Change search
Refine search result
1 - 20 of 20
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Head, Jenny A.
    Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study2013In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 688-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades.

    Methods: Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999.

    Results: Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.

  • 2. Farioli, Andrea
    et al.
    Kriebel, David
    Mattioli, Stefano
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Occupational lifting and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a follow-up study of Swedish conscripts2017In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 74, no 7, p. 489-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the association between occupational lifting and the risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using data from a large population of men.

    Methods We used data from a national cohort of 49 321 Swedish men conscripted for compulsory military service in 1969–1970. We collected information on surgically treated RRD from the National Patient Register and we followed up the cohort between 1991 and 2009 at ages 40–60 years. Exposure to occupational lifting was assessed by applying a job exposure matrix to occupational data from the 1990 census. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs were estimated through Poisson regression models adjusted by degree of myopia, income and education level.

    Results We observed 217 cases of RRD in 7 80 166 person-years. In univariate analyses we did not observe an association between occupational lifting and RRD. However, after adjustment for myopia and socioeconomic factors, we found an increased risk of RRD (IRR 2.38, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.93) for subjects in the highest category of exposure compared with those in the lowest one. The incidence rate of RRD among subjects lifting heavy loads at least twice per week, aged between 50 years and 59 years, and affected by severe myopia was as high as 7.9 cases per 1000 person-years, compared with an overall rate of 0.28.

    Conclusions Our study supports the hypothesis that heavy occupational lifting is a risk factor for RRD. Information on myopia degree and socioeconomic status is necessary when studying the association between occupational lifting and RRD.

  • 3. Ferrie, Jane E.
    et al.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Head, Jenny
    Melchior, Maria
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Zins, Marie
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Differences in the association between sickness absence and long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position: a 14-year follow-up in the GAZEL cohort2011In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 68, no 10, p. 729-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Although sickness absence is a strong predictor of health, whether this association varies by occupational position has rarely been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate overall and diagnosis-specific sickness absence as a predictor of future long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position.

    Methods This was a prospective occupational cohort study of 15 320 employees (73% men) aged 37–51. Sickness absences (1990–1992), included in 13 diagnostic categories, were examined by occupational position in relation to self-rated health measured annually during 1993–2006.

    Results 60% of employees in higher occupational positions and 22% in lower positions had no sickness absence. Conversely, 9.5% of employees in higher positions and 40% in lower positions had over 30 sick-leave days. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and chronic disease showed employees with over 30 days absence, compared to those with no absence, had approximately double the risk of sub-optimal health over the 14-year follow-up in all occupational positions. 1–30 days sick-leave was associated with greater odds of sub-optimal health in the high (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.27 to 1.72) and intermediate (1.29; 1.15 to 1.45) but not lower occupational positions (1.06; 0.82 to 1.38). Differences by occupational position in the association between sickness absence in 13 specific diagnostic categories and sub-optimal health over the ensuing 14 years were limited to stronger associations observed with cancer and mental disorders in the higher occupational positions.

    Conclusions The association between sickness absence of more than 30 days over 3 years and future long-term self-rated health appears to differ little by occupational position.

  • 4. Flo, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Pallesen, Stale
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Mageroy, Nils
    Moen, Bente Elisabeth
    Gronli, Janne
    Nordhus, Inger Hilde
    Bjorvatn, Bjorn
    Shift-related sleep problems vary according to work schedule2013In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 238-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Shift-related sleep and sleepiness problems may be due to characteristics of both shifts (ie, day, evening and night shifts) and work schedules (ie, permanent vs rotational schedules). The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire (BSWSQ) was used to investigate associations between shift-related sleep problems and work schedules. Methods 1586 nurses completed the BSWSQ. Participants who, in relation to a shift, 'often' or 'always' experienced both a sleep problem and a tiredness/sleepiness problem were defined as having shift-related insomnia (separate for day, evening and night shifts and rest-days). Logistic regression analyses were conducted for day, evening, night, and rest-day insomnia with participants on both permanent and rotational schedules. Results Shift-related insomnia differed between the work schedules. The evening shift insomnia was more prevalent in the two-shift rotation schedule than the three-shift rotation schedule (29.8% and 19.8%, respectively). Night shift insomnia showed higher frequencies among three-shift rotation workers compared with permanent night workers (67.7% and 41.7%, respectively). Rest-day insomnia was more prevalent among permanent night workers compared with two- and three-shift rotations (11.4% compared with 4.2% and 3.6%, respectively). Conclusions The prevalences of shift-related insomnia differed between the work schedules with higher frequencies for three-shift rotations and night shifts. However, sleep problems were present in all shifts and schedules. This suggests that both shifts and work schedules should be considered in the study of shift work-related sleep problems.

