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• 1.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Highly hydrated cations: Deficiency, mobility and coordination of water in crystalline nonahydrated scandium(III), yttrium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate2005In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, no 14, 4065-4077 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Trivalent lanthanide-like metal ions coordinate nine water oxygen atoms, which form a tricapped trigonal prism in a large number of crystalline hydrates. Water deficiency, randomly distributed over the capping positions, was found for the smallest metal ions in the isomorphous nonahydrated trifluoromethanesulfonates, [M(H2O)(n)]CF3SO3)(3), in which M=Sc-III, Lu-III, Yb-III, Tm-III or Er-III. The hydration number n increases (n=8.0(1), 8.4(1), 8.7(1), 8.8(1) and 8.96(5), respectively) with increasing ionic size. Deuterium (H-2) solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed fast positional exchange between the coordinated capping and prism water molecules; this exchange started at temperatures higher than about 280 K for lutetium(m) and below 268 K for scandium(m). Similar positional exchange for the fully nonahydrated yttrium(m) and lanthanum(m) compounds started at higher temperatures, over about 330 and 360 K, respectively. An exchange mechanism is proposed that can exchange equatorial and capping water molecules within the restrictions of the crystal lattice, even for fully hydrated lanthanoid(III) ions. Phase transitions occurred for all the water-deficient compounds at; 185 K. The hydrated scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate transforms reversibly (Delta H degrees= -0.80(1) kJ mol(-1) on cooling) to a trigonal unit cell that is almost nine times larger, with the scandium ion surrounded by seven fully occupied and two partly occupied oxygen atom positions in a distorted capped trigonal prism. The hydrogen bonding to the trifluoromethanesulfonate anions stabilises the trigonal prism of water ligands, even for the crowded hydration sphere of the smallest metal ions in the series. Implications for the Lewis acid catalytic activity of the hydrated scandium(III) and lanthanoid(III) trifluoromethanesulfonates for organic syntheses performed in aqueous media are discussed.

• 2. Afewerki, Samson
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Direct Regiospecific and Highly Enantioselective Intermolecular α-Allylic Alkylation of Aldehydes by a Combination of Transition-Metal and Chiral Amine Catalysts2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 10, 2972-2977 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The first direct intermolecular regiospecific and highly enantioselective a-allylic alkylation of linear aldehydes by a combination of achiral bench-stable Pd0 complexes and simple chiral amines as co-catalysts is disclosed. The co-catalytic asymmetric chemoselective and regiospecific a-allylic alkylation reaction is linked in tandem with in situ reduction to give the corresponding 2-alkyl alcohols with high enantiomeric ratios (up to 98:2 e.r.; e.r.=enantiomeric ratio). It is also an expeditious entry to valuable 2-alkyl substituted hemiacetals, 2-alkyl-butane-1,4-diols, and amines. The concise co-catalytic asymmetric total syntheses of biologically active natural products (e.g., Arundic acid) are disclosed.

• 3.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Ketones Catalyzed by Amino Acid Derived Rhodium Complexes: On the Origin of Enantioselectivity and Enantioswitchability2009In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 15, no 42, 11197-11209 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Amino acid based thioamides, hydroxamic acids, and hydrazides have been evaluated as ligands in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones in 2-propanol. Catalysts containing thioamide ligands derived from L-valine were found to selectively generate the product with an R configuration (95 % ee), whereas the corresponding L-valine-based hydroxamic acids or hydrazides facilitated the formation of the (S)-alcohols (97 and 91 % ee, respectively). The catalytic reduction was examined by performing a structure–activity correlation investigation with differently functionalized or substituted ligands and the results obtained indicate that the major difference between the thioamide and hydroxamic acid based catalysts is the coordination mode of the ligands. Kinetic experiments were performed and the rate constants for the reduction reactions were determined by using rhodium–arene catalysts derived from amino acid thioamide and hydroxamic acid ligands. The data obtained show that the thioamide-based catalyst systems demonstrate a pseudo-first-order dependence on the substrate, whereas pseudo-zero-order dependence was observed for the hydroxamic acid containing catalysts. Furthermore, the kinetic experiments revealed that the rate-limiting steps of the two catalytic systems differ. From the data obtained in the structure–activity correlation investigation and along with the kinetic investigation it was concluded that the enantioswitchable nature of the catalysts studied originates from different ligand coordination, which affects the rate-limiting step of the catalytic reduction reaction.

• 4.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones catalyzed by amino acid derived rhodium complexes: on the origin of enantioselectivity and enantioswitchability: Corrigendum to vol 15(2009) 42, pp. 11197-2010In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 16, no 35, 10610-10610 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 5. Alfonso E., Garcia-Bennett
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Bicontinuous Cubic Mesoporous Materials with Biphasic Structures2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 48, 13510-13516 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The replication of amphiphilic systems within an inorganic silica matrix allows the study of the fundamental properties of mesostructural changes, that is, kinetic and structural parameters. Herein we report a detailed study of the transition between cubic bicontinuous mesostructure with space groups Ia$\bar 3$d and Pn$\bar 3$m symmetry, which are associated with the minimal G and D surfaces, respectively. The transition may be induced through micellar swelling of the anionic amphiphilic surfactant N-lauroyl alanine by trimethylbenzene. Rich kinetic behaviour is observed and has been exploited to prepare particles with biphasic structures. Transmission electron microscopy evidence indicates that there is epitaxial growth from one mesostructure to the other involving the [111] and [110] orientations of the Ia$\bar 3$d and Pn$\bar 3$m symmetry structures, respectively. From kinetic studies, we show that the formation of the Ia$\bar 3$d mesophase is preceded by a hexagonal phase (plane group p6mm) and an epitaxial relationship has been observed involving the sixfold or $\bar 3$ axis orientations of both structures. Our data suggests that the Pn$\bar 3$m mesostructure is kinetically stable at low temperatures whereas the Ia$\bar 3$d mesostructure is the more stable structure after prolonged periods of hydrothermal treatment. We present evidence from transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray diffractograms and also electron crystallography modelling of the unit cells at particular points in the structural change.

