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  • 1.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alkohol och mötet mellan unga kvinnor och män2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 227-239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    När jag drack för mycket: unga i 20-årsåldern berättar2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 395-408Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Sociala representationer av alkohol och narkotika i fokusgruppintervjuer med 18-åringar och tonårsföräldrar2006In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 343-358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    "When I drank too much"  young people in their 20s tell their stories.2004In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Äldres värderingar och ideal i skrivaruppropet "Alkoholen i mitt liv"2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 439-461Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Stenius, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Genetisk riskbedömning: nytt inslag i svensk alkoholskadeprevention2004In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 156-163Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Tryggvesson, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Socialtjänstens användning av standardiserade klientbedömningsinstrument – ASI som retorik och praktik i två svenska kommuner2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    What happened to the Swedish problem drug users of the 1960's and 1970's?2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 109-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS & DESIGN - In this study we follow a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 (n = 14 294) from youth to middle age. The cohort members were in their teenage years when drug abuse was established as a considerable threat to Swedish society and some of the cohort members themselves became drug abusers (n=431). RESULTS - As expected, life became dramatically worse for those with documented drug abuse when young, than for the rest of the cohort members. While 72 percent of those without documented drug abuse were socially included at the age of 56, the corresponding share among those with documented drug abuse was 18 per cent. And while 5 percent in the former group were diseased at 56, this was true for 38 percent in the latter group. Supplementary analyses showed that social inclusion was also less stable among those with documented drug abuse than among the rest of the cohort, and that the flow from exclusion to inclusion was virtually nonexistent, which was not the case for those without experience of drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Gender specific analyses showed that the situation, at least in absolute terms, tended to be even worse for male drug abusers than for women. Gender differences in alcohol abuse, criminality, and with respect to parenthood are suggested as possible explanations to be further studied in future research.

  • 9.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    A reasonable cost?:  On politics, dubious calculations and involuntary consumers2010In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Nordic studies on alcohol and drugs, Vol. 27, p. 335-337Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Koloss på lerfötter?:  Svagt empiriskt stöd för Missbruksutredningens förslag (SOU 2011:35)2011In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 393-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    On the idea of treatment systems2010In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 565-573Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bergmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    von Greiff, Ninive
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The pursuit of evidence-based practice - a comparison of three guidelines on psychosocial interventions for alcohol problems2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 271-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    In this article we scrutinise three prominent guidelines on psychosocial interventions for alcohol problems. We pay special attention to how congruent the guidelines are in terms of the interventions recommended, and the processes used in order to identify and rank the “evidence” underpinning these recommendations.

    Data

    The analysed guidelines are: 1) Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Substance Use Disorders, American Psychiatric Association (2006); 2) Alcohol-Use Disorders. The NICE Guideline on Diagnosis, Assessment and Management of Harmful Drinking and Alcohol Dependence (2011), National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, UK; 3) Guidelines for the Treatment of Alcohol Problems, Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing (2009). The purpose is not to review the three guidelines as such, but to study them as an example of the production of evidence. All report to be based on “best available evidence”, so the guidelines were compared both regarding the actual recommendations and the guideline production procedures and differences in these procedures with related consequences.

    Results & CONCLUSIONS

    Prestigious organisations in different national contexts have reached divergent conclusions about evidence-based practice and the quality of the scientific studies underpinning these conclusions. Differences in the guidelines regarding interpretations, limitations and grading illustrate the difficulties with the dilemmas of sensitivity (to include factors that are significant for how a psychological intervention is to be judged) and specificity (that irrelevant studies are cleared off) in the recommendations presented.

  • 13.
    Bergmark, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The diffusion of addiction to the field of MMORPGs2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 415-426Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Binde, Per
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Forsström, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Swedish translation of DSM-5 “Gambling Disorder”: Reflections on nosology and terminology2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 219-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this commentary we discuss the translation into Swedish of the term Gambling Disorder (GD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2015). An earlier commentary in this journal described and discussed the translation into Finnish (Castrén, Salonen, Alho, & Lahti, 2014).