  • 5.
    Floderus, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagman, M
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, S
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wikman, A
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Work status, work hours and health in women with and without children2009In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 704-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The authors studied self-reported health in women with and without children in relation to their work status (employed, student, job seeker or homemaker), work hours and having an employed partner.

    Methods: The study group comprised of 6515 women born in 1960–1979 who were interviewed in one of the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions in 1994–2003. Self-rated health, fatigue and symptoms of anxiety were analysed.

    Results: Having children increased the odds of poor self-rated health and fatigue in employed women, female students and job seekers. The presence of a working partner marginally buffered the effects. In dual-earner couples, mothers reported anxiety symptoms less often than women without children. Few women were homemakers (5.8%). The odds of poor self-rated health and fatigue increased with increasing number of children in employed women, and in women working 40 h or more. Poor self-rated health was also associated with the number of children in students. Many mothers wished to reduce their working hours, suggesting time stress was a factor in their impaired health. The associations between having children and health symptoms were not exclusively attributed to having young children.

    Conclusions: Having children may contribute to fatigue and poor self-rated health particularly in women working 40 h or more per week. Student mothers and job seeking mothers were also at increased risk of poor self-rated health. The results should be noted by Swedish policy-makers. Also countries aiming for economic and gender equality should consider factors that may facilitate successful merging of work and family life.

  • 6.
    Halonen, Jaana I
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland .
    Pulakka, Anna
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Pentti, Jaana
    Laström, Hanna
    Stenholm, Sari
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Commuting time to work and behaviour-related health: a fixed-effect analysis2020In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 77-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Long commuting times are linked to poor health outcomes, but the evidence is mainly cross-sectional. We examined longitudinal within-individual associations between commuting time and behaviour-related health.

    Methods: Data were from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health study. We selected workers who responded to a minimum of two surveys conducted every other year between 2008 and 2018. We included all study waves with self-reported commuting time (ie, the exposure, 1–5, 6–10, 11–15 or ≥15 hours/week), body mass index (based on weight and height), physical (in)activity, smoking, alcohol use and sleep problems (ie, the outcomes) (Nindividuals=20 376, Nobservations=46 169). We used conditional logistic regression for fixed effects analyses that controls for time-varying confounders by design. Analyses were stratified by working hours: normal (30–40 hours/week) or longer than normal (>40 hours/week) and adjusted for time dependent covariates: age, marital status, occupational position, presence of children, chronic disease, depressive symptoms, job strain and shift work.

    Results: Those working >40 hours/week had higher odds of physical inactivity (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51) and sleep problems (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.35) when they were commuting >5 hours/week than when they were commuting 1–5 hours/week. Among women working normal hours, longer commuting time associated with lower odds of problem drinking.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that lengthy commuting time increases the risk of physical inactivity and sleep problems if individuals have longer than normal weekly working hours. Effects of work arrangements that decrease commuting time should be examined in relation to health behaviours.

  • 7.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wege, Natalia
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Wahrendorf, Morten
    Siegrist, Johannes
    How valid is a short measure of effort-reward imbalance at work?:  A replication study from Sweden2010In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 67, no 8, p. 526-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: There is an urgent need for validated measures of health-adverse psychosocial work environments. We tested the validity of a newly developed short version of the original questionnaire measuring effort-reward imbalance at work (ERI). METHODS: The study sample comprised working men and women (n=4771) participating in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, in 2006 and 2008. Structural equation modelling was applied to test factorial validity, using the ERI scales. Furthermore, criterion validity was explored with two prospectively assessed health indicators, poor self-reported health and depressive symptoms. Results are based on logistic and linear regression analyses, with appropriate confounder control. RESULTS: The short version of the ERI questionnaire (16 items) provides satisfactory psychometric properties (internal consistency of scales, confirmatory factor analysis with a good model fit of the data with the theoretical structure). All scales, and the effort-reward ratio, were prospectively associated with an increased risk of poor general self-rated health and depressive symptoms, indicating satisfactory criterion validity. CONCLUSION: This short version of the ERI questionnaire provides a psychometrically useful tool for epidemiological studies focused on the health-adverse effects of work and employment in the context of a globalised economy.

