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  • 1. Andersen, Zorana J.
    et al.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Pedersen, Marie
    Galassi, Claudia
    Jørgensen, Jeanette T.
    Oudin, Anna
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Olsson, David
    Oftedal, Bente
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Göran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Eriksen, Kirsten T.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Plusquin, Michelle
    Key, Timothy J.
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Fournier, Agnes
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Baglietto, Laura
    Grioni, Sara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Migliore, Enrica
    Tamayo-Uria, Ibon
    Amiano, Pilar
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Keuken, Menno
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 125, nr 10, artikkel-id UNSP 107005Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-usc regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts - Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Mattcr (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) <= 2.5 mu m, <= 10 mu m, and 2.5-10 mu m in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 [hazard ratio (FIR) = 1.08 [95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 mu g/m(3)}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 mu g/m(3)], PMcoarse [1.20 (95% Cl: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 mu g/m(3)], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 mu g/m(3)], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 mu g/m(3), p = 0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: We-found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.

  • 2. Arnot, Jon A.
    et al.
    Brown, Trevor N.
    Wania, Frank
    Breivik, Knut
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Prioritizing Chemicals and Data Requirements for Screening-Level Exposure and Risk Assessment2012Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 120, nr 11, s. 1565-1570Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Scientists and regulatory agencies strive to identify chemicals that may cause harmful effects to humans and the environment; however, prioritization is challenging because of the large number of chemicals requiring evaluation and limited data and resources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prioritize chemicals for exposure and exposure potential and obtain a quantitative perspective on research needs to better address uncertainty in screening assessments. METHODS: We used a multimedia mass balance model to prioritize > 12,000 organic chemicals using four far-field human exposure metrics. The propagation of variance (uncertainty) in key chemical information used as model input for calculating exposure metrics was quantified. RESULTS: Modeled human concentrations and intake rates span approximately 17 and 15 orders of magnitude, respectively. Estimates of exposure potential using human concentrations and a unit emission rate span approximately 13 orders of magnitude, and intake fractions span 7 orders of magnitude. The actual chemical emission rate contributes the greatest variance (uncertainty) in exposure estimates. The human biotransformation half-life is the second greatest source of uncertainty in estimated concentrations. In general, biotransformation and biodegradation half-lives are greater sources of uncertainty in modeled exposure and exposure potential than chemical partition coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanistic exposure modeling is suitable for screening and prioritizing large numbers of chemicals. By including uncertainty analysis and uncertainty in chemical information in the exposure estimates, these methods can help identify and address the important sources of uncertainty in human exposure and risk assessment in a systematic manner.

  • 3. Beelen, Rob
    et al.
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Fischer, Paul H.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Xun, Wei W.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Vartiainen, Erkki
    Lanki, Timo
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Oftedal, Bente
    Schwarze, Per E.
    Nafstad, Per
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Otstenson, Claes-Goran
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Penell, Johanna
    Korek, Michal
    Pershagen, Goran
    Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup
    Overvad, Kim
    Sorensen, Mette
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Meliefste, Kees
    Wang, Meng
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Kramer, Ursula
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Key, Timothy
    Peters, Annette
    Hampel, Regina
    Concin, Hans
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Ineichen, Alex
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.
    Schindler, Christian
    Ragettli, Martina S.
    Vilier, Alice
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Declercq, Christophe
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Galassi, Claudia
    Migliore, Enrica
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Katsoulis, Michail
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Keuken, Menno
    Jedynska, Aleksandra
    Kooter, Ingeborg M.
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Sokhi, Ranjeet S.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Natural-Cause Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particle Components: An Analysis of 19 European Cohorts within the Multi-Center ESCAPE Project2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 123, nr 6, s. 525-533Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies have shown associations between mortality and long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Few cohort studies have estimated the effects of the elemental composition of particulate matter on mortality. Objectives: Our aim was to study the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to elemental components of particulate matter. Methods: Mortality and confounder data from 19 European cohort studies were used. Residential exposure to eight a priori-selected components of particulate matter ( PM) was characterized following a strictly standardized protocol. Annual average concentrations of copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc within PM size fractions <= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) and <= 10 mu m (PM10) were estimated using land-use regression models. Cohort-specific statistical analyses of the associations between mortality and air pollution were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models using a common protocol followed by meta-analysis. Results: The total study population consisted of 291,816 participants, of whom 25,466 died from a natural cause during follow-up (average time of follow-up, 14.3 years). Hazard ratios were positive for almost all elements and statistically significant for PM2.5 sulfur (1.14; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.23 per 200ng/m(3)). In a two-pollutant model, the association with PM2.5 sulfur was robust to adjustment for PM2.5 mass, whereas the association with PM2.5 mass was reduced. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 sulfur was associated with natural-cause mortality. This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants and PM2.5.

