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  • 1. Beelen, Rob
    et al.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
    Xun, Wei W.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Houthuijs, Danny
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Oudin, Anna
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Olsson, David
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Lanki, Timo
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aamodt, Geir
    Nafstad, Per
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Penell, Johanna
    Korek, Michal
    Pyko, Andrei
    Thorup Eriksen, Kirsten
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Becker, Thomas
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Bots, Michiel
    Meliefste, Kees
    Wang, Meng
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Kraemer, Ursula
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Key, Timothy
    Peters, Annette
    Cyrys, Josef
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ineichen, Alex
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Dratva, Julia
    Ducret-Stich, Regina
    Vilier, Alice
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Grioni, Sara
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Galassi, Claudia
    Migliore, Enrica
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Tamayo, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hoek, Gerard
    Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality An Analysis of 22 European Cohorts2014Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 368-378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. Methods: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure at the residential address was characterized as annual average concentrations of the following: nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); particles with diameters of less than 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), less than 10 mu m (PM10), and 10 mu m to 2.5 mu m (PMcoarse); PM2.5 absorbance estimated by land-use regression models; and traffic indicators. We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazards models using a standardized protocol. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled effect estimates. Results: The total study population consisted of 367,383 participants, with 9994 deaths from CVD (including 4,992 from ischemic heart disease, 2264 from myocardial infarction, and 2484 from cerebrovascular disease). All hazard ratios were approximately 1.0, except for particle mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality; for PM2.5, the hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0.87-1.69) per 5 mu g/m(3) and for PM10, 1.22 (0.91-1.63) per 10 mu g/m(3). Conclusion: In a joint analysis of data from 22 European cohorts, most hazard ratios for the association of air pollutants with mortality from overall CVD and with specific CVDs were approximately 1.0, with the exception of particulate mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality for which there was suggestive evidence for an association.

  • 2. Bijlsma, Maarten J.
    et al.
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
    Tarkiainen, Lasse
    Myrskylä, Mikko
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The Impact of Unemployment on Antidepressant Purchasing: Adjusting for Unobserved Time-constant Confounding in the g-Formula2019Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 388-395Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The estimated effect of unemployment on depression may be biased by time-varying, intermediate, and time-constant confounding. One of the few methods that can account for these sources of bias is the parametric g-formula, but until now this method has required that all relevant confounders be measured.

    Methods: We combine the g-formula with methods to adjust for unmeasured time-constant confounding. We use this method to estimate how antidepressant purchasing is affected by a hypothetical intervention that provides employment to the unemployed. The analyses are based on an 11% random sample of the Finnish population who were 30–35 years of age in 1995 (n = 49,753) and followed until 2012. We compare estimates that adjust for measured baseline confounders and time-varying socioeconomic covariates (confounders and mediators) with estimates that also include individual-level fixed-effect intercepts.

    Results: In the empirical data, around 10% of person-years are unemployed. Setting these person-years to employed, the g-formula without individual intercepts found a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.5%, 7.4%) reduction in antidepressant purchasing at the population level. However, when also adjusting for individual intercepts, we find no association (−0.1%; 95% CI = −1.8%, 1.5%).

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the relationship between unemployment and antidepressants is confounded by residual time-constant confounding (selection). However, restrictions on the effective sample when using individual intercepts can compromise the validity of the results. Overall our approach highlights the potential importance of adjusting for unobserved time-constant confounding in epidemiologic studies and demonstrates one way that this can be done.

  • 3. Dragano, Nico
    et al.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Burr, Hermann
    Erbel, Raimund
    Fahlén, Göran
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Hamer, Mark
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Knutsson, Anders
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Salo, Paula
    Schupp, Jürgen
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Zins, Marie
    Batty, G. David
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease A Multicohort Study of 90,164 Individuals2017Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 619-626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease.

    Methods: This multicohort study (the IPD-Work consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease at baseline was assessed by validated effort-reward imbalance and job strain questionnaires. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Study-specific estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis.

    Results: At baseline, 31.7% of study members reported effort-reward imbalance at work and 15.9% reported job strain. During a mean follow-up of 9.8 years, 1,078 coronary events were recorded. After adjustment for potential confounders, a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.35) was observed for effort-reward imbalance compared with no imbalance. The hazard ratio was 1.16 (1.01-1.34) for having either effort-reward imbalance or job strain and 1.41 (1.12-1.76) for having both these stressors compared to having neither effort-reward imbalance nor job strain.

    Conclusions: Individuals with effort-reward imbalance at work have an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and this appears to be independent of job strain experienced. These findings support expanding focus beyond just job strain in future research on work stress.