  • 8. Lundin, Andreas
    et al.
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Lundberg, Ingvar
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Unemployment and coronary heart disease among middle-aged men in Sweden: 39 243 men followed for 8 years2014In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 183-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Although unemployment may be a stressful life event, its association with coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. This study examines the association between unemployment and later hospitalisation due to CHD. Methods The study was based on a Swedish military conscription cohort of 18 to 20-year-old men from 1969/1970 (n=49321) with information provided on health status and health behaviours. Information on unemployment in middle age was obtained from national registers. CHD information was obtained from hospital registers and the cause of death register. Cox proportional hazard analyses were run on the 39243 individuals who were in paid employment in 1996 and 1997. Results It was found that 90days of unemployment was associated with subsequent CHD during 8years follow-up (crude HR=1.47, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.75). Controlling for known risk factors for CHD reduced the association but a significant association remained (HR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.48); 90days of unemployment was significantly associated with CHD during the first 4years (HR adjusted for known risk factors=1.31, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.71). Conclusions Unemployment was associated with increased risk of CHD after adjustment for confounders. We interpret the increased risk of CHD associated with unemployment as potentially the somatic result of a process started by stress.

  • 9.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hulvej Rod, Naja
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Huitfeldt Madsen, Ida Elisabeth
    LaMontagne, Anthony D.
    Milner, Allison
    Lange, Theis
    Suominen, Sakari
    Stenholm, Sari
    Xu, Tianwei
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Multicohort study of change in job strain, poor mental health and incident cardiometabolic disease2019In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 76, no 11, p. 785-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Several recent large-scale studies have indicated a prospective association between job strain and coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Job strain is also associated with poorer mental health, a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease. This study investigates the prospective relationships between change in job strain, poor mental health and cardiometabolic disease, and whether poor mental health is a potential mediator of the relationship between job strain and cardiometabolic disease.

    Methods We used data from five cohort studies from Australia, Finland, Sweden and UK, including 47 757 men and women. Data on job strain across two measurements 1-5 years apart (time 1 (T1)-time 2 (T2)) were used to define increase or decrease in job strain. Poor mental health (symptoms in the top 25% of the distribution of the scales) at T2 was considered a potential mediator in relation to incident cardiometabolic disease, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, following T2 for a mean of 5-18 years.

    Results An increase in job strain was associated with poor mental health (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.76), and a decrease in job strain was associated with lower risk in women (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.60-0.84). However, no clear association was observed between poor mental health and incident cardiometabolic disease (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.23), nor between increase (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.14) and decrease (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.96-1.22) in job strain and cardiometabolic disease.

    Conclusions The results did not support that change in job strain is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease and yielded no support for poor mental health as a mediator.

  • 10.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chungkham, Holendro S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Tezpur University, India.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Rod, Naja H.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Stenholm, Sari
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Zins, Marie
    Head, Jenny
    Job strain and loss of healthy life years between ages 50 and 75 by sex and occupational position: analyses of 64 934 individuals from four prospective cohort studies2018In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, no 7, p. 486-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Poor psychosocial working conditions increase the likelihood of various types of morbidity and may substantially limit quality of life and possibilities to remain in paid work. To date, however, no studies to our knowledge have quantified the extent to which poor psychosocial working conditions reduce healthy or chronic disease-free life expectancy, which was the focus of this study.

    Methods Data were derived from four cohorts with repeat data: the Finnish Public Sector Study (Finland), GAZEL (France), the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (Sweden) and Whitehall II (UK). Healthy (in good self-rated health) life expectancy (HLE) and chronic disease-free (free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease and diabetes) life expectancy (CDFLE) was calculated from age 50 to 75 based on 64394 individuals with data on job strain (high demands in combination with low control) at baseline and health at baseline and follow-up.

    Results Multistate life table models showed that job strain was consistently related to shorter HLE (overall 1.7 years difference). The difference in HLE was more pronounced among men (2.0 years compared with 1.5 years for women) and participants in lower occupational positions (2.5 years among low-grade men compared with 1.7 years among high-grade men). Similar differences in HLE, although smaller, were observed among those in intermediate or high occupational positions. Job strain was additionally associated with shorter CDFLE, although this association was weaker and somewhat inconsistent.

    Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals with job strain have a shorter health expectancy compared with those without job strain.