• 6.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Palladium- and Nickel-Catalyzed Alkenylation of Enolates2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 6, 1858-1871 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)

Transition-metal-catalyzed alkenylation of enolates provides a direct method to synthesize broadly useful ,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from the corresponding carbonyl compound and alkenyl halides. Despite being reported in the early seventies, this reaction class saw little development for many years. In the past decade, however, efforts to develop this reaction further have increased considerably, and many research groups have reported efficient coupling protocols, including enantioselective versions. These reactions most commonly employ palladium catalysts, but there are also some important reports using nickel. There are many examples of this powerful transformation being used in the synthesis of complex natural products.

• 7. Aramburo, Luis R.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
The Porosity, Acidity, and Reactivity of Dealuminated Zeolite ZSM-5 at the Single Particle Level: The Influence of the Zeolite Architecture2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 49, 13773-13781 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

A combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), and UV/Vis and synchrotron-based IR microspectroscopy was used to investigate the dealumination processes of zeolite ZSM-5 at the individual crystal level. It was shown that steaming has a significant impact on the porosity, acidity, and reactivity of the zeolite materials. The catalytic performance, tested by the styrene oligomerization and methanol-to-olefin reactions, led to the conclusion that mild steaming conditions resulted in greatly enhanced acidity and reactivity of dealuminated zeolite ZSM-5. Interestingly, only residual surface mesoporosity was generated in the mildly steamed ZSM-5 zeolite, leading to rapid crystal coloration and coking upon catalytic testing and indicating an enhanced deactivation of the zeolites. In contrast, harsh steaming conditions generated 550 nm mesopores, extensively improving the accessibility of the zeolites. However, severe dealumination decreased the strength of the Bronsted acid sites, causing a depletion of the overall acidity, which resulted in a major drop in catalytic activity.

• 8.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Biomimetic Aerobic Oxidation of Amino Alcohols to Lactams2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 37, 11524-11527 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 9.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Arenes and Olefins through a Biomimetic Approach2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 13, 4140-4145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 10.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Enantioselective Synthesis of Alcohols and Amines by Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation, Transfer Hydrogenation, and Related Processes2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 23, 7274-7302 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)

The preparation of chiral alcohols and amines by using iridium catalysis is reviewed. The methods presented include the reduction of ketones or imines by using hydrogen (hydrogenations), isopropanol, formic acid, or formate (transfer hydrogenations). Also dynamic and oxidative kinetic resolutions leading to chiral alcohols and amines are included. Selected literature reports from early contributions to December 2012 are discussed.

• 11.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Synthesis of b-Hydroxy Ketones from Allylic Alcohols via Catalytic Formation of Ruthenium Enolates2008In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 14, no 34, 10547-10550 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The most efficient Ru-catalyzed isomerization–aldol reaction from allylic alcohols has been achieved by using [η5-(Ph5Cp)Ru(CO)2Cl] as the catalyst. The bulky pentaphenylcyclopentadienyl ligand on the ruthenium atom prevents protonation at the oxygen of the Ru–enolate intermediate and completely suppresses the formation of unwanted ketone byproducts (see scheme). The domino transformation is as good as it can be: aldols are obtained in quantitative yields at ambient temperature.

• 12.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
A Highly Active Bifunctional Iridium Complex with an Alcohol/Alkoxide-Tethered N-Heterocyclic Carbene for Alkylation of Amines with Alcohols2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 45, 14510-14519 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)

A series of new iridium(III) complexes containing bidentate N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) functionalized with an alcohol or ether group (NHC?OR, R=H, Me) were prepared. The complexes catalyzed the alkylation of anilines with alcohols as latent electrophiles. In particular, biscationic IrIII complexes of the type [Cp*(NHC-OH)Ir(MeCN)]2+2[BF4-] afforded higher-order amine products with very high efficiency; up to >99?% yield using a 1:1 ratio of reactants and 12.5 mol?% of Ir, in short reaction times (216 h) and under base-free conditions. Quantitative yields were also obtained at 50?degrees C, although longer reaction times (4860 h) were needed. A large variety of aromatic amines have been alkylated with primary and secondary alcohols. The reactivity of structurally related iridium(III) complexes was also compared to obtain insights into the mechanism and into the structure of possible catalytic intermediates. The IrIII complexes were stable towards oxygen and moisture, and were characterized by NMR, HRMS, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and elemental analyses.

• 13.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
A Density Functional Study of a Biomimetic Non-Heme Iron Catalyst: Insights into Alkane Hydroxylation and Olefin Oxidation by a Formally HO-Fe(V)=O Oxidant2004In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, no 2, 692-705 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The reactivity of [HO(tpa)FeVO] (TPA=tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine), derived from OO bond heterolysis of its [H2O(tpa)FeIIIOOH] precursor, was explored by means of hybrid density functional theory. The mechanism for alkane hydroxylation by the high-valent iron–oxo species invoked as an intermediate in Fe(tpa)/H2O2 catalysis was investigated. Hydroxylation of methane and propane by HOFeVO was studied by following the rebound mechanism associated with the heme center of cytochrome P450, and it is demonstrated that this species is capable of stereospecific alkane hydroxylation. The mechanism proposed for alkane hydroxylation by HOFeVO accounts for the experimentally observed incorporation of solvent water into the products. An investigation of the possible hydroxylation of acetonitrile (i.e., the solvent used in the experiments) shows that the activation energy for hydrogen-atom abstraction by HOFeVO is rather high and, in fact, rather similar to that of methane, despite the similarity of the HCH2CN bond strength to that of the secondary CH bond in propane. This result indicates that the kinetics of hydrogen-atom abstraction are strongly affected by the cyano group and rationalizes the lack of experimental evidence for solvent hydroxylation in competition with that of substrates such as cyclohexane.