  • 4. Binnington, Matthew J.
    et al.
    Quinn, Cristina L.
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Wania, Frank
    Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fish Consumption Advisories: Modeling Prenatal, Postnatal, and Childhood Exposures to Persistent Organic Pollutants2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 122, nr 2, s. 178-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Because human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) occurs mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, regulatory bodies issue dietary consumption advisories to describe safe intake levels for food items of concern, particularly fish. Objectives: Our study goal was to estimate the effectiveness of fish consumption advisories in reducing exposure of infants and children to POPs. Methods: We used the time-variant mechanistic model CoZMoMAN to estimate and compare prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153 under different scenarios of maternal guideline adherence for both hypothetical constant and realistic time-variant chemical emissions. The scenarios differed in terms of length of compliance (1 vs. 5 years), extent of fish substitution (all vs. half), and replacement diet (uncontaminated produce vs. beef). We also estimated potential exposure reductions for a range of theoretical chemicals to explore how guideline effectiveness varies with a chemical's partitioning and degradation properties. Results: When assuming realistic time periods of advisory compliance, our findings suggest that temporarily eliminating or reducing maternal fish consumption is largely ineffective in reducing pre-and postnatal exposure to substances with long elimination half-lives in humans, especially during periods of decreasing environmental emissions. Substituting fish with beef may actually result in higher exposure to certain groups of environmental contaminants. On the other hand, advisories may be highly effective in reducing exposure to substances with elimination half-lives in humans shorter than the length of compliance. Conclusions: Our model estimates suggest that fish consumption advisories are unlikely to be effective in reducing prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposures to compounds with long elimination half-lives in humans.

  • 5. Birnbaum, Linda S.
    et al.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Brominated and Chlorinated Flame Retardants: The San Antonio Statement2010Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 118, nr 12, s. A516-A518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The San Antonio Statement on Brominated and Chlorinated Flame Retardants addresses the growing concern in the scientific community about the persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties of brominated and chlorinated organic flame retardants (BFRs and CFRs, respectively) and the exposure to humans and wildlife as a result of intensive use. Nearly 150 scientists from 22 countries have signed the statement since it was presented at the 30th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (Dioxin 2010), held 1217 September 2010 in San Antonio, Texas. The scientist signatories are experts on the health effects and environmental fate of BFRs and CFRs and environmental contaminants in general. The International Panel on Chemical Pollution (IPCP), an international network of scientists working on various aspects of chemical pollution, also has approved the statement.

  • 6.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Balan, Simona A.
    Scheringer, Martin
    Weber, Roland
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Blum, Arlene
    Diamond, Miriam
    Fletcher, Tony
    Goldenman, Gretta
    Higgins, Christopher
    Lindeman, Avery E.
    Peaslee, Graham
    Trier, Xenia
    de Voogt, Pim
    Comment on “Fluorotechnology Is Critical to Modern Life: The FluoroCouncil Counterpoint to the Madrid Statement”2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 123, nr 7, s. A170-A170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7. Dingemans, Milou M L
    et al.
    de Groot, Aart
    van Kleef, Regina G D M
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    van den Berg, Martin
    Vijverberg, Henk P M
    Westerink, Remco H S
    Hydroxylation increases the neurotoxic potential of BDE-47 to affect exocytosis and calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells.2008Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 116, nr 5, s. 637-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative metabolism, resulting in the formation of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) metabolites, may enhance the neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the effects of a hydroxylated metabolite of 2,2',4,4'-tetra-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47; 6-OH-BDE-47) on changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and vesicular catecholamine release in PC12 cells. METHODS: We measured vesicular catecholamine release and [Ca2+]i using amperometry and imaging of the fluorescent Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura-2, respectively. RESULTS: Acute exposure of PC12 cells to 6-OH-BDE-47 (5 microM) induced vesicular catecholamine release. Catecholamine release coincided with a transient increase in [Ca2+]i, which was observed shortly after the onset of exposure to 6-OH-BDE-47 (120 microM). An additional late increase in [Ca2+]i was often observed at &gt; or =1 microM 6-OH-BDE-47. The initial transient increase was absent in cells exposed to the parent compound BDE-47, whereas the late increase was observed only at 20 microM. Using the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and thapsigargin to empty intracellular Ca2+ stores, we found that the initial increase originates from emptying of the endoplasmic reticulum and consequent influx of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the late increase originates primarily from mitochondria. CONCLUSION: The hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 is more potent in disturbing Ca2+ homeostasis and neurotransmitter release than the parent compound BDE-47. The present findings indicate that bioactivation by oxidative metabolism adds considerably to the neurotoxic potential of PBDEs. Additionally, based on the observed mechanism of action, a cumulative neurotoxic effect of PBDEs and ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls on [Ca2+]i cannot be ruled out.