  • 11. Marquié, J-C
    et al.
    Tucker, Philip
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Folkard, S
    Gentil, C
    Ansiau, D
    Author response to "Time of day of cognitive tests might distort shift-work study results".2015In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 382-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Marquié, Jean-Claude
    et al.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Swansea University, UK.
    Folkard, Simon
    Gentil, Catherine
    Ansiau, David
    Chronic effects of shift work on cognition: findings from the VISAT longitudinal study2015In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 258-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Shift work, like chronic jet lag, is known to disrupt workers' normal circadian rhythms and social life, and to be associated with increased health problems (eg, ulcers, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, breast cancer, reproductive difficulties) and with acute effects on safety and productivity. However, very little is known about the long-term consequences of shift work on cognitive abilities. The aim of this study was to assess the chronicity and reversibility of the effects of shift work on cognition.

    METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3232 employed and retired workers (participation rate: 76%) who were 32, 42, 52 and 62 years old at the time of the first measurement (t1, 1996), and who were seen again 5 (t2) and 10 (t3) years later. 1484 of them had shift work experience at baseline (current or past) and 1635 had not. The main outcome measures were tests of speed and memory, assessed at all three measurement times.

    RESULTS: Shift work was associated with impaired cognition. The association was stronger for exposure durations exceeding 10 years (dose effect; cognitive loss equivalent to 6.5 years of age-related decline in the current cohort). The recovery of cognitive functioning after having left shift work took at least 5 years (reversibility).

    CONCLUSIONS: Shift work chronically impairs cognition, with potentially important safety consequences not only for the individuals concerned, but also for society.

  • 13. Persson Asplund, Robert
    et al.
    Dagöö, Jesper
    Fjellström, Ida
    Niemi, Linnea
    Hansson, Katja
    Zeraati, Forough
    Ziuzina, Masha
    Geraedts, Anna
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Internet-based stress management for distressed managers: results from a randomised controlled trial2018In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided internet-based stress management intervention (iSMI) among distressed managers compared with a attention control group (AC) with full access to treatment-as-usual.

    Method A total sample of 117 distressed managers, mainly employed in the healthcare, IT, communication and educational sector, were randomised to either iSMI (n=59) or an AC group (n=58). The iSMI consisted of eight modules including cognitive behavioural stress management and positive management techniques. Participants received a minimal and weekly guidance from a psychologist or master-level psychology student focusing on support, feedback and adherence to the intervention. Self-report data were assessed at pre, post and 6 months after the intervention. The primary outcome was perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale-14). The secondary outcomes included mental and work-related health outcomes.

    Results Participants in the iSMI intervention reported significantly less symptoms of perceived stress (d=0.74, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.19) and burnout (d=0.95, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.37) compared with controls, at postassessment. Significant medium-to-large effect sizes were also found for depression, insomnia and job satisfaction. Long-term effects (6 months) were seen on the mental health outcomes.

    Conclusion This is one of the first studies showing that iSMIs can be an effective, accessible and potentially time-effective approach of reducing stress and other mental-related and work-related health symptoms among distressed managers. Future studies are needed addressing distressed managers and the potential of indirect effects on employee stress and satisfaction at work.

  • 14.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Head, Jenny
    Stenholm, Sari
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Indian Statistical Institute, North-East Centre, India.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Zins, Marie
    Physical occupational exposures and health expectancies in a French occupational cohort2017In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 176-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To examine the relationships of strenuous and hazardous working conditions and rotating shifts that involve night working with life expectancy in good perceived health and life expectancy without chronic disease.

    Methods The sample contained male gas and electricity workers from the French GAZEL cohort (n=13 393). Six measures of physical working conditions were examined: Self-reports from 1989 and 1990 of ergonomic strain, physical danger, rotating shifts that involve night working and perceived physical strain; company records of workplace injuries and a job-exposure matrix of chemical exposures. Partial healthy life expectancies (age 50-75) relating to (1) self-rated health and (2) chronic health conditions, obtained from annual questionnaires (1989-2014) and company records, were estimated using multistate life tables. The analyses were adjusted for social class and occupational grade.

    Results Participants with physically strenuous jobs and who had experienced industrial injuries had shorter partial life expectancy. More physically demanding and dangerous work was associated with fewer years of life spent in good self-rated health and without chronic conditions, with the exception of shift work including nights, where the gradient was reversed.

    Conclusions Strenuous and hazardous work may contribute to lost years of good health in later life, which has implications for individuals' quality of life as well as healthcare use and labour market participation.

