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  • 1. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Björklund, Christina
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Exhaustion and Impaired Work Performance in the Workplace: Associations With Presenteeism and Absenteeism2019In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 438-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

    Methods: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

    Results: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

    Conclusions: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

  • 2. Bergström, G
    et al.
    Bodin, L
    Hagberg, J
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josephson, M
    Sickness Presenteeism Today, Sickness Absenteeism Tomorrow?: A Prospective Study on Sickness Presenteeism and Future Sickness Absenteeism.2009In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 629-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To prospectively investigate whether sickness presenteeism (SP), ie, going to work despite illness, has an impact on future sickness absenteeism. Methods: Two study populations were used, one female dominated from the public sector that included 3757 employees, and one male dominated from the private sector comprising 2485 employees. Results: SP on more than five occasions during the baseline year (2000) was a statistically significant risk factor for future sick leave (2002 and 2003) of more than 30 days among both populations even after adjusting for previous sick leave, health status, demographics, lifestyle, and work-related variables (2002, public sector, relative risk = 1.40; private sector, relative risk = 1.51). Conclusions: SP may be an important phenomenon to consider when evaluating measures aimed at decreasing sickness absenteeism because more SP may lead to future sickness absence.

  • 3. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Work-Home Interference and Burnout A Study Based on Swedish Twins2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 361-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study sets out to investigate the impact of work-home interference on burnout in women and men, while taking genetic and family environmental factors into account. Methods: A total of 4446 Swedish twins were included in the study. The effects of work-home conflict (WHC) and home-work conflict (HWC) on burnout between and within pairs were analyzed with co-twin control analyses. Results: Both WHC and HWC were significantly associated with burnout. Genetic factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. Familial factors were not involved for WHC and burnout, neither for women nor for men. Conclusions: This study shows the importance to encounter WHC per se to prevent burnout. Because of genetic confounding in HWC and burnout in women, preventive efforts may also take into account individual characteristics.

  • 4. Bryngelson, Anna
    et al.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Åsberg, Marie
    Nygren, Åke
    Reduction in personnel and long-term sickness absence for psychiatric disorders among employees in Swedish county councils: an ecological population-based study.2011In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 658-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim was to examine whether staff downsizing was related to long-term psychiatric sickness absence.

    METHODS:

    We used aggregate data on sickness absence from AFA insurance, as well as information on staff numbers from the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions. Bootstrap regression analyses were used to elucidate whether there was a relationship between reduction in personnel and changes in sickness rates.

    RESULTS:

    A staff reduction of 1% increased the sickness rate, on average, by 9%. The associations were similar in men and women as well as in different age groups, although statistical significance was only reached in the groups of women and middle-aged employees.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our findings suggest that downsizing may be related to subsequent increases in psychiatric sickness absence. The association appeared after a time-delay of several years.

  • 5. Descatha, Alexis
    et al.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Accuracy of a Single Item on Mentally Tiring Work as Proxy Measure of Job Demands and Efforts in the Gazel Cohort2017In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 8, p. E156-E158Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    Villaume, Karin
    Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Palm, Kristina
    Managing Implementation Roles of Line Managers, Senior Managers, and Human Resource Professionals in an Occupational Health Intervention2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To contrast line managers', senior managers', and (human resource) HR professionals' descriptions of their roles, tasks, and possibilities to perform them during the implementation of an occupational health intervention. Methods: Interviews with line managers (n = 13), senior managers (n = 7), and HR professionals (n = 9) 6 months after initiation of an occupational health intervention at nine organizations. Results: The groups' roles were described coherently, except for the HR professionals. These roles were seldom performed in practice, and two main reasons appeared: use of individuals' engagement rather than an implementation strategy, and lack of integration of the intervention with other stakeholders and organizational processes. Conclusions: Evaluation of stakeholders' perceptions of each other's and their own roles is important, especially concerning HR professionals. Clear role descriptions and implementation strategies, and aligning an intervention to organizational processes, are crucial for efficient intervention management.

  • 7. Heponiemi, Tarja
    et al.
    Elovainio, Marko
    Pentti, Jaana
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Association of Contractual and Subjective Job Insecurity With Sickness Presenteeism Among Public Sector Employees2010In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 830-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:: We examined the associations of contractual job insecurity (fixed-term vs permanent employment contract) and subjectively assessed job insecurity with sickness presenteeism among those who had no sickness absences during the study year. METHODS:: Survey data from a sample of 18,454 Public sector employees were gathered in 2004 (the Finnish Public Sector study). RESULTS:: Fixed-term employees were less likely to report working while ill (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.77 to 0.99) than permanent employees. Subjective insecurity was associated with higher levels of working while ill, and this association was stronger among older employees. These results remained after adjustments for demographics, health-related variables, and optimism. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results suggest that subjective job insecurity might be even more important than contractual insecurity when a public sector employee makes the decision to go to work despite feeling ill.

  • 8. Li, Jian
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Cost, Gain, and Health Theoretical Clarification and Psychometric Validation of a Work Stress Model With Data From Two National Studies2019In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 898-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test nonsymmetric effects of cost/gain imbalance at work on depression, based on the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Methods: Study participants were derived from two large national studies from Germany and Sweden. Associations between the ERI scales, including the effort-reward (E-R) ratio in 2016 and depression (in 2016 for German sample, and in 2018 for Swedish sample) were examined by multivariable logistic regression. Results: In both samples, high cost/low gain, but not low cost/high gain, is associated with depression, with a 3- to 5-fold elevated risk in the highest decile of the E-R ratio. Conclusions: The short version of the ERI questionnaire is a psychometrically useful tool for epidemiological research. The finding demonstrating nonsymmetric effects of cost/gain imbalance contributes to a theoretical clarification of this stress-theoretical model.