  • 15.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Att lägga sitt missbruk bakom sig: om ”spontanläkning” och betydelsen av behandling2001In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 163-174Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    What is the worst thing you could get hooked on?: Popular images of addiction problems in contemporary Sweden2009In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 373-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsTo investigate potentially crucial aspects of Swedes' perceptions of nine different addictions

    Data and methodsPopulation survey, sent out to 2,000 adult Swedes (18-74 years), focusing on the perceived severity of, responsibility for, options to recover from, and character of addiction to cigarettes, snuff, alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, medical drugs, and gambling.

    ResultsThere are large differences in the ways in which various addiction problems are perceived. Whereas tobacco use, and to some extent gambling, are seen as relatively harmless "habits", not particularly easy to get hooked on but easy to quit, the use of drugs such as heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine is seen as a major societal problem, and users are seen both as "sinners" who need to mend their ways and as powerless "victims". In between comes the use and misuse of alcohol, cannabis and medical drugs, about which perceptions are more divided.

    ConclusionsRespondents tend to downplay the risks and dangers with addictive habits that are common and familiar in mainstream culture, and to dramatise the risks and dangers with such habits that are uncommon or "strange". This may have unfortunate consequences for addicts' options to find a path out of their predicaments.

  • 17. Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Grittner, Ulrike
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Piontek, Daniela
    Drinking patterns at the sub-national level: What do they tell us about drinking cultures in European countries?2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 342-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    A drinking pattern is not only a major drinking variable, but is also one indicator of a country's drinking culture. In the present study, we examine drinking patterns within and across the neighbouring countries of Denmark and Germany. The aim of the research is to determine to what extent drinking patterns differ or are shared at the sub-national level in the two countries.

    Method:

    Data came from the German 2012 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Use (n = 9084) 18-64 years (response rate 54%), and the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research's 2011 Danish national survey (n = 5133) 15-79 years (response rate 64%), which was reduced to a common age range, producing a final n = 4016. The drinking pattern variable included abstention, moderate drinking, heavy drinking, risky single occasion drinking (RSOD), and was investigated with bivariate statistics and gender-specific hierarchical cluster analysis.

    Results:

    For men three clusters emerged: one highlighting abstention and RSOD, moderate/heavy drinking, RSOD and RSOD + heavy drinking. For women, two clusters appeared: one highlighting abstention and moderate/heavy drinking and the other highlighting RSOD and RSDO + heavy drinking. The clusters revealed different geographical patterning: for men, a west vs. east divide; for women, a north-south gradient.

    Conclusions:

    The analysis could identify for each gender clusters representing both separate and shared drinking patterns as well as distinctive geographical placements. This new knowledge can contribute to a new understanding of the dynamics of drinking cultures and could indicate new approaches to prevention efforts and policy initiatives.

  • 18.
    Borschos, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Drinking driving offenses among Swedish youths: recent trends in developments2000In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 17, no English supplement, p. 43-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    A qualitative analysis of Pål Kraft2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 196-197Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    The war on good research: Debating research ethics and methods on the basis of Jay Levy’s The war on people who use drugs: The harms of Sweden’s aim for a drug-free society (Routledge, 2017)2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 387-396Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Edman, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Berndt, Josefine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    From boredom to dependence: The medicalisation of the Swedish gambling problem2016In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 81-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS - The aim of this study is to investigate the medicalising of gambling problems by comparing the political discussions on gambling in the Swedish Parliament in the early 1970s and the early 2010s. DESIGN - Against a theoretical background on medicalising processes in general, and medicalisation of gambling problems in particular, we have analysed discussion protocols and parliamentary bills in the Swedish Parliament from the years 1970-1975 and 2012-2013. RESULTS - The problem descriptions of the 1970s and 2010s are, in certain respects, strikingly similar, identifying proactive operators such as the gambling companies and highlighting an inadequate legal framework. But where the MPs of the 1970s put some effort into describing the drab society which fed the need for gambling, the elected representatives of the 2010s shortcut to individual dependence. CONCLUSIONS - EU membership and the development of the Internet have made effective control and regulation impossible in the early 2010s and the political handling of the Swedish gambling problem is therefore a clear example of how market liberalisation can pave the way for individualisation, medicalisation and depoliticisation of social problems.