  • 8. Dingemans, Milou M. L.
    et al.
    Heusinkveld, Harm J.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    van den Berg, Martin
    Westerink, Remco H. S.
    Bromination Pattern of Hydroxylated Metabolites of BDE-47 Affects Their Potency to Release Calcium from Intracellular Stores in PC12 Cells2010Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 118, nr 4, s. 519-525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Brominated flame retardants, including the widely used polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been detected in humans, raising concern about possible neurotoxicity. Recent research demonstrated that the hydroxylated metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 increases neurotransmitter release by releasing calcium ions (Ca2+) from intracellular stores at much lower concentrations than its environmentally relevant parent congener BDE-47. Recently, several other hydroxylated BDE-47 metabolites, besides 6-OH-BDE-47, have been detected in human serum and cord blood. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To investigate the neurotoxic potential of other environmentally relevant PBDEs and their metabolites, we examined and compared the acute effects of BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and several metabolites of BDE-47-6-OH-BDE-47 (and its methoxylated analog 6-MeO-BDE-47), 6'-OH-BDE-49, 5-OH-BDE-47, 3-OH-BDE-47, and 4'-OH-BDE-49 on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)), measured using the Ca2+-responsive dye Fura-2 in neuroendocrine pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. RESULTS: In contrast to the parent PBDEs and 6-MeO-BDE-47, all hydroxylated metabolites induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, although with different lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs). The major intracellular Ca2+ sources were either endoplasmic reticulum (ER; 5-OH-BDE-47 and 6'-OH-BDE-49) or both ER and mitochondria (6-OH-BDE-47, 3-OH-BDE-47, and 4'-OH-BDE-49). When investigating fluctuations in [Ca2+](i), which is a more subtle end point, we observed lower LOECs for 6-OH-BDE-47 and 4'-OH-BDE-49, as well as for BDE-47. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrate that hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 cause disturbance of the [Ca2+](i). Importantly, shielding of the OH group on both sides with bromine atoms and/or the ether bond to the other phenyl ring lowers the potency of hydroxylated PBDE metabolites.

  • 9. Duarte-Salles, Talita
    et al.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Granum, Berit
    Gutzkow, Kristine B.
    Rydberg, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Mendez, Michelle A.
    Brunborg, Gunnar
    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise
    Meltzer, Helle Margrete
    Alexander, Jan
    Haugen, Margaretha
    Dietary Acrylamide Intake during Pregnancy and Fetal Growth-Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 121, nr 3, s. 374-379Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acrylamide has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in animals, as well as neurotoxic effects in humans with occupational exposures. Because it is widespread in food and can pass through the human placenta, concerns have been raised about potential developmental effects of dietary exposures in humans. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations of prenatal exposure to dietary acrylamide with small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight. METHODS: This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Acrylamide exposure assessment was based on intake estimates obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which were compared with hemoglobin (Hb) adduct measurements reflecting acrylamide exposure in a subset of samples (n = 79). Data on infant birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations between prenatal acrylamide and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with fetal growth. When women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake were compared with women in the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for SGA was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21) and the coefficient for birth weight was -25.7 g (95% CI: -35.9, -15.4). Results were similar after excluding mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Maternal acrylamide-and glycidamide-Hb adduct levels were correlated with estimated dietary acrylamide intakes (Spearman correlations = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.44; and 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.63, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lowering dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy may improve fetal growth.

  • 10. Fuks, Kateryna B.
    et al.
    Weinmayr, Gudrun
    Foraster, Maria
    Dratva, Julia
    Hampel, Regina
    Houthuijs, Danny
    Oftedal, Bente
    Oudin, Anna
    Panasevich, Sviatlana
    Penell, Johanna
    Sommar, Johan N.
    Sorensen, Mette
    Tiittanen, Pekka
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Xun, Wei W.
    Aguilera, Inmaculada
    Basagana, Xavier
    Beelen, Rob
    Bots, Michiel L.
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Caracciolo, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Cirach, Marta
    de Faire, Ulf
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Elosua, Roberto
    Erbel, Raimund
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
    Hilding, Agneta
    Jula, Antti
    Korek, Michal
    Kraemer, Ursula
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Leander, Karin
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Marrugat, Jaume
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
    Oestenson, Claes-Goeran
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Pershagen, Goeran
    Phuleria, Harish C.
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Schaffner, Emmanuel
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Schindler, Christian
    Schwarze, Per E.
    Sogaard, Anne J.
    Sugiri, Dorothea
    Swart, Wim J. R.
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Turunen, Anu W.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Peters, Annette
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Arterial Blood Pressure and Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution: An Analysis in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 122, nr 9, s. 896-905Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hyper-tension in European populations. METHODS: We analyzed 15 population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). We modeled residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides with land use regression using a uniform protocol. We assessed traffic exposure with traffic indicator variables. We analyzed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and nonmedicated with BP-lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hyper-tension was defined as >= 140 mmHg systolic BP, or >= 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the main meta-analysis of 113,926 participants, traffic load on major roads within 100 m of the residence was associated with increased systolic and diastolic BP in nonmedicated participants [0.35 mmHg (95% CI: 0.02, 0.68) and 0.22 mmHg (95% CI: 0.04, 0.40) per 4,000,000 vehicles x m/day, respectively]. The estimated odds ratio (OR) for prevalent hyper-tension was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.11) per 4,000,000 vehicles x m/day. Modeled air pollutants and BP were not clearly associated. CONCLUSIONS: In this first comprehensive meta-analysis of European population-based cohorts, we observed a weak positive association of high residential traffic exposure with BP in nonmedicated participants, and an elevated OR for prevalent hyper-tension. The relationship of modeled air pollutants with BP was inconsistent.

  • 11. Hamers, Timo
    et al.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Scholze, Martin
    Molenaar, Douwe
    Cenijn, Peter H.
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Transthyretin-Binding Activity of Complex Mixtures Representing the Composition of Thyroid-Hormone Disrupting Contaminants in House Dust and Human Serum2020Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 128, nr 1, artikkel-id 017015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: House dust contains many organic contaminants that can compete with the thyroid hormone (TH) thyroxine (T-4) for binding to transthyretin (TTR). How these contaminants work together at levels found in humans and how displacement from TTR in vitro relates to in vivo T-4-TTR binding is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to determine the TTR-binding potency for contaminant mixtures as found in house dust, maternal serum, and infant serum; to study whether the TTR-binding potency of the mixtures follows the principle of concentration addition; and to extrapolate the in vitro TTR-binding potency to in vivo inhibition levels of T-4-TTR binding in maternal and infant serum. METHODS: Twenty-live contaminants were tested for their in vitro capacity to compete for TTR-binding with a fluorescent FITC-T-4 probe. Three mixtures were reconstituted proportionally to median concentrations for these chemicals in house dust, maternal serum, or infant serum from Nordic countries. Measured concentration-response curves were compared with concentration-response curves predicted by concentration addition. For each reconstituted serum mixture, its inhibitor-TTR dissociation constant (K-i) was used to estimate inhibition levels of T-4-TTR binding in human blood. RESULTS: The TTR-binding potency of the mixtures was well predicted by concentration addition. The similar to 20% inhibition in FITC-T-4 binding observed for the mixtures reflecting median concentrations in maternal and infant serum was extrapolated to 1.3% inhibition of T-4-TTR binding in maternal and 1.5% in infant blood. For nontested mixtures reflecting high-end serum concentrations, these estimates were 6.2% and 4.9%, respectively. DISCUSSION: The relatively low estimated inhibition levels at median exposure levels may explain why no relationship between exposure to TTR-binding compounds and circulating T-4 levels in humans has been reported, so far. We hypothesize, however, that 1.3% inhibition of T-4-TTR binding may ultimately be decisive for reaching a status of maternal hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia associated with impaired neurodevelopment in children.