  • 9. McGovern, Patricia
    et al.
    Dagher, Rada K.
    Rice, Heidi Roeber
    Gjerdingen, Dwenda
    Dowd, Bryan
    Ukestad, Laurie K.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Longitudinal Analysis of Total Workload and Women's Health After Childbirth2011In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 497-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the association of women's postpartum health with total workload (TWL), work and personal factors in the year after childbirth. Methods: Employed women from Minneapolis and St Paul, Minnesota, were recruited while hospitalized for childbirth. Longitudinal analyses, using fixed effects regression models, estimated the associations of TWL, job satisfaction and stress, social support, perceived control, breastfeeding and infant characteristics with women's health at 5 weeks, 11 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. Results: Increased TWL over time was associated with significantly poorer mental health and increased symptoms. Conclusions: High TWL-including reduced time for rest, recovery, and sleep-is a risk factor for women's mental health and symptoms 12 months after childbirth. Women's postpartum health was positively associated with social support, which may help to decrease the negative effects of excess work.

  • 10. Mutambudzi, Miriam
    et al.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Li, Jian
    Job Strain and Long-Term Sickness Absence From Work A Ten-Year Prospective Study in German Working Population2019In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 278-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prospective associations between baseline job strain and 10-year cumulative incidence of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in the German workforce. Methods: This study used longitudinal data from the 2001 to 2011 waves of The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) (n = 9794). Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the prospective association between job strain and incidence of LTSA. Results: High strain [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.12 to 1.46] and passive jobs (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.30) were significantly associated with LTSA after full adjustment for covariates, with greater risk in the older participants (>45) in passive (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.63) and high strain (HR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.92) jobs. Conclusion: Jobs with low control over work were associated with LTSA in German workers. More studies using longitudinal employment data, and more detailed job strain measures are warranted.

  • 11. Törnroos, Maria
    et al.
    Elovainio, Marko
    Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa
    Hintsa, Taina
    Pulkki-Råback, Laura
    Hakulinen, Christian
    Merjonen, Päivi
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Hintsanen, Mirka
    Is There a Two-Way Relationship Between Cynicism and Job Strain? Evidence From a Prospective Population-Based Study2015In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 479-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the bidirectional relationship between job strain and cynicism. Methods: The study sample was obtained from the Young Finns study and comprised 757 participants (399 women, 53%). The bidirectional association between cynicism and job strain over a 6-year-follow-up was examined with a cross-lagged structural equation model, controlling for a number of demographic variables. Results: High job strain (beta = 0.08; P = 0.007) was associated with higher baseline-adjusted cynicism 6 years later. Nevertheless, cynicism was not associated with baseline-adjusted job strain. The additional analysis showed that cynicism mediated 21.5% of the relationship between job strain and depression. Conclusions: Perceptions of having a highly strenuous job may elicit mistrustful and cynical attitudes in employees, which in turn may lead to mental health problems.

  • 12.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasson, Henna
    Effects of worksite health interventions involving reduced work hours and physical exercise on sickness absence costs2012In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 538-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the effects of physical exercise during work hours (PE) and reduced work hours (RWH) on direct and indirect costs associated with sickness absence (SA). Methods: Sickness absence and related costs at six workplaces, matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH, and referents), were retrieved from company records and/or estimated using salary conversion methods or value-added equations on the basis of interview data. Results: Although SA days decreased in all conditions (PE, 11.4%; RWH, 4.9%; referents, 15.9%), costs were reduced in the PE (22.2%) and RWH (4.9%) conditions but not among referents (10.2% increase). Conclusions: Worksite health interventions may generate savings in SA costs. Costs may not be linear to changes in SA days. Combing the friction method with indirect cost estimates on the basis of value-added productivity may help illuminate both direct and indirect SA costs.

  • 13.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasson, Henna
    Employee Self-rated Productivity and Objective Organizational Production Levels: Effects of Worksite Health Interventions Involving Reduced Work Hours and Physical Exercise2011In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 838-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate how worksite health interventions involving a 2.5-hour reduction of weekly working hours with (PE) or without (RWH) mandatory physical exercise affects productivity.Methods: Six workplaces in dental health care were matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH and referents). Employees' (N = 177) self-rated productivity and the workplaces' production levels (number of patients) were examined longitudinally.Results: Number of treated patients increased in all conditions during the intervention year. While RWH showed the largest increase in this measure, PE showed significant increases in self-rated productivity, that is, increased quantity of work and work-ability and decreased sickness absence.Conclusions: A reduction in work hours may be used for health promotion activities with sustained or improved production levels, suggesting an increased productivity since the same, or higher, production level can be achieved with lesser resources.

  • 14.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hasson, Henna
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Measuring Self-Rated Productivity Factor Structure and Variance Component Analysis of the Health and Work Questionnaire2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 1302-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To test the factor structure and variance components of the productivity subscales of the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ). Methods: A total of 272 individuals from one company answered the HWQ scale, including three dimensions (efficiency, quality, and quantity) that the respondent rated from three perspectives: their own, their supervisor's, and their coworkers'. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed, and common and unique variance components evaluated. Results: A common factor explained 81% of the variance (reliability 0.95). All dimensions and rater perspectives contributed with unique variance. The final model provided a perfect fit to the data. Conclusions: Efficiency, quality, and quantity and three rater perspectives are valid parts of the self-rated productivity measurement model, but with a large common factor. Thus, the HWQ can be analyzed either as one factor or by extracting the unique variance for each subdimension.

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