  • 15. Salomonsson, Sigrid
    et al.
    Santoft, Fredrik
    Lindsäter, Elin
    Ejeby, Kersti
    Ljtosson, Brjann
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Cognitive-behavioural therapy and return-to-work intervention for patients on sick leave due to common mental disorders: a randomised controlled trial2017In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 74, no 12, p. 905-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Common mental disorders (CMDs) cause great individual suffering and long-term sick leave. Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) effectively treats CMDs, but sick leave is not reduced to the same extent as psychiatric symptoms. Research results regarding return-to-work interventions (RTW-Is) and their effect on sick leave are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate CBT, a RTW-I and combined CBT and RTW-I (COMBO) for primary care patients on sick leave due to CMDs.

    Methods Patients with CMDs (n=211) were randomised to CBT (n=64), RTW-I (n=67) or COMBO (n=80). Sick-leave registry data after 1 year and blinded Clinician’s Severity Rating (CSR) of symptoms post-treatment and at follow-ups after 6 and 12 months were primary outcomes.

    Results There was no significant difference between treatments in days on sick leave 1 year after treatment start (mean difference in sick-leave days range=9–27). CBT led to larger reduction of symptoms post-treatment (CSR; Cohen’s d=0.4 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.8)) than RTW-I, whereas COMBO did not differ from CBT or RTW-I. At follow-up, after 1 year, there was no difference between groups. All treatments were associated with large pre-treatment to post-treatment improvements, and results were maintained at 1-year follow-up.

    Conclusion No treatment was superior to the other regarding reducing sick leave. All treatments effectively reduced symptoms, CBT in a faster pace than RTW-I, but at 1-year follow-up, all groups had similar symptom levels. Further research is needed regarding how CBT and RTW-I can be combined more efficiently to produce a larger effect on sick leave while maintaining effective symptom reduction.

  • 16.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Hellgren, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Barck-Holst, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Radboud University, The Netherlands .
    Total workload and recovery in relation to worktime reduction: a randomised controlled intervention study with time-use data2018In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, no 3, p. 218-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives A 25% reduction of weekly work hours for full-time employees has been shown to improve sleep and alertness and reduce stress during both workdays and days off. The aim of the present study was to investigate how employees use their time during such an intervention: does total workload (paid and non-paid work) decrease, and recovery time increase, when work hours are reduced?

    Methods Full-time employees within the public sector (n=636; 75% women) were randomised into intervention group and control group. The intervention group (n=370) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline, after 9 months and 18 months. Time-use was reported every half-hour daily between 06:00 and 01:00 during 1 week at each data collection. Data were analysed with multilevel mixed modelling.

    Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group increased the time spent on domestic work and relaxing hobby activities during workdays when worktime was reduced (P≤0.001). On days off, more time was spent in free-time activities (P=0.003). Total workload decreased (-65 min) and time spent in recovery activities increased on workdays (+53 min). The pattern of findings was similar in subgroups defined by gender, family status and job situation.

    Conclusions A worktime reduction of 25% for full-time workers resulted in decreased total workload and an increase of time spent in recovery activities, which is in line with the suggestion that worktime reduction may be beneficial for long-term health and stress.

  • 17. Stevens, Richard G.
    et al.
    Hansen, Johnni
    Costa, Giovanni
    Haus, Erhard
    Kauppinen, Timo
    Aronson, Kristan J.
    Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma
    Davis, Scott
    Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
    Fritschi, Lin
    Kogevinas, Manolis
    Kogi, Kazutaka
    Lie, Jenny-Anne
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Peplonska, Beata
    Pesch, Beate
    Pukkala, Eero
    Schernhammer, Eva
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Zheng, Tongzhang
    Cogliano, Vincent
    Straif, Kurt
    Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.2011In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments.

  • 18.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Härter Griep, Rosane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Eloranta, Sandra
    Mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees: a 5-year follow-up study of the working population in Sweden2016In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 73, p. 627-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Analyse mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees with a focus on industrial sector, educational level and gender using Swedish register data.

    Methods: A cohort of the total working population (4 776 135 individuals; 7.2% self-employed; 18–100 years of age at baseline 2003) in Sweden with a 5-year follow-up (2004–2008) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (57 743 deaths). Self-employed individuals were categorised as sole proprietors or limited liability company (LLC) owners according to their enterprise’s legal form. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to compare mortality rates between sole proprietors, LLC owners and paid employees, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders.