  • 22.
    Edman, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Olsson, Börje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The Swedish drug problem: conceptual understandingand problem handling, 1839–20112014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 5-6, p. 503-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM – To analyse the Swedish drug question by examining dominant concepts used to portray theproblem in the years 1839–2011. Theoretically, we understand these concepts as ideological toolsthat shape the political initiatives and administrative efforts to deal with the problem. The studyis based on two kinds of source material: articles in medical journals from the years 1839–1964and public reports on vagrancy, the alcohol problem, mental health and the drug problem fromthe years 1882–2011.

    FINDINGS – During the nineteenth century and the first part of the twentieth century the drugproblem remained an individual problem handled by doctors. When the Swedish drug problemwas established as a political question from the 1960s on, it also came to disengage itself from themedical frame of understanding. Medically oriented descriptions of “dependence” and “addiction”have appeared adequate or attractive when, for example, the socially motivated coercive treatmentsolution has been discredited (as in the 1970s), when there has been a desire to connect with aninternationally accepted terminology (as in the 1990s) or when a new organisational model with astronger professional support has been on the agenda (as in the 2010s). But otherwise the socialproblem description has called for concepts that have more or less explicitly dissociated themselvesfrom speculations in physiological or psychological predispositions for substance abuse.

  • 23.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Socialtjänst och missbrukarvård: bot eller lindring?2011In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Nordic studies on alcohol and drugs, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 297-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social service and addiction treatment: rehabilitation or harm reduction?

    AIM –This paper aims to depict and analyze how professionals in Swedish social services legitimize two ideologically controversial help interventions, methadone maintenance and coercive treatment. Should addiction treatment primarily rehabilitate clients, or should it be a short-term measure for harm reduction? This question has been less and less discussed inSwedenduring the past few years, as it has been accepted that all help should be based on science, not ideology – irrespective of it being aimed at harm reduction or rehabilitation. However, there is a lack of research regarding how crucial players in addiction treatment relate to this development, especially when applied on socially vulnerable clients. MATERIAL & METHOD – The empirical material consists of 33 qualitative interviews with social workers from Stockholm and its surrounding area. The interviews are analyzed through discourse analysis. RESULT – When describing their work, the respondents' discourse assumed and advocated progress in client case management. CONCLUSION – By emphasizing concepts such as lifestyle change, client motivation, psychosocial support and aftercare the social workers could construct the two forms of treatment as less ideologically extreme, but also as undoubtedly aligned with the political goal of rehabilitation. 

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Great expectations: The bureaucratic handling of Swedish residential rehabilitation in the 21st century2018In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 257-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Increasingly, efforts to counteract perceived problems in drug treatment at residential rehabilitation centres have come to rely on measures drawing on evidence-based practice (EBP). However, the Swedish media, government inquiries, and international research have identified a number of problems regarding both residential rehabilitation and EBP. This suggests that caution should be exercised when placing expectations on EBP. The aim of this study is to investigate how the responsible authorities have handled increasing demands for EBP with administrative control while facing critical evaluations of their steering and implementation efforts. The study examines the maturation of a widespread treatment ideology, which aims to be based on evidence, in a country known for its restrictive drug policy and its goal of becoming a drug-free society. Methods: Through a qualitative textual analysis of 17 years (2000-2016) of inquiries, directives, and authority archives we have traced the interplay between problem descriptions, intended goals, and implemented solutions. Findings: The analysis shows that the ambition to provide care and welfare based on EBP is still an ambition. Also, the authorities' control over the care actually provided still leaves room for improvement. Recurring criticism and the empirical material indicate that the expectations have not been met. Conclusions: We would like to suggest that continued frustration can be traced to the misconception that EBP is the opposite of values and ideology, and hence preferable. As drug treatment strives for scientific credibility to give it legitimacy, some types of evidence are preferred above others. We would like to suggest that we need to bring ideology to the fore, and openly discuss our restrictive policy goals and choices of evidence.