  • 12. Hogberg, Johan
    et al.
    Hanberg, Annika
    Berglund, Marika
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Remberger, Mikael
    Calafat, Antonia M.
    Filipsson, Agneta Falk
    Jansson, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Johansson, Niklas
    Appelgren, Malin
    Hakansson, Helen
    Phthalate diesters and their metabolites in human breast milk, blood or serum, and urine as biomarkers of exposure in vulnerable populations2008Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 116, nr 3, s. 334-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates may pose a risk for perinatal developmental effects. An important question relates to the choice of suitable biological matrices for assessing exposure during this period. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to measure the concentrations of phthalate diesters or their metabolites in breast milk, blood or serum, and urine and to evaluate their suitability for assessing perinatal exposure to phthalates. METHODS: In 2001, 2-3 weeks after delivery, 42 Swedish primipara provided breast milk, blood, and urine samples at home. Special care was taken to minimize contamination with phthalates (e.g., use of a special breast milk pump, heat treatment of glassware and needles, addition of phosphoric acid). RESULTS: Phthalate diesters and metabolites in milk and blood or serum, if detected, were present at concentrations close to the limit of detection. By contrast, most phthalate metabolites were detectable in urine at concentrations comparable to those from the general population in the United States and in Germany. No correlations existed between urine concentrations and those found in milk or blood/serum for single phthalate metabolites. Our data are at odds with a previous study documenting frequent detection and comparatively high concentrations of phthalate metabolites in Finnish and Danish mothers' milk. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine are more informative than those in milk or serum. Furthermore, collection of milk or blood may be associated with discomfort and potential technical problems such as contamination (unless oxidative metabolites are measured). Although urine is a suitable matrix for health-related phthalate monitoring, urinary concentrations in nursing mothers cannot be used to estimate exposure to phthalates through milk ingestion by breast-fed infants.

  • 13. Lind, Lars
    et al.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Lejonklou, Margareta H.
    Dunder, Linda
    Bergman, Ake
    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos
    Lampa, Erik
    Lee, Hong Kyu
    Legler, Juliette
    Nadal, Angel
    Pak, Youngmi Kim
    Phipps, Richard P.
    Vandenberg, Laura N.
    Zalko, Daniel
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Oberg, Mattias
    Blumberg, Bruce
    Heindel, Jerrold J.
    Birnbaum, Linda S.
    Uppsala Consensus Statement on Environmental Contaminants and the Global Obesity Epidemic2016Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 124, nr 5, s. A81-A83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From the lectures presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Obesity and Environmental Contaminants, which was held in Uppsala, Sweden, on 8-9 October 2015, it became evident that the findings from numerous animal and epidemiological studies are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental contaminants could contribute to the global obesity epidemic. To increase awareness of this important issue among scientists, regulatory agencies, politicians, chemical industry management, and the general public, the authors summarize compelling scientific evidence that supports the hypothesis and discuss actions that could restrict the possible harmful effects of environmental contaminants on obesity.

  • 14. Liu, Jiaying
    et al.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Alberta, Canada.
    Comparison of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S Percutaneous Absorption and Biotransformation2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 127, nr 6, artikkel-id 067008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Bisphenol S (BPS) has been widely substituted for bisphenol A (BPA) on thermal papers, but little is known about its skin absorption.

    OBJECTIVES: We compared the percutaneous absorption and biotransformation of BPS and BPA in vitro and in a controlled human trial.

    METHODS: Absorption and biotransformation of BPS and BPA were monitored across reconstructed human epidermis at two environmentally relevant doses over 25 h. In the human trial, five male participants handled thermal receipts containing BPS and washed their hands after 2 h. Urine (0-48 h) and serum (0-7.5h) were analyzed for target bisphenols, and one participant repeated the experiment with extended monitoring. BPS data were compared with published data for isotope-labeled BPA (BPA-d(16)) in the same participants.

    RESULTS: At doses of 1.5 and 7.7 mu g/cm(2) applied to reconstructed human epidermis, the permeability coefficient of BPS (0.009 and 0.003 cm/h, respectively) was significantly lower than for BPA (0.036 and 0.033 cm/h, respectively), and metabolism of both bisphenols was negligible. In participants handling thermal receipts, the quantities of BPS and BPA-d(1)(6) on hands was significantly correlated with maximum urinary event flux (lag), but the slope was lower for BPS than BPA (beta=0.12 and 1.1, respectively). As a proportion of total urinary bisphenol, free BPS [mean +/- standard deviation (SD): 6.9 +/- 2.8%] was higher than for free BPA (2.7 +/- 1.9%). Postexposure maximum urinary BPS concentrations (0.93 to 3.0 ng/mL; n = 5) were in the 93-98th percentile range of BPS in background Canadians (0.91-3.2 ng/mL; n =467).

    CONCLUSION: Both the in vitro and human studies suggested lower percutaneous absorption of BPS compared with BPA, but a lower biotransformation efficiency of BPS should also be considered in its evaluation as a BPA substitute.

  • 15. Ljungman, Petter L. S.
    et al.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Andersson, Eva M.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Eneroth, Kristina
    Gidhagen, Lars
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Lager, Anton
    Leander, Karin
    Molnar, Peter
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Rosengren, Annika
    Segersson, David
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Barregard, Lars
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Sallsten, Gerd
    Bellander, Tom
    Pershagen, Goran
    Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution, Black Carbon, and Their Source Components in Relation to Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 127, nr 10, artikkel-id 107012Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but few studies have considered incident disease in relation to PM from different sources.

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study associations between long-term exposure to different types of PM and sources and incident isemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in three Swedish cities.

    METHODS: Based on detailed emission databases, monitoring data, and high-resolution dispersion models, we calculated source contributions to PM with aerodynamic diameter <= 10 mu m (PM10), PM with aerodynamic diameter <= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) from road wear, traffic exhaust, residential heating, and other sources in Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Umea. Registry data for participants from four cohorts were used to obtain incidence of IHD and stroke for first hospitalization or death. We constructed time windows of exposure for same-year, 1- to 5-y, and 6- to 10-y averages preceding incidence from annual averages at residential addresses. Risk estimates were based on random effects meta-analyses of cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models.

    RESULTS: We observed 5,166 and 3,119 incident IHD and stroke cases, respectively, in 114,758 participants. Overall, few consistent associations were observed between the different air pollution measures and IHD or stroke incidence. However, same-year levels of ambient locally emitted BC (range: 0.01 - 4.6 mu g/m(3)) were associated with a 4.0% higher risk of incident stroke per interquartile range (IQR), 0.30 mu g/m(3) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 7.8]. This association was primarily related to BC from traffic exhaust. PM10 (range: 4.4 - 52 mu g/m(3)) and PM2.5 (range: 2.9 - 22 mu g/m(3)) were not associated with stroke. Associations with incident IHD were observed only for PM2.5 exposure from residential heating.

    DISCUSSION: Few consistent associations were observed between different particulate components and IHD or stroke. However, long-term residential exposure to locally emitted BC from traffic exhaust was associated with stroke incidence. The comparatively low exposure levels may have contributed to the paucity of associations.

  • 16.
    Markova, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Malmgren, Lars O. G.
    Belyaev, Igor Y.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för genetik, mikrobiologi och toxikologi.
    Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk2010Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 118, nr 3, s. 394-399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination-of various leukemias and tumors, including gliomas. OBJECTIVES: We studied whether microwaves from mobile telephones of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and the Universal Global Telecommunications System (UMTS) induce DSBs or affect DSB repair in stem cells. METHODS: We analyzed tumor suppressor TP53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) foci that are typically formed at the sites of DSB location (referred to as DNA repair foci) by laser confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Microwaves from mobile phones inhibited formation of 53BP1 foci in human primary fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells. These data parallel our previous findings for human lymphocytes. Importantly, the same GSM carrier frequency (915 MHz) and UMTS frequency band (1947.4 MHz) were effective for all cell types. Exposure at 905 MHz did not inhibit 53BP1 foci in differentiated cells, either fibroblasts or lymphocytes, whereas some effects were seen in stem cells at 905 MHz. Contrary to fibroblasts, stem cells did not adapt to chronic exposure during 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.

  • 17. Meister, Kadri
    et al.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Estimated Short-Term Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality in Stockholm, Sweden2012Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 120, nr 3, s. 431-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although serious health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <= 10 mu m (PM10) and <= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5; fine fraction) are documented in many studies, the effects of coarse PM (PM2.5-10) are still under debate. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we estimated the effects of short-term exposure of PM2.5-10 on daily mortality in Stockholm, Sweden. METHOD: We collected data on daily mortality for the years 2000 through 2008. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, ozone, and carbon monoxide were measured simultaneously in central Stockholm. We used additive Poisson regression models to examine the association between daily mortality and PM2.5-10 on the day of death. and the day before. Effect estimates were adjusted for other pollutants (two-pollutant models) during different seasons. RESULTS: We estimated a 1.68% increase [95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.20%, 3.15%] in daily mortality per 10-mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5-10 (single-pollutant model). The association with PM2.5-10 was stronger for November through May, when road dust is most important (1.69% increase; 95% CI: 0.21%, 3.17%), compared with the rest of the year (1.31% increase; 95% CI: -2.08%, 4.70%), although the difference was not statistically significant. When adjusted for other pollutants, particularly PM2.5, the effect estimates per 10 mu g/m(3) for PM2.5-10 decreased slightly but were still higher than corresponding effect estimates for PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows an increase in daily mortality associated with elevated urban background levels of PM2.5-10. Regulation of PM2.5-10 should be considered, along with actions to specifically reduce PM2.5-10 emissions, especially road dust suspension, in cities.

  • 18. Merlo, Domenico Franco
    et al.
    Agramunt, Silvia
    Anna, Livia
    Besselink, Harrie
    Botsivali, Maria
    Brady, Nigel J.
    Ceppi, Marcello
    Chatzi, Leda
    Chen, Bowang
    Decordier, Ilse
    Farmer, Peter B.
    Fleming, Sarah
    Fontana, Vincenzo
    Foersti, Asta
    Fthenou, Eleni
    Gallo, Fabio
    Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    Gmuender, Hans
    Godschalk, Roger W.
    Granum, Berit
    Hardie, Laura J.
    Hemminki, Kari
    Hochstenbach, Kevin
    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.
    Lovik, Martinus
    Nielsen, Jeanette K.
    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie
    Pedersen, Marie
    Rydberg, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Schoket, Bernadette
    Segerbäck, Dan
    Singh, Rajinder
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    van Loveren, Henk
    van Schooten, Frederik J.
    vande Loock, Kim
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Wright, John
    Kleinjans, Jos C.
    Kirsch-Volders, Micheline
    van Delft, Joost H. M.
    Micronuclei in Cord Blood Lymphocytes and Associations with Biomarkers of Exposure to Carcinogens and Hormonally Active Factors, Gene Polymorphisms, and Gene Expression: The NewGeneris Cohort2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 122, nr 2, s. 193-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Leukemia incidence has increased in recent decades among European children, -suggesting that early-life environmental exposures play an important role in disease development. Objectives: We investigated the hypothesis that childhood susceptibility may increase as a result of in utero exposure to carcinogens and hormonally acting factors. Using cord blood samples from the NewGeneris cohort, we examined associations between a range of biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and hormonally acting factors with micronuclei (MN) frequency as a proxy measure of cancer risk. Associations with gene expression and genotype were also explored. Methods: DNA and protein adducts, gene expression profiles, circulating hormonally acting factors, and GWAS (genome-wide association study) data were investigated in relation to genomic damage measured by MN frequency in lymphocytes from 623 newborns enrolled between 2006 and 2010 across Europe. Results: Malondialdehyde DNA adducts (M(1)dG) were associated with increased MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes (MNBN), and exposure to androgenic, estrogenic, and dioxin-like compounds was associated with MN frequency in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNMONO), although no monotonic exposure-outcome relationship was observed. Lower frequencies of MNBN were associated with a 1-unit increase expression of PDCD11, LATS2, TRIM13, CD28, SMC1A, IL7R, and NIPBL genes. Gene expression was significantly higher in association with the highest versus lowest category of bulky and M(1)dG-DNA adducts for five and six genes, respectively. Gene expression levels were significantly lower for 11 genes in association with the highest versus lowest category of plasma AR CALUX (R) (chemically activated luciferase expression for androgens) (8 genes), ER alpha CALUX (R) (for estrogens) (2 genes), and DR CALUX (R) (for dioxins). Several SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) on chromosome 11 near FOLH1 significantly modified associations between androgen activity and MNBN frequency. Polymorphisms in EPHX1/ 2 and CYP2E1 were associated with MNBN. Conclusion: We measured in utero exposure to selected environmental carcinogens and circulating hormonally acting factors and detected associations with MN frequency in newborns circulating T lymphocytes. The results highlight mechanisms that may contribute to carcinogen-induced leukemia and require further research.

