyama, Mange
    Hatfield, Jennifer
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Dewey, Deborah
    Maternal exposure to arsenic and mercury in small-scale gold mining areas of Northern Tanzania2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 173, p. 432-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Tanzania results in occupational exposures and environmental contamination to toxic chemical elements such as arsenic and mercury. Populations living in such areas may be exposed by various routes, and prenatal exposure to arsenic and mercury has been associated with adverse birth outcomes and developmental delays. The aim of this study was to determine if levels of arsenic and mercury differed among pregnant women living in areas with and without ASGM activities in Northern Tanzania. This cross-sectional study is part of the ongoing Mining and Health prospective longitudinal study. Spot urine samples and dried blood spots were collected at the antenatal health clinics from pregnant women (n = 1056) at 16-27 weeks gestation. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic (T-As) and dried blood spots were analyzed for total mercury (T-Hg). Women in the ASGM cohort had median T-As levels (9.4 mu g/L; IQR: 4.9-15.1) and T-Hg levels (1.2 mu g/L; IQR: 0.8-1.86) that were significantly higher than the median T-As levels (6.28 mu g/L; IQR: 3.7-14.1) and T-Hg levels (0.66 mu g/L; IQR: 0.3-1.2) of women in the non-ASGM cohort (Mann-Whitney U test, T-As: z = - 9.881, p = 0.0005; T-Hg: z = - 3.502, p < 0.0001). Among pregnant women from ASGM areas, 25% had urinary T-As and 75% had blood T-Hg above the established human biomonitoring reference values of 15 and 0.80 mu g/L. In the ASGM cohort, lower maternal education and low socioeconomic status increased the odds of higher T-As levels by 20% (p < 0.05) and 10% (p < 0.05), respectively. Women involved in mining activities and those of low socioeconomic status had increased odds of higher T-Hg by 70% (p < 0.001) and 10% (p < 0.05), respectively. Arsenic and mercury concentrations among women in non-ASGM areas suggest exposure sources beyond ASGM activities that need to be identified. Arsenic and mercury levels in women in Tanzania are of public health concern and their association with adverse birth and child developmental outcomes will be examined in future studies on this cohort.

  • 11. Papadopoulou, Eleni
    et al.
    Poothong, Somrutai
    Koekkoek, Jacco
    Lucattini, Luisa
    Padilla-Sanchez, Juan Antonio
    Haugen, Margaretha
    Herzke, Dorte
    Valdersnes, Stig
    Maage, Amund
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Leonards, Pim E. G.
    Haug, Line Smastuen
    Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 158, p. 269-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diet is a major source of human exposure to hazardous environmental chemicals, including many perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Several assessment methods of dietary exposure to PFAAs have been used previously, but there is a lack of comparisons between methods. Aim: To assess human exposure to PFAAs through diet by different methods and compare the results. Methods: We studied the dietary exposure to PFAAs in 61 Norwegian adults (74% women, average age: 42 years) using three methods: i) by measuring daily PFAA intakes through a 1-day duplicate diet study (separately in solid and liquid foods), ii) by estimating intake after combining food contamination with food consumption data, as assessed by 2-day weighted food diaries and iii) by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). We used existing food contamination data mainly from samples purchased in Norway and if not available, data from food purchased in other European countries were used. Duplicate diet samples (n = 122) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify 15 PFAAs (11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates). Differences and correlations between measured and estimated intakes were assessed. Results: The most abundant PFAAs in the duplicate diet samples were PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS and the median total intakes were 5.6 ng/day, 11 ng/day and 0.78 ng/day, respectively. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were higher in solid than liquid samples. PFOS was the main contributor to the contamination in the solid samples (median concentration 14 pg/g food), while it was PFOA in the liquid samples (median concentrations: 0.72 pg/g food). High intakes of fats, oils, and eggs were statistically significantly related to high intakes of PFOS and PFOA from solid foods. High intake of milk and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as well as food in paper container were related to high PFOA intakes from liquid foods. PFOA intakes derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly higher than those derived from duplicate diet, but intakes of PFOS derived from food diary and FFQ were significantly lower than those derived from duplicate diet. We found a positive and statistically significant correlation between the PFOS intakes derived from duplicate diet with those using the food diary (rho = 0.26, p-value = 0.041), but not with the FFQ. Additionally, PFOA intakes derived by duplicate diet were significantly correlated with estimated intakes from liquid food derived from the food diary (rho = 0.34, p = 0.008) and estimated intakes from the FFQ (rho = 0.25, p-value = 0.055). Conclusions: We provide evidence that a food diary or a FFQ-based method can provide comparable intake estimates to PFOS and PFOA intakes derived from a duplicate diet study. These less burdensome methods are valuable and reliable tools to assess dietary exposure to PFASs in human studies.

  • 12. Quintana-Belmares, Raúl Omar
    et al.
    Krais, Annette M.
    Kourangi Esfahani, Bahare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swetox, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rosas-Perez, Irma
    Mucs, Daniel
    Lopez-Marure, Rebeca
    Bergman, Åke
    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto
    Phthalate esters on urban airborne particles: Levels in PM10 and PM2.5 from Mexico City and theoretical assessment of lung exposure2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 161, p. 439-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from the environment are associated with reproductive abnormalities (i.e. decreased sperm concentration; increased endometriosis) and alterations of the cardiovascular system (i.e. increased blood pressure and risk of coronary disease). Some phthalates esters have been identified as EDCs, for which inhalation is considered as one of the routes of exposure. However, only little is known regarding inhalational exposure to EDCs via urban airborne particles. In the present study, we report the monthly concentration of 8 phthalate esters measured in PM10 and PM2.5 collected and recovered during 7 months in a highly populated area of Mexico City. Using the levels of PM10 and PM2.5 reported by the automatized network of environmental monitoring of Mexico City for the sampling site, we estimated exposure levels for people of different ages and gender. Two endocrine disrupting compounds, the phthalate esters DEHP and DnBP, were found on the particles in higher concentrations during the warmer months of the year. The highest concentration was reported for DEHP (229.7 mu g/g of particles) in PM2.5 collected in May 2013. After calculations of the DEHP concentration in the atmosphere, and using the respiratory flow rate, we determined males were potentially exposed to larger quantities of DEHP, reaching up to 18 ng/8 h in April 2013. Despite the concentrations of phthalates seem to be rather small, a comprehensive characterization of its presence is necessary in order to evaluate the overall exposure to these compounds, providing a clear view of exposure on children, adolescents and pregnant women.

  • 13.
    Tay, Joo Hui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sellström, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Antonio Padilla-Sánchez, Juan
    Småstuen Haug, Line
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Serum concentrations of legacy and emerging halogenated flame retardants in a Norwegian cohort: Relationship to external exposure2019In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 178, article id 108731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty-one serum samples from a Norwegian cohort were analyzed for 43 emerging and legacy halogenated flame retardants (HFRs). BDE-47, -153, -197 and -209 were detected in > 56% of the samples with median concentrations of 0.23, 1.0, 0.64 and 1.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. BDE-49, -85, -99, -100, -154, -206, -207, 208 as well as HBB, syn- and anti-DDC-CO, OBTMPI, DBDPE, alpha-HBCDD and TBBPA were also detected in some serum samples (detection frequencies of 2-36%). Other tri-octaBDEs, TBP-AE, alpha- and beta-DBE-DBCH, BATE, pTBX, alpha beta-TBCO, PBBz, TBCT, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, EH-TBB, BTBPE, BEH-TEBP, HCDBCO, beta- and gamma-HBCDD were below the limits of detection (mLOD). Concentrations of individual BDE congeners detected in this study were within the range from previous European studies. Positive correlations were seen between concentrations of BDE-47 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, between BDE-153 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, and between BDE-153 masses in handwipes and BDE-47 concentrations in serum (Spearman's rank, 0.29 < r < 0.43). Associations between the number of phones/mobiles, numbers of electronic equipment per person in the home and the consumption of specific food categories (such as soups/spices/sauces and alcoholic beverages) with BDE-47 and -153 serum levels were confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. The measured median serum level of BDE-47 was slightly over-predicted by a factor of 5.5 whereas other BDE congeners were under-predicted by factors of 13-6000 when compared to serum concentrations predicted from external exposure media (inhalation, dermal uptake, dietary intake from duplicate diet and dust ingestion) using a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. BDE-153 was not detected and BDE-197 not analyzed in food so no dietary intake assessments for these could be made, which may partially explain the discrepancies between their measured and predicted serum concentrations. Overall, our results suggest that exposure via diet is the most important exposure pathway for BDE-47 and -209, with diet being responsible for more than 96% of the total daily intake of these two BDEs in the Norwegian cohort.

  • 14. van der Jagt, Alexander P. N.
    et al.
    Szaraz, Luca R.
    Delshammar, Tim
    Cvejic, Rozalija
    Santos, Artur
    Goodness, Julie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Buijs, Arjen
    Cultivating nature-based solutions: The governance of communal urban gardens in the European Union2017In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 264-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries in the European Union (EU), the popularity of communal urban gardening (CUG) on allotments and community gardens is on the rise. Given the role of this practice in increasing urban resilience, most notably social resilience, municipalities in the Global North are promoting CUG as a nature-based solution (NbS). However, the mechanisms by which institutional actors can best support and facilitate CUG are understudied, which could create a gap between aspiration and reality. The aim of this study is therefore to identify what governance arrangements contribute to CUG delivering social resilience. Through the EU GREEN SURGE project, we studied six CUG initiatives from five EU-countries, representing different planning regimes and traditions. We selected cases taking a locally unique or innovative approach to dealing with urban challenges. A variety of actors associated with each of the cases were interviewed to achieve as complete a picture as possible regarding important governance arrangements. A cross-case comparison revealed a range of success factors, varying from clearly formulated objectives and regulations, municipal support, financial resources and social capital through to the availability of local food champions and facilitators engaging in community building. Municipalities can support CUG initiatives by moving beyond a rigid focus on top-down control, while involved citizens can increase the impact of CUG by pursuing political, in addition to hands-on, activities. We conclude that CUG has clear potential to act as a nature-based solution if managed with sensitivity to local dynamics and context.

  • 15.
    Wu, Desheng
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Ning, Shuang
    Dynamic assessment of urban economy-environment-energy system using system dynamics model: A case study in Beijing2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 164, p. 70-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic development, accompanying with environmental damage and energy depletion, becomes essential nowadays. There is a complicated and comprehensive interaction between economics, environment and energy. Understanding the operating mechanism of Energy-Environment-Economy model (3E) and its key factors is the inherent part in dealing with the issue. In this paper, we combine System Dynamics model and Geographic Information System to analyze the energy-environment-economy (3E) system both temporally and spatially, which explicitly explore the interaction of economics, energy, and environment and effects of the key influencing factors. Beijing is selected as a case study to verify our SD-GIS model. Alternative scenarios, e.g., current, technology, energy and environment scenarios are explored and compared. Simulation results shows that, current scenario is not sustainable; technology scenario is applicable to economic growth; environment scenario maintains a balanced path of development for long term stability. Policy-making insights are given based on our results and analysis.

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