  • 25.
    Forsström, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Jenny, Cisneros Örnberg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Responsible gambling in practice: A case study of views and practices of Swedish oriented gambling companies2019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 91-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish gambling market faces a major change in legislation that will allow foreign-based companies to apply for a gambling licence in Sweden. A key element in the new legislation are consumer protection measures. The Swedish gambling market is currently divided between licensed companies and non-Swedish-based companies providing online gambling services without a licence in Sweden. How these companies view their responsibility for preventing gambling-related harm and how prepared they are for the new regulations are important questions regarding the new Swedish gambling market. Aims: To compare and analyse the views and practices on problem gambling and responsible gambling (RG) measures among licensed and unlicensed gambling companies on the Swedish market. Design/Methods/Data: Eleven semi-structured interviews were carried out with responsible gambling managers who are members of either of the two Swedish industry associations. Content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Results: Non-licensed companies have implemented behaviour tracking and monitoring of gamblers in a more extensive way than licensed companies. Both the licensed and the unlicensed companies conceptualise problem gambling in a similar manner and rely on informed choice in preventing gamblers from developing problems, seemingly arguing that offering responsible gambling measures on their website is enough. Conclusions: There are several similarities in how the two types of companies define problem gambling and responsible gambling. Both groups lack a critical perspective when discussing RG. There is a need for companies not only to provide RG measures, but to take an active role in preventing harm among gamblers. Future research should focus on exploring how companies work with RG after the legislative change.

  • 26. Grittner, Ulrike
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Huhtanen, Petri
    Svensson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems (STAD), Centre for Dependency Disorders, Stockholm County Council.
    Nordlund, Sturla
    Bloomfield, Kim
    Who are the private alcohol importers in the Nordic countries?2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 125-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims – The high price of alcohol in the Nordic countries has been a long-standing policy to curb consumption, which has led consumers to importing alcohol from countries with lower prices. This paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers in four Nordic countries. Methods – Cross-sectional data from general population surveys in Denmark (2003–2006), Norway (2004), Sweden (2003–2006) and Finland (2005–2006) were analysed by multiple logistic and linear regression. Independent variables included region, socio-demographics, drinking indicators and alcohol-related problems. Outcome variables were importer status and amount of imported alcohol.  Results – People living in regions close to countries with lower alcohol prices were more often importers and imported higher amounts than people living in other regions. Higher educated persons were more likely to be importers, but the amounts imported were smaller than those by people with lower education. Persons with higher incomes were also more likely to be importers and they also imported larger amounts than people with lower incomes. In Sweden and Denmark regional differences of importer rates were more pronounced for persons of lower incomes. Age, risky single-occasion drinking, risky drinking and alcohol problems were positively related to the amounts of imported alcohol. Conclusions – Private importers in the Nordic countries are an integrated yet heavy drinking segment of society and do not appear to be located on the fringes of society.

  • 27.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Personal experiences of drinking and alcohol-related risk perceptions: The importance of the subjective dimension2012In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 413-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims - To explore the association between subjective experiences of drinking and alcohol-related risk perceptions. Methods - The data is based on a questionnaire with questions about beliefs, use habits and experiences of alcohol and tobacco sent to a random sample of 3,000 Swedes aged 18 to 70 years (response rate= 1,623 individuals, or 54%). In this study, those respondents who had ever been drinking alcohol were included (1,536 individuals). The data were analysed statistically by cross tabs and multiple logistic regression. Results - With some exceptions, the results generally showed that differences in subjective experiences of drinking were related to risk perceptions of alcohol consumption. In particular, those who had more negative than positive subjective experiences of alcohol consumption had substantially higher risk perceptions than those who had more positive than negative experiences, controlling for alcohol consumption and potential confounders. There were also several significant differences between individuals differently involved in alcohol consumption, net of subjective experiences. Conclusions - Subjective experiences of alcohol consumption appear to be an important construct in relation to alcohol-related risk perceptions. To understand the link between personal experiences and risk perceptions pertaining to alcohol consumption, both objective measures of personal experiences and subjective measures should be considered.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gripe, Isabella
    Raninen, Jonas
    Individual and school-class correlates of youth cannabis use in Sweden: A multilevel study2018In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 131-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The school-class context is a crucial social environment for young people but substance use researchers have largely overlooked potential influences operating at this level. This study explores associations between school-class and individual-level factors and cannabis use in Swedish youth.