    Results: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 16% lower and from suicide 26% lower among LLC owners than among paid employees, adjusted for confounders. Within the industrial category, all-cause mortality was 13–15% lower among sole proprietors and LLC owners compared with employees in manufacturing and mining (MM) as well as personal and cultural services (PCS), and 11–20% higher in sole proprietors in trade, transport and communication and the welfare industry (W). A significant three-way interaction indicated 17–23% lower all-cause mortality among male LLC owners in MM and female sole proprietors in PCS, and 50% higher mortality in female sole proprietors in W than in employees in the same industries.

    Conclusions: Mortality differences between selfemployed individuals and paid employees vary by the legal form of self-employment, across industries, and by gender. Differences in work environment exposures and working conditions, varying market competition across industries and gender segregation in the labour market are potential mechanisms underlying these findings.

  • 19. Wang, Mo
    et al.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Runeson, Bo
    Head, Jenny
    Melchior, Maria
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
    Are all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence, and sick-leave duration risk indicators for suicidal behaviour? A nationwide register-based cohort study of 4.9 million inhabitants of Sweden2014In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 12-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have found an increased risk of suicide in people on sickness absence, but less is known about to what extent diagnosis-specific sickness absence is a risk indicator for suicidal behaviour. This study aimed to examine all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence and sick-leave duration as risk indicators for suicide attempt and suicide.

    METHODS: This is a population-based prospective cohort study. All non-retired adults (n=4 923 404) who lived in Sweden as on 31 December 2004 were followed-up for 6 years regarding suicide attempt and suicide (2005-2010). HRs and 95% CIs for suicidal behaviour were calculated, using people with no sick-leave spells in 2005 as reference.

    RESULTS: In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic factors and previous mental healthcare, suicide attempt and current antidepressants prescription, sickness absence predicted suicide attempt (HR 2.37; 95% CI 2.25 to 2.50 for women; HR 2.69; 95% CI 2.53 to 2.86 for men) and suicide (HR 1.91; 95% CI 1.60 to 2.29 for women; HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.71 to 2.14 for men), particularly mental sickness absence (range of HR: 2.74-3.64). The risks were also increased for somatic sickness absence, for example, musculoskeletal and digestive diseases and injury/poisoning (range of HR: 1.57-3.77). Moreover, the risks increased with sick-leave duration.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sickness absence was a clear risk indicator for suicidal behaviour, irrespective of sick-leave diagnoses, among women and men. Awareness of such risks is recommended when monitoring sickness certification. Further studies are warranted in order to gain more detailed knowledge on these associations.

  • 20.
    Åhlin, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    LaMontagne, Anthony
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Are there bidirectional relationships between psychosocial work characteristics and depressive symptoms? A fixed effects analysis of Swedish national panel survey data2019In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 76, no 7, p. 455-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Psychosocial work characteristics have been prospectively associated with depressive symptoms. However, methodological limitations have raised questions regarding causality. It is also unclear to what extent depressive symptoms affect the experience of the psychosocial work environment. We examined contemporaneous (measured simultaneously) and lagged bidirectional relationships between psychosocial work characteristics and depressive symptoms, simultaneously controlling for time-stable individual characteristics.

    Methods We included 3947 subjects in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), with self-reported job demands, control, social support, work efforts, rewards, procedural justice and depressive symptoms in four waves 2010–2016. We applied dynamic panel models with fixed effects, using structural equation modelling, adjusting for all time-stable individual characteristics such as personality and pre-employment factors.

    Results Higher levels of job demands, job demands in relation to control, work efforts and efforts in relation to rewards were contemporaneously associated with more depressive symptoms (standardised β: 0.18–0.25, p<0.001), while higher levels of workplace social support, rewards at work and procedural justice were associated with less depressive symptoms (β: −0.18, p<0.001, β: –0.16, p<0.001 and β: −0.09, p<0.01, respectively). In contrast, only work efforts predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms 2 years later (β:0.05, p<0.05). No other lagged associations were foundin any direction.

    Conclusions After controlling for all time-invariant confounding, our results suggest that psychosocial work characteristics predominantly affect depressive symptoms immediately or with only a short time lag. Furthermore, we found no evidence of reverse causation. This indicates short-term causal associations, although the temporal precedence of psychosocial work characteristics remains uncertain.

1 - 20 of 20
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf