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  • 1. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Currie, Janet
    Simeonova, Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Public vs. private provision of charity care?: Evidence from the expiration of Hill-Burton requirements in Florida2011In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the consequences of the expiration of charity care requirements imposed on private hospitals by the Hill-Burton Act. We examine delivery care and the health of newborns using the universe of Florida births from 1989 to 2003 combined with hospital data from the American Hospital Association. We find that charity care requirements were binding on hospitals, but that private hospitals under obligation cream skimmed the least risky maternity patients. Conditional on patient characteristics, they provided less intensive maternity services but without compromising patient health. When obligations expired, private hospitals quickly reduced their charity caseloads, shifting maternity patients to public hospitals. The results in this paper suggest, perhaps surprisingly, that requiring private providers to serve the underinsured can be effective.

  • 2. Bharadwaj, Prashant
    et al.
    Bietenbeck, Jan
    Lundborg, Petter
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Birth weight and vulnerability to a macroeconomic crisis2019In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 66, p. 136-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows that early-life health is an important determinant of labor market vulnerability during macroeconomic downturns. Using data on twins during Sweden's crisis of the early 1990s, we show that individuals with higher birth weight are differentially less likely to receive unemployment insurance benefits after the crisis as compared to before it, and that this effect is concentrated among workers in the private sector. While differences in early-life health thus lead to increased inequality in employment outcomes, we also find that there is no differential effect of birth weight on total income after the crisis. This suggests that in the context of Sweden, the social safety net is able to mitigate the effects of early-life health on labor market outcomes during economic downturns. 

  • 3.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Johansson, Per
    Niknami, Susan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Income Inequality and Health: Lessons from a Refugee Residential Assignment Program2012In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 617-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of income inequality on health for a group of particularly disadvantaged individuals: refugees. Our analysis draws on longitudinal hospitalization records coupled with a settlement policy where Swedish authorities assigned newly arrived refugees to their first area of residence. The policy was implemented in a way that provides a source of plausibly random variation in initial location. The results reveal no statistically significant effect of income inequality on the risk of being hospitalized. This finding holds also for most population subgroups and when separating between different types of diagnoses. Our estimates are precise enough to rule out large effects of income inequality on health.

  • 4. Jans, Jenny
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Nilsson, J. Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS), Sweden.
    Economic status, air quality, and child health: Evidence from inversion episodes2018In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 61, p. 220-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normally, the temperature decreases with altitude, allowing air pollutants to rise and disperse. During inversion episodes, warmer air at higher altitude traps air pollutants at the ground. By merging vertical temperature profile data from NASA with pollution monitors and health care records, we show that inversions increase the PM10 levels by 25% and children's respiratory health problems by 5.5%. Low-income children are particularly affected, and differences in baseline health seem to be a key mediating factor behind the effect of pollution on the SES health gap. Policies that improve dissemination of information on inversion status may hence improve child health, either through private action or via policies that curb emissions during inversion episodes.

  • 5. Laun, Lisa
    et al.
    Skogman Thoursie, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden.
    Does privatisation of vocational rehabilitation improve labour market opportunities?: Evidence from a field experiment in Sweden2014In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 34, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses if privatisation of vocational rehabilitation can improve labour market opportunities for individuals on long-term sickness absence. We use a field experiment performed by the Public Employment Service and the Social Insurance Agency in Sweden during 2008-2010, in which over 4000 participants were randomly offered private and public rehabilitation. We find no differences in employment rates following rehabilitation between individuals who received rehabilitation by private and public providers. Also the average cost of rehabilitation was essentially equal for the two types of providers. This suggests that there are no large efficiency gains from privatising vocational rehabilitation.

  • 6.
    Palme, Mårten
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Simeonova, Emilia
    Does women's education affect breast cancer risk and survival? Evidence from a population based social experiment in education2015In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 42, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is a notable exception to the well documented positive education gradient in health. A number of studies have found that highly educated women are more likely to be diagnosed with the disease. Breast cancer is therefore often labeled as a welfare disease. However, it has not been established whether the strong positive correlation holds up when education is exogenously determined. We estimate the causal effect of education on the probability of being diagnosed with breast cancer by exploiting an education reform that extended compulsory schooling and was implemented as a social experiment. We find that the incidence of breast cancer increased for those exposed to the reform.

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