    Data and methods: Data comprised four waves (2012–2015) of the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs’ (CAN) nationally representative school surveys among individuals in 9th and 11th grade. For the present analyses, we had data on totally 28,729 individuals from 2377 unique school classes. Multilevel logistic regressions predicted lifetime and 10+ times use of cannabis from both individual-level predictors and school-class-level measures derived from the individual-level variables.

    Results: There were individual-level associations between most predictor variables and cannabis use. An early debut of tobacco use and binge drinking as well as low cannabis related risk perceptions had strong associations with cannabis use. Conversely, several school-class-level variables had aggregate relationships with cannabis use, most notably the overall level of risk perceptions in the school class. Some of the school-class factors predicted cannabis use over and above the individual-level covariates, suggesting the presence of contextual effects. Surprisingly, while female gender was negatively related with cannabis use at the individual level, a higher proportion of females in the classroom increased the odds for lifetime cannabis use even after controlling for individual and other contextual-level covariates.

    Conclusions: Youth cannabis use is related to various factors at both the individual and school-class level in Sweden. Truancy and perceived risk related to cannabis use had contextual associations with cannabis use. The positive contextual association between a higher proportion of females in the classroom and lifetime use should be explored further.

  • 29.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ekendahl, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Månsson, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Has illicit drug use become normalised in groups of Swedish youth? A latent class analysis of school survey data from 2012 to 20152019In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    It is often assumed that illicit drug use has become normalised in the Western world, as evidenced for example by increased prevalence rates and drug-liberal notions in both socially advantaged and disadvantaged youth populations. There is accumulating research on the characteristics of young illicit drug users from high-prevalence countries, but less is known about the users in countries where use is less common. There is reason to assume that drug users in low-prevalence countries may be more disadvantaged than their counterparts in high-prevalence countries, and that the normalisation thesis perhaps does not apply to the former context.

    Aim:

    This article aims to explore to what extent such assertions hold true by studying the characteristics of young illicit drug users in Sweden, where prevalence is low and drug policy centres on zero tolerance.

    Material and Method:

    We draw on a subsample (n = 3374) of lifetime users of illicit drugs from four waves of a nationally representative sample of students in 9th and 11th grade (2012–2015). Latent class analysis (LCA) on ten indicators pertaining to illicit drug use identified four classes which we termed “Marijuana testers”, “Marijuana users”, “Cannabinoid users” and “Polydrug users”.

    Findings:

    Indications of social advantage/disadvantage such as peer drug use, early substance-use debut and truancy varied across groups, particularly between “Marijuana testers” (low scores) and “Polydrug users” (high scores).

    Conclusions:

    Our findings corroborate the idea that the majority of those who have used illicit drugs in the Swedish youth population have tried marijuana a few times only. We discuss whether or not the comparably large share of socially advantaged “Marijuana testers” in a comparably small sample of lifetime users can be interpreted as a sort of normalisation in a prohibitionist drug policy context.