• 14.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Iridium-Catalyzed Isomerization/Bromination of Allylic Alcohols: Synthesis of alpha-Bromocarbonyl Compounds2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 34, 10703-10709 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

alpha-Brominated ketones and aldehydes, with two adjacent electrophilic carbon atoms, are highly valuable synthetic intermediates in organic synthesis, however, their synthesis from unsymmetrical ketones is very challenging, and current methods suffer from low selectivity. We present a new, reliable, and efficient method for the synthesis of alpha-bromocarbonyl compounds in excellent yields and with excellent selectivities. Starting from allylic alcohols as the carbonyl precursors, the combination of a 1,3-hydrogen shift catalyzed by iridium(III) with an electrophilic bromination gives alpha-bromoketones and aldehydes in good to excellent yields. The selectivity of the process is determined by the structure of the starting allylic alcohol; thus, alpha-bromoketones formally derived from unsymmetrical ketones can be synthesized in a straightforward and selective manner.

• 15. Biosca, Maria
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Extending the Substrate Scope of Bicyclic P-Oxazoline/Thiazole Ligands for Ir-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Unfunctionalized Olefins by Introducing a Biaryl Phosphoroamidite Group2015In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 21, no 8, 3455-3464 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

This study identifies a series of Ir-bicyclic phosphoroamidite-oxazoline/thiazole catalytic systems that can hydrogenate a wide range of minimally functionalized olefins (including E-and Z-tri- and disubstituted substrates, vinylsilanes, enol phosphinates, tri- and disubstituted alkenylboronic esters, and alpha,beta-unsaturated enones) in high enantioselectivities (ee values up to 99%) and conversions. The design of the new phosphoroamidite-oxazoline/thiazole ligands derives from a previous successful generation of bicyclic N-phosphane-oxazoline/thiazole ligands, by replacing the N-phosphane group with a pi-acceptor biaryl phosphoroamidite moiety. A small but structurally important family of Ir-phosphoroamidite-oxazoline/thiazole precatalysts has thus been synthesized by changing the nature of the N-donor group (either oxazoline or thiazole) and the configuration at the biaryl phosphoroamidite moiety. The substitution of the N-phosphane by a phosphoroamidite group in the bicyclic N-phosphane-oxazoline/thiazole ligands extended the range of olefins that can be successfully hydrogenated.

• 16. Biswas, Srijit
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Atom-Efficient Gold(I)-Chloride-Catalyzed Synthesis of alpha-Sulfenylated Carbonyl Compounds from Propargylic Alcohols and Aryl Thiols: Substrate Scope and Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Investigation2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 52, 17939-17950 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Gold(I)-chloride-catalyzed synthesis of -sulfenylated carbonyl compounds from propargylic alcohols and aryl thiols showed a wide substrate scope with respect to both propargylic alcohols and aryl thiols. Primary and secondary aromatic propargylic alcohols generated -sulfenylated aldehydes and ketones in 60-97% yield. Secondary aliphatic propargylic alcohols generated -sulfenylated ketones in yields of 47-71%. Different gold sources and ligand effects were studied, and it was shown that gold(I) chloride gave the highest product yields. Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrated that the reaction proceeds in two separate steps. A sulfenylated allylic alcohol, generated by initial regioselective attack of the aryl thiol on the triple bond of the propargylic alcohol, was isolated, evaluated, and found to be an intermediate in the reaction. Deuterium labeling experiments showed that the protons from the propargylic alcohol and aryl thiol were transferred to the 3-position, and that the hydride from the alcohol was transferred to the 2-position of the product. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that the observed regioselectivity of the aryl thiol attack towards the 2-position of propargylic alcohol was determined by a low-energy, five-membered cyclic protodeauration transition state instead of the strained, four-membered cyclic transition state found for attack at the 3-position. Experimental data and DFT calculations supported that the second step of the reaction is initiated by protonation of the double bond of the sulfenylated allylic alcohol with a proton donor coordinated to gold(I) chloride. This in turn allows for a 1,2-hydride shift, generating the final product of the reaction.

• 17.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Universität Rostock, Germany.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Evaluation of Fe and Ru Pincer-Type Complexes as Catalysts for the Racemization of Secondary Benzylic Alcohols2016In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, no 33, 11583-11586 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Fe and Ru pincer-type catalysts are used for the racemization of benzylic alcohols. Racemization with the Fe catalyst was achieved within 30 minutes under mild reaction conditions, with a catalyst loading as low as 2 mol %. This reaction constitutes the first example of an iron-catalyzed racemization of an alcohol. The efficiency for racemization of the Fe catalyst and its Ru analogue was evaluated for a wide range of sec-benzylic alcohols. The commercially available Ru complex proved to be highly robust and even tolerated the presence of water in the reaction mixture.

• 18.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
General One-Pot Synthesis of Alkynyliodonium Salts and Alkynyl Benziodoxolones from Aryl Iodides2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 45, 14242-14245 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 19. Boutet, Julien
Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Spain.
Detailed Investigation of the Immunodominant Role of O-Antigen Stoichiometric O-Acetylation as Revealed by Chemical Synthesis, Immunochemistry, Solution Conformation and STD-NMR Spectroscopy for Shigella flexneri 3a2016In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, no 31, 10892-10911 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Shigella flexneri 3a causes bacillary dysentery. Its O-antigen has the {2)-[alpha-d-Glcp-(1 -> 3)]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 -> 2)-alpha-L-Rhap-( 1 -> 3)-[Ac -> 2]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1 ->)-[Ac -> 6](approximate to 40%)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1 ->} ([(E)AB(Ac)C(Ac)D]) repeating unit, and the non-Oacetylated equivalent defines S. flexneri X. Propyl hepta-, octa-, and decasaccharides sharing the (E') A'BAcCD(E) A sequence, and their non-O-acetylated analogues were synthesized from a fully protected BAcCD(E) A allyl glycoside. The stepwise introduction of orthogonally protected mono-and disaccharide imidate donors was followed by a two-step deprotection process. Monoclonal antibody binding to twenty-six S. flexneri types 3a and X di-to decasaccharides was studied by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and STD-NMR spectroscopy. Epitope mapping revealed that the 2(C)-acetate dominated the recognition by monoclonal IgG and IgM antibodies and that the BAcCD segment was essential for binding. The glucosyl side chain contributed to a lesser extent, albeit increasingly with the chain length. Moreover, tr-NOESY analysis also showed interaction but did not reveal any meaningful conformational change upon antibody binding.

