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  • 1.
    Bognar, Greg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Is disability mere difference?2016In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 46-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. D'Angelo, Carlos
    et al.
    Tamburrini, Claudio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Addict to win?: A different approach to doping2010In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 700-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally the doping debate has been dominated by those who want to see doping forbidden (the prohibitionist view) and those who want to see it permitted (the ban abolitionist view). In this article, the authors analyse a third position starting from the assertion that doping use is a symptom of the paradigm of highly competitive elite sports, in the same way as addictions reflect current social paradigms in wider society. Based upon a conceptual distinction between occasional use, habitual use and addiction, and focusing on the physical and/or mental dependency caused by the addictive use of a certain drug, we argue that marihuana, stimulants and anabolic steroid abuse-the most frequently detected substances in doping tests-satisfies at least one, often both, of these conditions. A conclusion to be drawn from the authors' arguments is that the prohibitionist view is inappropriate for dealing with doping, as the severe sanctions attached to it will cut the doper off her/his social and professional environment, thereby risking reinforcing her/his addictive conduct. But the ban abolitionist view seems inappropriate as well. At first sight, it seems neither rational nor humane not to intervene when confronted with conduct which is highly harmful for the individual and upon which she has reduced or no control whatsoever. Instead the authors' proposal will be to contextualise dopers' conduct within sport healthcare and see it strictly in relation to each athlete's personal background. Developing preventive programmes-implemented through person-tailored counselling and eventually treatment, rather than severe sanctions or the mere lifting of the ban-seems to be a more reasonable, and probably more efficient, way of conducting 'the war against doping'.

  • 3.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    et al.
    Ctr Healthcare Eth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peterson, Martin
    How to depolarise the ethical debate over human embryonic stem cell research (and other ethical debates too!)2012In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 38, p. 496-500Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Helgesson, Gert
    et al.
    Bülow, William
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Godskesen, Tove E.
    Should the deceased be listed as authors?2019In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sometimes participants in research collaboration die before the paper is accepted for publication. The question we raise in this paper is how authorship should be handled in such situations. First, the outcome of a literature survey is presented. Taking this as our starting point, we then go on to discuss authorship of the dead in relation to the requirements of the Vancouver rules. We argue that in principle the deceased can meet the requirements laid down in these authorship guidelines. However, to include a deceased researcher as author requires a strong justification. The more the person has been involved in the research and writing process before he or she passes away, the stronger the justification for inclusion.

  • 5. Lynoe, Niels
    et al.
    Leijonhufvud, Madeleine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Police in an intensive care unit: what can happen?2013In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 772-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During spring 2009 a Swedish senior paediatric intensivist and associate professor was detained and later prosecuted for mercy-killing a child with severe brain damage. The intensivist was accused of having used high doses of thiopental after having withdrawn life-sustaining treatment when the child was imminently dying. After more than 2.5years of investigation the physician was acquitted by the Stockholm City Court. The court additionally stated that the physician had provided good end-of-life care. Since the trial it has become evident that the accusation was based on a problematic medicolegal report. Nevertheless, the event has had severe negative consequences for the physician personally and professionally, and probably also, in general, for patients in the final stage of life. This case illustrates, together with other cases, that there is a lack of correspondence between ethical soft law/healthcare law and the Penal Code. To optimise medical practice we suggest that the criminal law be carefully examined and if possible changed. Furthermore, we suggest a peer-review system for assessing medicolegal reports in cases of suspected homicide.

  • 6. Lynöe, Niels
    et al.
    Wessel, Maja
    Olsson, Daniel
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Tännsjö, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Juth, Niklas
    Duelling with doctors, restoring honour and avoiding shame?: A cross-sectional study of sick-listed patients' experiences of negative healthcare encounters with special reference to feeling wronged and shame2013In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 654-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine if it is plausible to interpret the appearance of shame in a Swedish healthcare setting as a reaction to having one's honour wronged.

    Methods: Using a questionnaire, we studied answers from a sample of long-term sick-listed patients who had experienced negative encounters (n=1628) and of these 64% also felt wronged. We used feeling wronged to examine emotional reactions such as feeling ashamed and made the assumption that feeling shame could be associated with having one's honour wronged. In statistical analyses relative risks (RRs) were computed, adjusting for age, sex, disease-labelling, educational levels, as well as their 95% CI.

    Results: Approximately half of those who had been wronged stated that they also felt shame and of those who felt shame, 93% (CI 91 to 95) felt that they had been wronged. The RR was 4.5 (CI 3.0 to 6.8) for shame when wronged. This can be compared with the other emotional reactions where the RRs were between 1.1 (CI 0.9 to 1.3)-1.4 (CI 1.2 to 1.7). We found no association between country of birth and feeling shame after having experienced negative encounters.

    Conclusions: We found that the RR of feeling shame when wronged was significantly higher compared with other feelings. Along with theoretical considerations, and the specific types of negative encounters associated with shame, the results indicate that our research hypothesis might be plausible. We think that the results deserve to be used as point of departure for future research.

  • 7. Sandor, Judit
    et al.
    Bárd, Petra
    Tamburrini, Claudio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Tännsjö, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    The case of biobank with the law: between a legal and scientific fiction2012In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 347-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to estimates more than 400 biobanks currently operate across Europe. The term 'biobank' indicates a specific field of genetic study that has quietly developed without any significant critical reflection across European societies. Although scientists now routinely use this phrase, the wider public is still confused when the word 'bank' is being connected with the collection of their biological samples. There is a striking lack of knowledge of this field. In the recent Eurobarometer survey it was demonstrated that even in 2010 two-thirds of the respondents had never even heard about biobanks. The term gives the impression that a systematic collection of biological samples can constitute a 'bank' of considerable financial worth, where the biological samples, which are insignificant in isolation but are valuable as a collection, can be preserved, analysed and put to 'profitable use'. By studying the practices of the numerous already existing biobanks, the authors address the following questions: to what extent does the term ` biobank' reflect the normative concept of using biological samples for the purposes of biomedical research? Furthermore, is it in harmony with the so far agreed legal-ethical consensus in Europe or does it deliberately pull science to the territory of a new, ambiguous commercial field? In other words, do biobanks constitute a medico-legal fiction or are they substantively different from other biomedical research protocols on human tissues?

  • 8.
    Tännsjö, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Utilitarianism and informed consent2014In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 445-445Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9. Zeiler, K.
    et al.
    Furberg, Eisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Tufveson, G.
    Welin, S.
    The ethics of non-heart-beating donation: how new technology can change the ethical landscape2008In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 526-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global shortage of organs for transplantation and the development of new and better medical technologies for organ preservation have resulted in a renewed interest in non-heart-beating donation (NHBD). This article discusses ethical questions related to controlled and uncontrolled NHBD. It argues that certain preparative measures, such as giving anticoagulants, should be acceptable before patients are dead, but when they have passed a point where further curative treatment is futile, they are in the process of dying and they are unconscious. Furthermore, the article discusses consequences of technological developments based on improvement of a chest compression apparatus used today to make mechanical heart resuscitation. Such technological development can be used to transform cases of non-controlled NHBD to controlled NHBD. In our view, this is a step forward since the ethical difficulties related to controlled NHBD are easier to solve than those related to non-controlled NHBD. However, such technological developments also evoke other ethical questions.

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