  • 30. Kataja, Kati
    et al.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Hakkarainen, Pekka
    Tigerstedt, Christoffer
    A virtual academy of polydrug use: Masters, novices and the art of combinations2018In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 413-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Information technology has become an essential part of drug culture, providing a platform for lay knowledge concerning drug use. Due to the co-effects of different substances, making substance combos requires advanced skills to enhance pleasures and manage risks. In this study, we focussed on Finnish and Swedish online discussions as a context for learning and sharing experiences of combining substances. Methods: Taking influences from positioning theory, we used qualitative methods to map what kinds of mutual interactive positions related to the expertise in polydrug use online discussants take and how these positions are negotiated and reformulated in the online setting. We reflect these results through Howard S. Becker's theory of social learning, according to which becoming a drug user is a process that occurs in interaction with other users, as the beginners need a model and advice from experienced users in order to claim their place in the users' community. Results: In online forums, users discuss the risks and pleasures of combining drugs - on the one hand, in relation to different situations and, on the other hand, in relation to different competence positions. This occurs by asking for advice, presenting one's knowledge, challenging others, repositioning oneself, defending one's position or proving one's competence. Conclusion: Online discussion forums constitute a kind of virtual academy where knowledge of the pleasures and risks of combining substances is produced and circulated, and where experienced masters mediate their expertise to less experienced novices.

  • 31.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Agahi, Neda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mattsson, Alexander Darin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Increased alcohol use over the past 20 years among the oldest old in Sweden2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 245-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS - Increased alcohol consumption among old people, reported in many countries, will likely present a major challenge to public health and policy in the future. In Sweden, current knowledge about old people's alcohol consumption is incomplete because of limited historical data and a dearth of nationally representative studies. We describe the frequency of alcohol consumption among the oldest old in Sweden over a 20-year period by sex, age, education, living situation, mobility and Activities of Daily Living. METHODS - We used repeated cross-sectional survey data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD), conducted in 1992, 2002 and 2011. The samples were nationally representative of the Swedish population aged 77+, with response rates of 95.4%, 84.4% and 86.2% (total n = 2007). Self-reported consumption frequency was measured with the question How often do you drink alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer or spirits? RESULTS - Frequency of alcohol consumption increased among the oldest old from 1992 to 2011. The proportion reporting no or less-than-monthly alcohol consumption decreased, whereas the proportion reporting weekly consumption increased. This was true for men, women and most age and educational groups. The period change in consumption frequency was not explained by changes in demographic factors, living situation or functional capacity during the study period. CONCLUSIONS - Alcohol use increased among the oldest old in Sweden during the 20-year study period. More liberal attitudes toward alcohol could contribute to the increased use. The increase in weekly alcohol consumers suggests an increase in the number of older risk consumers.

  • 32.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Hibell, Björn
    Whence and whither: strengths and future challenges of ESPAD2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 319-322Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Tryggvesson, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Pabst, Alexander
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Involvement in alcohol-related verbal or physical aggression. Does social status matter?2015In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 449-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION -The analyses (1) assessed the association between social status variables and aggression when controlling for volume of alcohol consumption and episodic heavy drinking (EHD), (2) tested whether social status moderates the association between volume or EHD and verbal as well as physical aggression, and (3) investigated whether EHD moderates the effect of volume on aggression. METHODS - Swedish Alcohol Monitoring Survey (2003 to 2011); N=104,316 current drinkers; response rate: 51 to 38%. Alcohol-related aggression was defined as involvement in a quarrel or physical fight while drinking. Social status was defined as the highest education, monthly income and marital status. RESULTS -The associations between social status variables and aggression showed mixed results. Verbal aggression was associated with education in males and with marital status in both genders. Physical aggression was associated with education in both genders. No associations with aggression were found for income. With few exceptions, these associations remained significant when controlling for drinking patterns; social status did not moderate the association between drinking and aggression; EHD moderated the effect of volume on physical aggression in males. CONCLUSIONS - Groups of lower educated and non-married individuals experience verbal or physical aggression over and above different levels of consumption. Individual differences in aggression vulnerability rather than differences in aggression predisposition account for higher risks of aggression in these groups.

  • 34.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Estimations of unrecorded alcohol consumption and trends in 15 European Countries2001In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 18, no English Supplement, p. 54-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Homogenisation in alcohol consumption in the European Union2001In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 18, no Eng Suppl, p. 15-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Kommentar till: Tigerstedt, C. & Karlsson, T. ”Svårt att kasta loss. Finlands och Sveriges alkoholpolitiska kursändringar efter år 1990”2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 427-428Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Leifman, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Vilka dricker mer alkohol i Sverige?: En studie av konsumtionstrender bland män och kvinnor i olika åldersgrupper under perioden 1990 till 20022003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, no 2-3, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Leifman, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Drickandets temporala struktur2004In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 5-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM To study gender- and agespecific variation in, and co-variation between, alcohol consumption and the frequency of binge drinking. METHOD The analyses were mainly based on self-reported data of alcohol consumption and binge drinking collected monthly from general adult population surveys conducted between July 2001 and May 2003. A total of 1500 interviews were completed in the age group 16-80 years each month. RESULTS The Swedish alcohol consumption varies by month with the highest level found during the summer months, particularly July, and in December. This was the same across both genders and for most age groups. A similar pattern was seen for the frequency of binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS The highest frequency of binge drinking by Swedes was found to be during the same months as when they drink the most amount of alcohol. The peak in July is probably due to the fact that this is the typical holiday month in Sweden. The paper discusses the possibility that the temporal drinking patterns in Sweden (and in other Nordic countries) will gradually change in the future, and will keep pace with an increase in both alcohol consumption and the number of drinking occasions.

  • 39. Leifman, Håkan
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Drinkandets temporala struktur2004In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 21, p. 5-21Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40. Lund, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Trolldal, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Ugland, Trygve
    Norwegian-Swedish cross-border trade in alcohol beverages2000In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 17, no eng. suppl., p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Mamone, Alessia
    et al.
    Fabi, Francesco
    Colasante, Emanuela
    Siciliano, Valeria
    Molinaro, Sabrina
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Rossi, Carla
    New indicators to compare and evaluate harmful drug use among adolescents in 38 European countries2014In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 343-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS - New trends in drug consumption reveal increasing polydrug use. Epidemiological indicators in the current use are based on the prevalence and the associated potential harm of a single main substance. We propose new indicators to evaluate frequency and potential harm of polydrug use. The indicators are used to compare drug use among countries based on survey data on adolescents' substance use in 38 European countries. METHODS - The approach is based on analysis of the frequency of use in the various population samples: lifetime use, twelve months use or last thirty days, depending on available data, and on the risk of harm for the substances used. Two indicators are provided: the frequency of use score (FUS) by summing the frequency of use of each substance, and the polydrug use score (PDS) that weight all the substances used by their risk. RESULTS - The indicators FUS and PDS were calculated and the distribution functions were used to characterise substance use across ESPAD countries. The analysis shows important differences in poly-substance use severity among countries presenting similar prevention policies. CONCLUSIONS - Systematic analysis of substance use and the related risk are of paramount interest. The proposed indicators are designed to better monitor and understand consequences of polydrug use and to measure the resulting risk at country or population level. The indicators may also be used to assess the effects of policy interventions.

  • 42.
    Norström, Thor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Svensson, Johan
    Extended opening hours at nightclubs in Visby: An evaluation of a trial in the summer of 20142018In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 388-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims:

    During 10 weeks in the summer 2014 opening hours in nightclubs in Visby (Sweden) were extended by 1 hour, postponing the permitted closing time from 2 to 3 a.m. A number of preventive efforts such as Responsible Server Training, and an intensified cooperation between the police and the nightclubs were strengthened in connection with the trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this trial on police-reported violence.

    Data and methods:

    To estimate the effect of the trial on violence, we compared the violence rate during the intervention period (week 24–week 33, 2014) with the violence rate in the corresponding period in Visby in 2010–2013. The intervention period thus comprised 10 weeks, and the pre-intervention period 40 weeks. As outcome measure we chose police-reported assaults that had occurred at night (midnight–6 a.m.). As control series we used assaults daytime (6 a.m.–midnight). The intervention effect was estimated with the method of “difference in differences” (DiD). Interviews with key informants provided the study with an explanatory context for the trial outcomes.

    Results:

    The intervention effect was strongly statistically significant with a reduction of 3.336 reported assaults at night per week compared to the pre-intervention period. This represents a decrease of 71%.

    Conclusion:

    The trial with an extension of opening hours at nightclubs in Visby was followed by a reduction in police-reported violence. This unexpected outcome is likely to be the result of (i) the simultaneous strengthening of efficient preventive measures, and (ii) a decreased congestion in the streets resulting from increased spread in closing hours.

  • 43.
    Olsson, Börje
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Nya historier, nya berättare?: Alkohol och alkoholpolitik i svensk press under 1990-talet2000In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 63-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the years around 1990, several policy and economic events occurred which had significant effects on the Swedish society. In this context, critique against the welfare state grew and the traditional roles of the state and the individual were challenged. The legitimacy and efficiency of Swedish alcohol policy was also called into question. The article describes and analyses how portrayals of alcohol, alcohol problems and alcohol policies have changed during the 1990s in the Swedish press. Despite the growth of media like television and the Internet, the daily press must still be considered an important source of information and also an active constructor of reality. The analysis is based on different samples of press articles during the studied period. Special attention is paid to different actors/ narrators, their argumentation and how they perceive the individual and the state as legitimate actors and controllers of our drinking habits. The analysis shows that the dominant restrictive alcohol discourse, based on the total consumption model, public health perspectives and universal and restrictive alcohol policy measures, gradually has been challenged by a liberal discourse in which individual freedom, market liberalism and consumer perspectives are put forward as guiding principles for alcohol policies. A 'sensible drinking' perspective has seriously weakened the traditional perspective where alcohol- related problems have been situated as the legitimate foundation for policies. Finally, the ongoing redefinition of the alcohol issue also has made it possible for new narrators, for instance, business representatives, to take part in and significantly influence the alcohol discourse.

  • 44.
    Palm, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Moraliskt, medicinskt och socialt problem?: Syn på alkohol- och drogproblem bland personalen inom Stockholms beroendevård2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, no 20, p. 129-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Palm, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Referat av NAD-publikation: ”Skyldig eller sjuk? Om valet av påföljd för narkotikabruk”2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 2-3, p. 200-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Alkoholens roll i den globala och regionala sjukdomsbördan2003In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 429-437Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Kan slutenvårdstatistik användas som indikator på förändrade alkoholskador i Sverige och i så fall hur?: en analys av utvecklingen åren 1987-20032005In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 22, p. 339-349Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Liver cirrhosis mortality in 15 European countries1999In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 16, no suppl., p. 55-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Hellman, Matilda
    Cross-border purchase in the Nordic countries2009In: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 111-115Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 50. Rehm, Jürgen
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    The cultural aspect: How to measure and interpret epidemiological data on alcohol-use disorders across cultures2017In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 330-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine the cultural impact on the diagnosis of alcohol-use disorders using European countries as examples. Design: Narrative review. Results: There are strong cultural norms guiding heavy drinking occasions and loss of control. These norms not only indicate what drinking behaviour is acceptable, but also whether certain behaviours can be reported or not. As modern diagnostic systems are based on lists of mostly behavioural criteria, where alcohol-use disorders are defined by a positive answer on at least one, two or three of these criteria, culture will inevitably co-determine how many people will get a diagnosis. This explains the multifold differences in incidence and prevalence of alcohol-use disorders, even between countries where the average drinking levels are similar. Thus, the incidence and prevalence of alcohol-use disorders as assessed by surveys or rigorous application of standardised instruments must be judged as measuring social norms as well as the intended mental disorder. Conclusions: Current practice to measure alcohol-use disorders based on a list of culture-specific diagnostic criteria results in incomparability in the incidence, prevalence or disease burden between countries. For epidemiological purposes, a more grounded definition of diagnostic criteria seems necessary, which could probably be given by using heavy drinking over time.

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