• 20.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Synthesis of Benzofurans and Indoles from Terminal Alkynes and Iodoaromatics Catalyzed by Recyclable Palladium Nanoparticles Immobilized on Siliceous Mesocellular Foam2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 52, 12886-12891 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Herein, we report on the utilization of a heterogeneous catalyst, consisting of Pd nanoparticles supported on a siliceous mesocellular foam (Pd-0-AmP-MCF), for the synthesis of heterocycles. Reaction of o-iodophenols and protected o-iodoanilines with acetylenes in the presence of a Pd nanocatalyst produced 2-substituted benzofurans and indoles, respectively. In general, the catalytic protocol afforded the desired products in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions without the addition of ligands. Moreover, the structure of the reported Pd nanocatalyst was further elucidated with extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy, and it was proven that the catalyst could be recycled multiple times without significant loss of activity.

• 21. Bustelo, Emilio
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
On the Critical Effect of the Metal (Mo vs. W) on the [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of M3S4 Clusters with Alkynes: Insights from Experiment and Theory2015In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 21, no 42, 14823-14833 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Whereas the cluster [Mo3S4(acac)(3)(py)(3)](+) ([1](+), acac=acetylacetonate, py=pyridine) reacts with a variety of alkynes, the cluster [W3S4(acac)(3)(py)(3)](+) ([2](+)) remains unaffected under the same conditions. The reactions of cluster [1]+ show polyphasic kinetics, and in all cases clusters bearing a bridging dithiolene moiety are formed in the first step through the concerted [3+2] cycloaddition between the C equivalent to C atoms of the alkyne and a Mo(mu-S)(2) moiety of the cluster. A computational study has been conducted to analyze the effect of the metal on these concerted [3+ 2] cycloaddition reactions. The calculations suggest that the reactions of cluster [2](+) with alkynes feature Delta G(+) values only slightly larger than its molybdenum analogue, however, the differences in the reaction free energies between both metal clusters and the same alkyne reach up to approximately 10 kcal mol(-1), therefore indicating that the differences in the reactivity are essentially thermodynamic. The activation strain model (ASM) has been used to get more insights into the critical effect of the metal center in these cycloadditions, and the results reveal that the change in reactivity is entirely explained on the basis of the differences in the interaction energies E-int between the cluster and the alkyne. Further decomposition of the E-int values through the localized molecular orbital-energy decomposition analysis (LMO-EDA) indicates that substitution of the Mo atoms in cluster [1](+) by W induces changes in the electronic structure of the cluster that result in weaker intra-and inter-fragment orbital interactions.

• 22.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Ruthenium Complexation in an Aluminium Metal-Organic Framework and its Application in Alcohol Oxidation Catalysis2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 48, 15337-15344 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)

A ruthenium trichloride complex has been loaded into an aluminium metalorganic framework (MOF), MOF-253, by post-synthetic modification to give MOF-253-Ru. MOF-253 contains open bipyridine sites that are available to bind with the ruthenium complex. MOF-253-Ru was characterised by elemental analysis, N2 sorption and X-ray powder diffraction. This is the first time that a Ru complex has been coordinated to a MOF through post-synthetic modification and used as a heterogeneous catalyst. MOF-253-Ru catalysed the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, including allylic alcohols, with PhI(OAc)2 as the oxidant under very mild reaction conditions (ambient temperature to 40 degrees C). High conversions (up to >99%) were achieved in short reaction times (13 h) by using low catalyst loadings (0.5 mol% Ru). In addition, high selectivities (>90%) for aldehydes were obtained at room temperature. MOF-253-Ru can be recycled up to six times with only a moderate decrease in substrate conversion.

• 23.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Influence of the Base on Pd@MIL-101-NH2(Cr) as Catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction2015In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 21, no 30, 10896-10902 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The chemical stability of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is a major factor preventing their use in industrial processes. Herein, it is shown that judicious choice of the base for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction can avoid decomposition of the MOF catalyst Pd@MIL-101-NH2(Cr). Four bases were compared for the reaction: K2CO3, KF, Cs2CO3 and CsF. The carbonates were the most active and achieved excellent yields in shorter reaction times than the fluorides. However, powder XRD and N-2 sorption measurements showed that the MOF catalyst was degraded when carbonates were used but remained crystalline and porous with the fluorides. XANES measurements revealed that the trimeric chromium cluster of Pd@MIL-101-NH2(Cr) is still present in the degraded MOF. In addition, the different countercations of the base significantly affected the catalytic activity of the material. TEM revealed that after several catalytic runs many of the Pd nanoparticles (NPs) had migrated to the external surface of the MOF particles and formed larger aggregates. The Pd NPs were larger after catalysis with caesium bases compared to potassium bases.

• 24. Chemerovski-Glikman, Marina
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
Self-Assembled Cyclic D,L-alpha-Peptides as Generic Conformational Inhibitors of the alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Toxicity: In Vitro and Mechanistic Studies2016In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, no 40, 14236-14246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Many peptides and proteins with large sequences and structural differences self-assemble into disease-causing amyloids that share very similar biochemical and biophysical characteristics, which may contribute to their cross-interaction. Here, we demonstrate how the self-assembled, cyclic D,L-alpha-peptide CP-2, which has similar structural and functional properties to those of amyloids, acts as a generic inhibitor of the Parkinson's disease associated alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) aggregation to toxic oligomers by an, off-pathway mechanism. We show that CP-2 interacts with the N-terminal and the non-amyloid-beta component region of alpha-syn, which are responsible for alpha-syn's membrane intercalation and self-assembly, thus changing the overall conformation of alpha-syn. CP-2 also remodels alpha-syn fibrils to nontoxic amorphous species and permeates cells through endosomes/lysosomes to reduce the accumulation and toxicity of intracellular alpha-syn in neuronal cells overexpressing alpha-syn. Our studies suggest that targeting the common structural conformation of amyloids may be a promising approach for developing new therapeutics for amyloidogenic diseases.