  • 19. Park,, Hye-Youn
    et al.
    Park,, June-Soo
    Sovcikova, Eva
    Kocan, Anton
    Linderholm, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Trnovec, Tomas
    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva
    Exposure to Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the Prenatal Period and Subsequent Neurodevelopment in Eastern Slovakia2009Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 117, nr 10, s. 1600-1606Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20. Pedersen, Marie
    et al.
    Schoket, Bernadette
    Godschalk, Roger W.
    Wright, John
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Nielsen, Jeanette K.
    Merlo, Domenico F.
    Mendez, Michelle A.
    Meltzer, Helle M.
    Lukacs, Viktoria
    Landström, Anette
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.
    Kovacs, Katalin
    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.
    Haugen, Margaretha
    Hardie, Laura J.
    Gutzkow, Kristine B.
    Fleming, Sarah
    Fthenou, Eleni
    Farmer, Peter B.
    Espinosa, Aina
    Chatzi, Leda
    Brunborg, Gunnar
    Brady, Nigel J.
    Botsivali, Maria
    Arab, Khelifa
    Anna, Livia
    Alexander, Jan
    Agramunt, Silvia
    Kleinjans, Jos C.
    Segerbäck, Dan
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 121, nr 10, s. 1200-1206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tobacco-smoke, airborne, and dietary exposures to polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with reduced prenatal growth. Evidence from -biomarker-based studies of low-exposed populations is limited. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood reflect the prenatal effective dose to several genotoxic agents including PAHs. Objectives: We estimated the association between bulky DNA adduct levels and birth weight in a multicenter study and examined modification of this association by maternal intake of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women from Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain were recruited in 2006-2010. Adduct levels were measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique in white blood cells from 229 mothers and 612 newborns. Maternal diet was examined through questionnaires. Results: Adduct levels in maternal and cord blood samples were similar and positively correlated (median, 12.1 vs. 11.4 adducts in 108 nucleotides; Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.66, p < 0.001). Cord blood adduct levels were negatively associated with birth weight, with an estimated difference in mean birth weight of -129 g (95% CI: -233, -25 g) for infants in the highest versus lowest tertile of adducts. The negative association with birth weight was limited to births in Norway, Denmark, and England, the countries with the lowest adduct levels, and was more pronounced in births to mothers with low intake of fruits and vegetables (-248 g; 95% CI: -405, -92 g) compared with those with high intake (-58 g; 95% CI: -206, 90 g). Conclusions: Maternal exposure to genotoxic agents that induce the formation of bulky DNA adducts may affect intrauterine growth. Maternal fruit and vegetable consumption may be protective.

  • 21. Pedersen, Marie
    et al.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Botsivali, Maria
    Agramunt, Silvia
    Alexander, Jan
    Brunborg, Gunnar
    Chatzi, Leda
    Fleming, Sarah
    Fthenou, Eleni
    Granum, Berit
    Gutzkow, Kristine B.
    Hardie, Laura J.
    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.
    Mendez, Michelle A.
    Merlo, Domenico F.
    Nielsen, Jeanette K.
    Rydberg, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Segerback, Dan
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Wright, John
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Kleinjans, Jos C.
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)2012Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 120, nr 12, s. 1739-1745Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother child study. METHODS: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006-2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was -132 g (95% CI: -207, -56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was -0.33 cm (95% CI: -0.61, -0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for Factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. IF confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women.

  • 22. Ritscher, Amélie
    et al.
    Wang, Zhanyun
    Scheringer, Martin
    Boucher, Justin M.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Berger, Urs
    Bintein, Sylvain
    Bopp, Stephanie K.
    Borg, Daniel
    Buser, Andreas M.
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    DeWitt, Jamie
    Fletcher, Tony
    Green, Christopher
    Herzke, Dorte
    Higgins, Christopher
    Huang, Jun
    Hung, Hayley
    Knepper, Thomas
    Lau, Christopher S.
    Leinala, Eeva
    Lindstrom, Andrew B.
    Liu, Jinxia
    Miller, Mark
    Ohno, Koichi
    Perkola, Noora
    Shi, Yali
    Haug, Line Småstuen
    Trier, Xenia
    Valsecchi, Sara
    van der Jagt, Katinka
    Vierke, Lena
    Zurich Statement on Future Actions on Per - and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 126, nr 8, artikkel-id 084502Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per - and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are man-made chemicals that contain at least one perfluoroalkyl moiety, -CnF2n-. To date, over 4,000 unique PFASs have been used in technical applications and consumer products, and some of them have been detected globally in human and wildlife biomonitoring studies. Because of their extraordinary persistence, human and environmental exposure to PFASs will be a long-term source of concern. Some PFASs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) have been investigated extensively and thus regulated, but for many other PFASs, knowledge about their current uses and hazards is still very limited or missing entirely. To address this problem and prepare an action plan for the assessment and management of PFASs in the coming years, a group of more than 50 international scientists and regulators held a two-day workshop in November, 2017. The group identified both the respective needs of and common goals shared by the scientific and the policy communities, made recommendations for cooperative actions, and outlined how the science-policy interface regarding PFASs can be strengthened using new approaches for assessing and managing highly persistent chemicals such as PFASs.

  • 23.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för biokemi och biofysik.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Erlandson, Jon M.
    Gjerdrum, Thor
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?2011Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 119, nr 9, s. 1203-1207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure.

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