  • 4. Haukka, Jari
    et al.
    Suvisaari, Jaana
    Sarvimaki, Matti
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    The Impact of Forced Migration on Mortality A Cohort Study of 242,075 Finns from 1939-20102017Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 587-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The stresses and life changes associated with migration may have harmful long-term health effects, especially for mental health. These effects are exceedingly difficult to establish, because migrants are typically a highly selected group.

    Methods: We examined the impact of migration on health using naturally occurring historical events. In this article, we use the forced migration of 11% of the Finnish population after WWII as such a natural experiment. We observed the date and cause of death starting from 1 January 1971 and ending in 31 December 2010 for the cohort of 242,075 people. Data were obtained by linking individual-level data from the 1950 and 1970 population censuses and the register of death certificates from 1971 to 2010 (10% random sample). All-cause and cause-specific mortalities were modeled using Poisson regression.

    Results: Models with full adjustment for background variables showed that both all-cause mortality (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05), and ischemic heart disease mortality (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.08, 1.15) were higher in the displaced population than in the nondisplaced population. Suicide mortality was lower (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.64, 0.92) in displaced than in the general population.

    Conclusions: In our long-term follow-up study, forced migration was associated with increased risk of death due to ischemic heart diseases. In contrast, lower suicide mortality was observed in association with forced migration 25 years or more.

  • 5. Jokela, Markus
    et al.
    Ferrie, Jane E
    Gimeno, David
    Chandola, Tarani
    Shipley, Martin J
    Head, Jenny
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Marmot, Michael G
    Kivimäki, Mika
    From midlife to early old age: health trajectories associated with retirement.2010Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 284-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report contradictory findings regarding health effects of retirement. This study examines longitudinally the associations of retirement with mental health and physical functioning. METHODS: The participants were 7584 civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study aged 39-64 years at baseline and 54-76 years at the last follow-up. Self-reported mental health and physical functioning were assessed using the Short Form Medical Outcomes Survey questionnaire, and the scales were scored as T-scores (mean [SD] = 50 [10]). Retirement status and health were assessed with 6 repeated measurements over a 15-year period. RESULTS: The associations between retirement and health were dependent on age at retirement, reason for retirement, and length of time spent in retirement. Compared with continued employment, statutory retirement at age 60 and early voluntary retirement, respectively, were associated with 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.7 to 2.8) and 2.2 (1.7 to 2.7) points higher mental health and with 1.0 (0.6 to 1.5) and 1.1 (0.8 to 1.4) points higher physical functioning. Retirement due to ill health was associated with poorer mental health (-0.7 points [-1.62 to 0.2]) and physical functioning (-4.5 points [-5.1 to -3.9]). Within-subject analyses suggested a causal interpretation for statutory and voluntary retirement, but health selection for retirement due to ill health. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal analyses of repeat data suggest that health status improves after statutory and voluntarily retirement, although the improvement seems to attenuate over time. By contrast, the association between retirement due to ill health and subsequent poor health seems to reflect selection rather than causation.

  • 6. Junna, Liina
    et al.
    Moustgaard, Heta
    Tarkiainen, Lasse
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    The Association Between Income and Psychotropic Drug Purchases: Individual Fixed Effects Analysis of Annual Longitudinal Data in 2003-20132019Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 221-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies show that low income is associated with poor mental health. However, longitudinal research has produced varying results. We assess whether low income is associated with increased psychotropic drug use after accounting for confounding by observed time-varying, and unobserved stable individual differences. Methods: The longitudinal register-based data comprises an 11% nationally representative random sample of Finnish residents aged 30-62 years between the years 2003 and 2013. The analytic sample includes 337,456 individuals (2,825,589 person-years). We estimate the association between annual income and psychotropic purchasing using ordinary-least-squares and fixed effects models, the latter controlling for all unobserved time-invariant individual characteristics. Results: The annual prevalence of psychotropic purchasing was 15%; 13% among men and 18% among women. Adjusted for age squared, sex and calendar year, the doubling of income decreased the probability of purchases by 4 percentage points (95% confidence interval: 4,4) in the ordinary-least-squares model. We observed no association after further adjusting for observed sociodemographic characteristics and unobserved individual differences in the fixed effects specification. Conclusions: Following adjustment for an extensive set of confounders, no contemporaneous association between variations in annual individual income and psychotropic drug purchasing was observed. Similar results were obtained irrespective of baseline income level and sex. The results imply that indirect selection based on preexisting individual characteristics plays a major role in explaining the association between variations in income measured over the short term, and psychotropic drug purchases. The association appears largely attributable to unobserved, stable individual characteristics. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B463.