• 25. Chen, Shi-Lu
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
How Is Methane Formed and Oxidized Reversibly When Catalyzed by Ni-Containing Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase?2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 20, 6309-6315 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Ni-containing methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is capable of catalyzing methane formation and has recently been observed to also be able to catalyze the reverse reaction, the anaerobic oxidation of methane. The forward reaction has been extensively studied theoretically before and was found to consist of two steps. The first step is rate-limiting and the second step was therefore treated at a lower level. For an accurate treatment of the reverse reaction, both steps have to be studied at the same level. In the present paper, the mechanisms for the reversible formation and oxidation of methane catalyzed by MCR have been investigated using hybrid density functional theory with recent developments, in particular including dispersion effects. An active-site model was constructed based on the X-ray crystal structure. The calculations indicate that the MCR reaction is indeed reversible and proceeds via a methyl radical and a Ni-S(CoM) intermediate with reasonable reaction barriers in both directions. In a competing mechanism, the formation of the crucial Ni-methyl intermediate, was found to be strongly endergonic by over 20 kcal?mol-1 (including a barrier) with dispersion and entropy effects considered, and thus would not be reachable in a reasonable time under natural conditions.

• 26. Cho, Jung
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
Embedded Isoreticular Zeolites: Concept and Beyond2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 63, 15922-15929 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The structure solution, prediction, and targeted synthesis of a family of embedded isoreticular zeolites (EIZs) with expanding structural complexity, denoted the RHO family, were reported recently. Here, the naming and building rules of body-centered cubic EIZs with the lta cage as the lattice point are presented. The rearrangement of a pair of pau and d8r cages between two lta cages and its repetitive insertion, combined with the strong reflections and fragment methods, allows the creation of three other new zeolite families, designated the HPO, RHO(b), and KFI families. Among them, the KFI family is found to be the only EIZ family, on the basis of the similarity of structure factor amplitudes and phases of strong reflections, that is, structural coding, within its family members. The structural credibility of this family is confirmed by both local interatomic distances and T-T-T angle analyses. The existence of tetragonal EIZ families is also demonstrated. The overall results provide useful insights into the prediction of unprecedented EIZ families.

• 27.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Amino Acid-Catalyzed Neogenesis of Carbohydrates: A Plausible Ancient Transformation2005In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 11, no 16, 4772-4784 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Hexose sugars play a fundamental role in vital biochemical processes and their biosynthesis is achieved through enzyme-catalyzed pathways. Herein we disclose the ability of amino acids to catalyze the asymmetric neogenesis of carbohydrates by sequential cross-aldol reactions. The amino acids mediate the asymmetric de novo synthesis of natural L- and D-hexoses and their analogues with excellent stereoselectivity in organic solvents. In some cases, the four new stereocenters are assembled with almost absolute stereocontrol. The unique feature of these results is that, when an amino acid is employed as the catalyst, a single reaction sequence can convert a protected glycol aldehyde into a hexose in one step. For example, proline and its derivatives catalyze the asymmetric neogenesis of allose with >99 % ee in one chemical manipulation. Furthermore, all amino acids tested catalyzed the asymmetric formation of natural sugars under prebiotic conditions, with alanine being the smallest catalyst. The inherent simplicity of this catalytic process suggests that a catalytic prebiotic “gluconeogenesis” may occur, in which amino acids transfer their stereochemical information to sugars. In addition, the amino acid catalyzed stereoselective sequential cross-aldol reactions were performed as a two-step procedure with different aldehydes as acceptors and nucleophiles. The employment of two different amino acids as catalysts for the iterative direct aldol reactions enabled the asymmetric synthesis of deoxysugars with >99 % ee. In addition, the direct amino acid catalyzed C2+C2+C2 methodology is a new entry for the short, highly enantioselective de novo synthesis of carbohydrate derivatives, isotope-labeled sugars, and polyketide natural products. The one-pot asymmetric de novo syntheses of deoxy and polyketide carbohydrates involved a novel dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) mediated by an amino acid.

• 28. Debatin, Franziska
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
An Isoreticular Family of Microporous Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Zinc and 2-Substituted Imidazolate-4-amide-5-imidate: Syntheses, Structures and Properties2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 37, 11630-11640 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

We report on a new series of isoreticular frameworks based on zinc and 2-substituted imidazolate-4-amide-5-imidate (IFP-14, IFP=imidazolate framework Potsdam) that form one-dimensional, microporous hexagonal channels. Varying R in the 2-substitued linker (R=Me (IFP-1), Cl (IFP-2), Br (IFP-3), Et (IFP-4)) allowed the channel diameter (4.01.7 angstrom), the polarisability and functionality of the channel walls to be tuned. Frameworks IFP-2, IFP-3 and IFP-4 are isostructural to previously reported IFP-1. The structures of IFP-2 and IFP-3 were solved by X-ray crystallographic analyses. The structure of IFP-4 was determined by a combination of PXRD and structure modelling and was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and 1H MAS and 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. All IFPs showed high thermal stability (345400?degrees C); IFP-1 and IFP-4 were stable in boiling water for 7 d. A detailed porosity analysis was performed on the basis of adsorption measurements by using various gases. The potential of the materials to undergo specific interactions with CO2 was investigated by measuring the isosteric heats of adsorption. The capacity to adsorb CH4 (at 298 K), CO2 (at 298 K) and H2 (at 77 K) at high pressure were also investigated. In situ IR spectroscopy showed that CO2 is physisorbed on IFP-14 under dry conditions and that both CO2 and H2O are physisorbed on IFP-1 under moist conditions.

• 29.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Catalytic asymmetric aziridination of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 28, 7904-7917 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The development, scope, and application of the highly enantioselective organocatalytic aziridination of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is presented. The aminocatalytic azirdination of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes enables the asymmetric formation of β-formyl aziridines with up to >19:1 d.r. and 99% ee. The aminocatalytic aziridination of α-monosubstituted enals gives access to terminal α-substituted-α-formyl aziridines in high yields and upto 99% ee. In the case of the organocatalytic aziridination of disubstituted α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, the transformations were highly diastereo- and enantioselective and give nearly enantiomerically pure β-formyl-functionalized aziridine products (99% ee). A highly enantioselective one-pot cascade sequence based on the combination of asymmetric amine and N-heterocycliccarbene catalysis (AHCC) is also disclosed. This one-pot three-component co-catalytic transformation between α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, hydroxylamine derivatives, and alcohols gives the corresponding N-tert-butoxycarbonyl and N-carbobenzyloxy-protected β-amino acid esters with ee values ranging from 92–99%. The mechanisms and stereochemistry of all these catalytic transformations are also discussed.

• 30.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Carbocyclizations2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 37, 11498-11523 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)

Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carboncarbon bond-forming annulations, that is, carbocyclization reactions, have recently emerged as efficient and atom-economical routes to carbo- and heterocycles, whereby less functionalized substrates and fewer synthetic steps are needed to obtain a target molecule compared with traditional non-oxidative carboncarbon bond-forming reactions. In this review, the synthetic efforts in palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbocyclization reactions are summarized.

• 31.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of axially chiral allenes2010In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 16, no 15, 4447-4451 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Dimeric palladium bromide complexes bearing monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands have been identified as efficient catalysts for the chemoselective racemization of axially chiral allenyl alcohols. In combination with porcine pancreatic lipase as biocatalyst, a dynamic kinetic resolution has been developed, giving access to optically active allenes in good yield and high enantiomeric purity (

• 32. Dorange, Ismet
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Allenes as Carbon Nucleophiles in Intramolecular Attack on (π-1,3-diene)Palladium Complexes: Evidence for trans-Carbopalladation of the 1,3-Diene2003In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 9, no 14, 3445-3449 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 33.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Highly enantioselective organocatalytic addition of aldehydes to N-(phenylmethylene)benzamides: Asymmetric synthesis of the paclitaxel side chain and its analogues2009In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 15, no 16, 4044-4048 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 34.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Aerobic Lactonization of Diols by Biomimetic Oxidation2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 45, 12596-12601 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 35.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Biomimetic Oxidative Coupling of Benzylamines and 2-Aminophenols: Synthesis of Benzoxazoles2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, no 43, 13609-13613 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 36.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
General, Simple, and Chemoselective Catalysts for the Isomerization of Allylic Alcohols: The Importance of the Halide Ligand2016In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 22, no 44, 15659-15663 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Remarkably simple Ir-III catalysts enable the isomerization of primary and sec-allylic alcohols under very mild reaction conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and mass spectrometry (MS) studies indicate that the catalysts, with the general formula [Cp*Ir-III], require a halide ligand for catalytic activity, but no additives or additional ligands are needed.

• 37.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Sandvik Materials Technology,. Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Re4Si7, First in a New MoSi2-Based Family of 14-Electron Phases2009In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 15, no 33, 8108-8112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The compound Re4Si7 poses a long-standing structural mystery at the intersection of the quantum chemical and material properties areas of interest. Its atomic structure has gradually emerged over X-ray and electron diffraction studies since 1941 to be a complex ordering of Si vacancies on a MoSi2-type lattice, the details of which remain unresolved. In 1941, it was originally identified as ReSi2, adopting the MoSi2-type crystal structure (Figure 1).1a In this structure, Re atoms form a body-centered tetragonal lattice, while the Si atoms lie in the square-pyramidal interstitial spaces of this Re lattice. This was followed by two structure reports in progressively lower symmetry: an orthorhombic Immm solution (1983),1b and a triclinic P1 solution (1995),1c in which fractional occupancies on the Si sites adjust the composition to the Re4Si7 stoichiometry reported in a redetermination of the Re–Si phase diagram.1d Electron microscopy investigations then revealed complex superstructures and incommensurability in Re4Si7 samples.2 This work culminated in an attempt to solve its structure as an eight-fold supercell in the space group Cm from single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data (2004).1e Severe refinement instabilities were encountered, and the published structure shows chemically implausible Re–Si and Si–Si distances

• 38.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Single-Crystal X-ray Study of Ba2Cu2Te4O11Br2 and Its Incommensurately Modulated Superstructure Companion2008In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 14, no 11, 3434-3441 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Compounds containing lone-pair elements such as TeIV are very interesting from the structural point of view, as the lone-pair nonbonding regions create low-dimensional geometrical arrangements. We have synthesized two new compounds with these features—Ba2Cu2Te4O11Br2 (I) and Ba2Cu2Te4O11−δ(OH)2δBr2 (II, δ≈0.57)—as members of the AE-M-Te-O-X (AE=alkaline-earth metal, M=transition metal, X=halide) family of compounds by solid-state reactions. Preliminary single-crystal X-ray analysis indicated that compound I crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, but attempts at refinement proved unsatisfactory. Closer inspection of the reciprocal lattice revealed systematic, non-crystallographic absences that indicate twinning. The structure is in fact triclinic, space group C (equivalent to P), with unit cell parameters (at 120 K) of a=10.9027(9), b=15.0864(7), c=9.379(2) Å, β=106.8947°. It is layered and built from [TeO3E] tetrahedra, [TeO3+1E] trigonal bipyramids (where E is the lone pair of TeIV), [CuO4] squares and irregular [BaO10Br] polyhedra. The crystal structure of II shows the same basic structure as I but contains additional oxygen, probably in the form of OH groups. The presence of satellites reveals that ordering on this O site creates an incommensurate modulation, primarily affecting Br and Te. The modulated structure of II was solved in the triclinic superspace group X(αβγ)0 with the vector q≈1/16 c*.

• 39.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Formation of Diverse Mesophases Templated by a Diprotic Anionic Surfactant2008In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 14, no 36, 11423-11428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The synthesis system for mesophase formation, using the diprotic anionic surfactant N-myristoyl-l-glutamic acid (C14GluA) as the structuredirecting agent (SDA) and N-trimethoxylsilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TMAPS) as the co-structure-directing agent (CSDA), has been investigated and a full-scaled synthesis-field diagram is presented. In this system we have obtained mesophases including three-dimensional (3D) micellar cubic Fm-3m, Pm-3n, Fd-3m, micellar tetragonal P42/mnm, two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal p6mm and bicontinuous cubic Pn-3m, by varying the C14GluA/NaOH/TMAPS composition ratios. From the diagram it can be concluded that the mesophase formation is affected to a high degree by the organic/inorganicinterface curvature and the mesocage–mesocage electrostatic interaction. Bicontinuous cubic and 2D-hexagonalphases were found in the low organic/inorganic-interface curvature zones, whereas micellar cubic and tetragonal mesophases were found in the high organic/inorganic-interface curvature zones. Formation of cubic Fm-3m and tetragonal P42/mnm was favoured in highly alkaline zones with strong mesocage–mesocage interactions, and formation of cubic Pm-3n and Fd-3m was favoured with moderate mesocage–mesocage interactions in the less alkaline zones of the diagram.

• 40.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Attachment of a hydrogen-bonding carboxylate side chain to an [FeFe]-hydrogenase model complex: Influence on the catalytic mechanism2010In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 16, no 8, 2537-2546 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Azapropanedithiolate (adt)-bridged model complexes of [FeFe]-hydrogenase bearing a carboxylic acid functionality have been designed with the aim of decreasing the potential for reduction of protons to hydrogen. Protonation of the bisphosphine complexes 46 has been studied by in situ IR and NMR spectroscopy, which revealed that protonation with triflic acid most likely takes place first at the N-bridge for complex 4 but at the FeFe bond for complexes 5 and 6. Using an excess of acid, the diprotonated species could also be observed, but none of the protonated species was sufficiently stable to be isolated in a pure state. Electrochemical studies have provided an insight into the catalytic mechanisms under strongly acidic conditions, and have also shown that complexes 3 and 6 are electro-active in aqueous solution even in the absence of acid, presumably due to hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen evolution, driven by visible light, has been observed for three-component systems consisting of [Ru(bpy)3]2+, complex 1, 2, or 3, and ascorbic acid in CH3CN/D2O solution by on-line mass spectrometry.

• 41.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Metal-Free One-Pot Synthesis of Benzofurans2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 29, 8888-8892 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Ethyl acetohydroxamate was efficiently arylated with diaryliodonium salts at room temperature under transition-metal-free conditions. The obtained O-arylated products were reacted in situ with ketones under acidic conditions to yield substituted benzo[b]furans through oxime formation, [3,3]-rearrangement, and cyclization in a fast and operationally simple one-pot fashion without using excess reagents. Alternatively, the O-arylated products could be isolated or transformed in situ to aryloxyamines or O-arylaldoximes. The methodology was applied to the synthesis of Stemofuran A and the formal syntheses of Coumestan, Eupomatenoid 6, and (+)-machaeriol B.

• 42.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Synthesis of Conjugated Dienes via a Biomimetic Aerobic Oxidative Coupling of Two CvinylH Bonds2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, no 33, 10799-10803 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

A time to dienes: A highly efficient and general method has been developed to prepare conjugated dienes through a biomimetic approach. This aerobic oxidative coupling, involving two CvinylH bonds, proceeds under low Pd catalyst loading and employs catalytic amounts of p-benzoquinone and iron phthalocyanine as electron-transfer mediators (ETMs) under ambient oxygen pressure (see scheme).

• 43.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Aerobic Double Dehydrogenative Cross Coupling between Cyclic Saturated Ketones and Simple Arenes2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 20, 5890-5894 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The synthesis of 3-aryl-2-cyclohexenones is a topic of current interest as they are not only privileged structures in bioactive molecules, but they are also relevant feedstocks for the synthesis of substituted phenols or anilines, which are ubiquitous structural elements both in drug design and medicinal chemistry. A simple and sustainable one-pot aerobic double dehydrogenative reaction under mild conditions for the introduction of arenes in the -position of cyclic ketones has been developed. Starting from the corresponding saturated ketone, this reaction sequence proceeds under relatively low Pd catalyst loading and involves catalytic amounts of electron-transfer mediators (ETMs) under ambient oxygen pressure.

• 44.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Chemoenzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols Using an Air- and Moisture-Stable Iron Racemization Catalyst2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 5, 1048-1051 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Herein, we report on a metalloenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution of sec-alcohols employing an iron-based racemization catalyst together with a lipase. The iron catalyst was evaluated in racemization and then used in dynamic kinetic resolution of a number of sec-alcohols to give enantiomerically pure products in good to high yields. The iron catalyst is air and moisture stable and is readily accessible.

• 45.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
SEAL by NMR: Glyco-Based Selenium-Labeled Affinity Ligands Detected by NMR Spectroscopy2014In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 20, no 43, 13905-13908 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

We report a method for the screening of interactions between proteins and selenium-labeled carbohydrate ligands. SEAL by NMR is demonstrated with selenoglycosides binding to lectins where the selenium nucleus serves as an NMR-active handle and reports on binding through Se-77 NMR spectroscopy. In terms of overall sensitivity, this nucleus is comparable to C-13 NMR, while the NMR spectral width is ten times larger, yielding little overlap in Se-77 NMR spectroscopy, even for similar compounds. The studied ligands are singly selenated bioisosteres of methyl glycosides for which straightforward preparation methods are at hand and libraries can readily be generated. The strength of the approach lies in its simplicity, sensitivity to binding events, the tolerance to additives and the possibility of having several ligands in the assay. This study extends the increasing potential of selenium in structure biology and medicinal chemistry. We anticipate that SEAL by NMR will be a beneficial tool for the development of selenium-based bioactive compounds, such as glycomimetic drug candidates.