  • 7. Kilpi, Fanny
    et al.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Konttinen, Hanna
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Torssander, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Reply to Oude Groeniger and van Lenthe2018Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. e37-e37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8. Kilpi, Fanny
    et al.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Konttinen, Hanna
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Torssander, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    The Spillover Influence of Partner’s Education on Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Survival2018Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 237-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Education is believed to have positive spillover effects across network connections. Partner’s education may be an important resource preventing the incidence of disease and helping patients cope with illness. We examined how partner’s education predicted myocardial infarction (MI) incidence and survival net of own education and other socioeconomic resources in Finland.

    Methods: A sample of adults aged 40–69 years at baseline in Finland in 1990 was followed up for MI incidence and mortality during the period 1991–2007 (n = 354,100).

    Results: Lower own and spousal education both contributed independently to a higher risk of MI incidence and fatality when mutually adjusted. Having a partner with basic education was particularly strongly associated with long-term fatality in women with a hazard ratio of 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.22–1.92) compared with women with tertiary level educated partners. There was some evidence that the incidence risk associated with basic spousal education was weaker in those with own basic education. The highest risks of MI incidence and fatality were consistently found in those without a partner, whereas the most favorable outcomes were in households where both partners had a tertiary level of education.

    Conclusions: Accounting for spousal education demonstrates how health-enhancing resources accumulate to some households. Marriage between people of similar educational levels may therefore contribute to the widening of educational differences in MI incidence and survival.

  • 9.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Indian Statistical Institute, North-East Centre, India.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Northwest University, South Africa.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Purchases of prescription antidepressants in the Swedish population in relation to major workplace downsizing2016Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 257-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational downsizing may be a risk factor for morbidity among both the displaced and those who remain in work. However, the knowledge is limited regarding its impact on clinically relevant mental health problems. Our objective was to investigate purchases of prescription antidepressants across 5 years in relation to workplace downsizing. We studied all Swedish residents 2004 throughout 2010, 22–54 years old in 2006, gainfully employed, and with a stable labor market position up to 2006. People primarily employed at a workplace with ≥18% staff reduction were considered exposed to major downsizing (in 2006–2007, 2007–2008, or 2008–2009). We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations, calculating odds of any purchase of prescription antidepressants (inferred from the prescribed drug register) within five 12-month periods from 2 years before to 2 years after the period of major downsizing and compared the trends for newly exposed (n = 632,500) and unexposed (n = 1,021,759) to major downsizing. The odds of purchasing prescription antidepressants for exposed increased more than for nonexposed, mainly peridownsizing (1 year before to 1 year after), and postdownsizing (1 year after to 2 years after) for survivors (odds ratio 1.24 vs. 1.14 peridownsizing and 1.12 vs. 1.00 postdownsizing) and those changing workplace (odds ratio 1.22 vs. 1.14 peridownsizing and 1.10 vs. 1.00 postdownsizing) with no previous sickness absence or disability pension (≥7% more than unexposed peri- and postdownsizing). This large-scale study indicates that downsizing is associated with a slight increase in the odds of purchasing prescription antidepressants among people without previous sickness absence or disability pension.

  • 10. Oksanen, Tuula
    et al.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Sjösten, Noora
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Is retirement beneficial for mental health?: Antidepressant use before and after retirement2011Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 553-559Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Recent studies based on self-reported data suggest that retirement may have beneficial effects on mental health, but studies using objective endpoints remain scarce. This study examines longitudinally the changes in antidepressant medication use across the 9 years spanning the transition to retirement.

    METHODS:

    Participants were Finnish public-sector employees: 7138 retired at statutory retirement age (76% women; mean age, 61.2 years), 1238 retired early due to mental health issues (78% women; mean age, 52.0 years), and 2643 retired due to physical health issues (72% women; mean age, 55.4 years). Information on purchase of antidepressant medication 4 years before and 4 years after retirement year was based on comprehensive national pharmacy records in 1994-2005.

    RESULTS:

    One year before retirement, the use of antidepressants was 4% among those who would retire at statutory age, 61% among those who would retire due to mental health issues, and 14% among those who would retire due to physical health issues. Retirement-related changes in antidepressant use depended on the reason for retirement. Among old-age retirees, antidepressant medication use decreased during the transition period (age- and calendar-year-adjusted prevalence ratio for antidepressant use 1 year after versus 1 year before retirement = 0.77 [95% confidence interval = 0.68 to 0.88]). Among those whose main reason for disability pension was mental health issues or physical health issues, there was an increasing trend in antidepressant use prior to retirement and, for mental health retirements, a decrease after retirement.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Trajectories of recorded purchases of antidepressant medication are consistent with the hypothesis that retirement is beneficial for mental health.

  • 11.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Janszky, Imre
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Small Birth Size, Adult Overweight, and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infraction2011Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 138-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The association between small size at birth and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood is well established. This relationship is commonly interpreted according to the “thrifty phenotype hypothesis,” which states that the association is generated by a mismatch between fetal and postnatal nutrition. Empirical support for an interaction between impaired fetal growth and later overnutrition is, however, sparse and partly conflicting.

    Methods: The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program is a population-based case-control study of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (MI); data were available for 1058 cases and 1478 controls. Using logistic regression, we studied the effect of size at birth, and its interactive effect with body mass index (BMI), at 3 occasions in adulthood, on the risk of MI. Biologic interaction was estimated with the synergy index.

    Results: Very low birth weight for gestational age was associated with increased risk of MI (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–2.9; attributable fraction = 5%). In nonfatal cases, adjustment for waist-hip ratio, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and lipids reduced the point estimate somewhat. Low birth weight for gestational age in combination with high BMI at the time of the MI produced an OR of 10.8 (3.6–31.8) for MI compared with normal birth weight and normal BMI; the synergy index was 6.5 (95% CI = 1.8–24.0).

    Conclusions: The synergism between small size at birth and high adult BMI supports the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. However, this mechanism seems to pertain to only a small fraction of the acute MI cases, implying minor public health importance.

  • 12.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Janszky, Imre
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Synergistic interaction between small size for gestational age and overweight in adulthood on acute myocardial infarction risk – the SHEEP study2010Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13. Selander, Jenny
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bluhm, Gösta
    Rosenlund, Mats
    Lindqvist, Magnus
    Nise, Gun
    Pershagen, Göran
    Long-Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Myocardial Infarction2009Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 272-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An association has been reported between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but the evidence is limited and inconclusive. No previous study has simultaneously analyzed the role of exposure to noise and air pollution from road traffic in the risk of MI. Methods: A population-based case-control study on MI was conducted 1992-1994 in Stockholm County. Participants answered a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Residential exposure to noise and air pollution from road traffic between 1970 and 1992-1994 was assessed for 3666 participants (1571 cases of MI and 2095 controls), based on residential history combined with information on traffic intensity and distance to nearby roads. Information was also obtained on factors potentially affecting the relationship between noise exposure and MI, such as noise annoyance. Results: The correlation between long-term individual exposure to noise and air pollution from traffic was high (r = 0.6). The adjusted odds ratio for MI associated with long-term road traffic noise exposure of 50 dBA or higher was 1.12 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.33). In a subsample, defined by excluding persons with hearing loss or exposure to noise from other sources, the corresponding odds ratio was 1.38 (1.11-1.71), with a positive exposure-response trend. No strong effect modification was apparent by sex or cardiovascular risk factors, including air pollution from road traffic. Conclusions: The results lend some support to the hypothesis that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk for MI.

  • 14. Stenholm, S.
    et al.
    Vahtera, J.
    Kawachi, I.
    Pentti, J.
    Halonen, J. I.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Razak, F.
    Subramanian, S. V.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Patterns of weight gain in middle-aged and older US adults from 1992-20102015Inngår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 165-168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cross-sectional analyses of national data have found that persons with high baseline body mass index (BMI) gain weight faster than persons at the median and that those whose weight was below the median gain very little weight. However, it is not clear whether these population-level changes reflect patterns at the individual level. Methods: We examined longitudinal changes in BMI in initially underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese US men and women using individual-level repeat data from the Health and Retirement Study (n = 15,895; age range, 40-69 years at baseline). Linear mixed-effect regression was used to model 6-year change in self-reported BMI during 4 study periods (1992/1994-1998/2000, 1996/1998-2002/2004, 2000/2002-2006/2008, and 2004-2010). Results: In the first 6-year period, the mean increase in BMI was greatest among persons who were initially normal weight (0.3 kg/m(2) [95% confidence interval = 0.2 to 0.4]) and overweight (0.2 kg/m(2) [0.1 to 0.3]). Weight gain accelerated in these groups with each subsequent period. Weight gain was less for initially class-I obese participants, and a net decrease in BMI was observed for class-II obese participants. Conclusion: These analyses suggest that the change in mean BMI among middle-aged and older US adults between 1992 and 2010 resulted mainly from accelerated weight gain among persons who were initially normal weight and overweight.

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