• 46.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
Insight Into the Defects of Cage-Type Silica Mesoporous Crystals with Fd(3)over-arm Symmetry: TEM Observations and a New Proposal of "Polyhedron Packing" for the Crystals  2009In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 15, no 12, 2818-2825 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
• 47.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Highly Selective Olefin-Assisted Pd-II-Catalyzed Oxidative Alkynylation of Enallenes2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 33, 7896-7899 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

An olefin-assisted, palladium-catalyzed oxidative alkynylation of enallenes for regio- and stereoselective synthesis of substituted trienynes has been developed. The reaction shows a broad substrate scope and good tolerance for various functional groups on the allene moiety, including carboxylic acid esters, free hydroxyls, imides, and alkyl groups. Also, a wide range of terminal alkynes with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing aryls, heteroaryls, alkyls, trimethylsilyl, and free hydroxyl groups are tolerated.

• 48.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
A Prediction of Proton-Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Ketones in Lewis Basic Solvent through Facile Splitting of Hydrogen Molecules2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 5, 1036-1039 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

A ketone's carbonyl carbon is electrophilic and harbors a part of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the carbonyl group, resembling a Lewis acidic center; under the right circumstances it exhibits very useful chemical reactivity, although the natural electrophilicity of the ketone's carbonyl carbon is often not strong enough on its own to produce such reactivity. Quantum chemical calculations predict that a proton shared between a ketone and the Lewis basic solvent molecule (dioxane or THF) activates carbonyl carbon to the point of enabling a facile heterolytic splitting of H-2. Proton-catalyzed hydrogenation of a ketone in Lewis basic solvent is the result. The mechanism involves the interaction of H-2 with the enhanced Lewis acidity of a carbonyl carbon and the free Lewis basic solvent molecule polarizes H-2 and enables the hydride-type attack on carbonyl carbon, which is very strongly influenced by the proton shared between a ketone and solvent. The hydride-type attack on carbon is reminiscent of the splitting of H-2 by singlet carbenes except that, in this case, a Lewis base from the surrounding environment (solvent) is necessary for polarization of H-2 and acceptance of the proton resulting from the heterolytic splitting of H-2.

• 49.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Carbonyl Activation by Borane Lewis Acid Complexation: Transition States of H-2 Splitting at the Activated Carbonyl Carbon Atom in a Lewis Basic Solvent and the Proton-Transfer Dynamics of the Boroalkoxide Intermediate2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 38, 9098-9113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

By using transition-state (TS) calculations, we examined how Lewis acid (LA) complexation activates carbonyl compounds in the context of hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds by H-2 in Lewis basic (ethereal) solvents containing borane LAs of the type (C6F5)(3)B. According to our calculations, LA complexation does not activate a ketone sufficiently enough for the direct addition of H-2 to the O = C unsaturated bond; but, calculations indicate a possibly facile heterolytic cleavage of H-2 at the activated and thus sufficiently Lewis acidic carbonyl carbon atom with the assistance of the Lewis basic solvent (i.e., 1,4-dioxane or THF). For the solvent-assisted H-2 splitting at the carbonyl carbon atom of (C6F5)(3)B adducts with different ketones, a number of TSs are computed and the obtained results are related to insights from experiment. By using the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with the DFT for electronic structure calculations, the evolution of the (C6F5)(3)B-alkoxide ionic intermediate and the proton transfer to the alkoxide oxygen atom were investigated. The results indicate a plausible hydrogenation mechanism with a LA, that is, (C6F5)(3)B, as a catalyst, namely, 1) the step of H-2 cleavage that involves a Lewis basic solvent molecule plus the carbonyl carbon atom of thermodynamically stable and experimentally identifiable (C6F5)(3)B-ketone adducts in which (C6F5)(3)B is the Lewis acid promoter, 2) the transfer of the solvent-bound proton to the oxygen atom of the (C6F5)(3)B-alkoxide intermediate giving the (C6F5)(3)B-alcohol adduct, and 3) the S(N)2-style displacement of the alcohol by a ketone or a Lewis basic solvent molecule.

• 50.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
Computational Elucidation of a Role That Bronsted Acidification of the Lewis Acid-Bound Water Might Play in the Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds with H-2 in Lewis Basic Solvents2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 48, 11489-11493 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

Bronsted acidification of water by Lewis acid (LA) complexation is one of the fundamental principles in chemistry. Using transition-state calculations (TS), herein we investigate the role that Bronsted acidification of the LA-bound water might play in the mechanism of the hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds in Lewis basic solvents under non-anhydrous conditions. The potential energy scans and TS calculations were carried out with a series of eight borane LAs as well as the commonly known strong LA AlCl3 in 1,4-dioxane or THF as Lewis basic solvents. Our molecular model consists of the dative LA-water adduct with hydrogen bonds to acetone and a solvent molecule plus one additional solvent molecule that participates is the TS structure describing the cleavage of H-2 at acetone's carbonyl carbon atom. In all the molecular models applied here, acetone (O=CMe2) is the archetypical carbonyl substrate. We demonstrate that Bronsted acidification of the LA-bound water can indeed lower the barrier height of the solvent-involving H-2-cleavage at the acetone's carbonyl carbon atom. This is significant because at present it is believed that the mechanism of the herein considered reaction is described by the same mechanism regardless of whether the reaction conditions are strictly anhydrous or non-anhydrous. Our results offer an alternative to this belief that warrants consideration and further study.

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