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  • 1.
    Blomberg, Margareta R. A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Siegbahn, Per E. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Improved free energy profile for reduction of NO in cytochrome c dependent nitric oxide reductase (cNOR)2016In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 37, no 19, p. 1810-1818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum chemical calculations play an essential role in the elucidation of reaction mechanisms for redox-active metalloenzymes. For example, the cleavage and the formation of covalent bonds can usually not be described only on the basis of experimental information, but can be followed by the calculations. Conversely, there are properties, like reduction potentials, which cannot be accurately calculated. Therefore, computational and experimental data has to be carefully combined to obtain reliable descriptions of entire catalytic cycles involving electron and proton uptake from donors outside the enzyme. Such a procedure is illustrated here, for the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide and water in the membrane enzyme, cytochrome c dependent nitric oxide reductase (cNOR). A surprising experimental observation is that this reaction is nonelectrogenic, which means that no energy is conserved. On the basis of hybrid density functional calculations a free energy profile for the entire catalytic cycle is obtained, which agrees much better with experimental information on the active site reduction potentials than previous ones. Most importantly the energy profile shows that the reduction steps are endergonic and that the entire process is rate-limited by high proton uptake barriers during the reduction steps. This result implies that, if the reaction were electrogenic, it would become too slow when the gradient is present across the membrane. This explains why this enzyme does not conserve any of the free energy released.

  • 2.
    Georgieva, Polina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Himo, Fahmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Quantum chemical modeling of enzymatic reactions: The Case of histone lysine methyltransferase2010In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1707-1714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum chemical cluster models of enzyme active sites are today an important and powerful tool in the study of various aspects of enzymatic reactivity. This methodology has been applied to a wide spectrum of reactions and many important mechanistic problems have been solved. Herein, we report a systematic study of the reaction mechanism of the histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) SET7/9 enzyme, which catalyzes the methylation of the N-terminal histone tail of the chromatin structure. In this study, HKMT SET7/9 serves as a representative case to examine the modeling approach for the important class of methyl transfer enzymes. Active site models of different sizes are used to evaluate the methodology. In particular, the dependence of the calculated energies on the model size, the influence of the dielectric medium, and the particular choice of the dielectric constant are discussed. In addition, we examine the validity of some technical aspects, such as geometry optimization in solvent or with a large basis set, and the use of different density functional methods.

  • 3.
    Högberg, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Nikitin, Alexei
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Lyubartsev, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Modification of the CHARMM force field for DMPC lipid bilayer2008In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 29, no 14, p. 2359-2369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CHARMM force field for DMPC lipids was modified in order to improve agreement with experiment for a number of important properties of hydrated lipid bilayer. The modification consists in introduction of a scaling factor 0.83 for 1-4 electrostatic interactions (between atoms separated by three covalent bonds), which provides correct transgauche ratio in the alkane tails, and recalculation of the headgroup charges on the basis of HF/6-311(d,p) ab-initio computations. Both rigid TIP3P and flexible SPC water models were used with the new lipid model, showing similar results. The new model in a 75 ns simulation has shown a correct value of the area per lipid at zero surface tension, as well as good agreement with the experiment for the electron density, structure factor, and order parameters, including those in the headgroup part of lipids.

  • 4.
    Jämbeck, Joakim P. M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Physical Chemistry.
    Mocci, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Physical Chemistry.
    Lyubartsev, Alexander P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Physical Chemistry.
    Laaksonen, Aatto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Physical Chemistry.
    Partial Atomic Charges and Their Impact on the Free Energy of Solvation2013In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free energies of solvation (Delta G) in water and n-octanol have been computed for common drug molecules by molecular dynamics simulations with an additive fixed-charge force field. The impact of the electrostatic interactions was investigated by computing the partial atomic charges with four methods that all fit the charges from the quantum mechanically determined electrostatic potential (ESP). Due to the redistribution of electron density that occurs when molecules are transferred from gas phase to condensed phase, the polarization impact was also investigated. By computing the partial atomic charges with the solutes placed in a conductor-like continuum, the charges were effectively polarized to take the polarization effects into account. No polarization correction term or similar was considered, only the partial atomic charges. Results show that free energies are very sensitive to the choice of atomic charges and that Delta G can differ by several k(B)T depending on the charge computing method. Inclusion of polarization effects makes the solutes too hydrophilic with most methods and in vacuo charges make the solutes too hydrophobic. The restrained-ESP methods together with effectively polarized charges perform well in our test set and also when applied to a larger set of molecules. The effect of water models is also highlighted and shows that the conclusions drawn are valid for different three-point models. Partitioning between an aqueous and a hydrophobic phase is also described better if the two environment's polarization is taken into account, but again the results are sensitive to the charge calculation method. Overall, the results presented here show that effectively polarized charges can improve the description of solvating a drug-like molecule in a solvent and that the choice of partial atomic charges is crucial to ensure that molecular simulations produce reliable results.

  • 5. Kuttel, Michelle M.
    et al.
    Ståhle, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Widmalm, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    CarbBuilder: Software for building molecular models of complex oligo- and polysaccharide structures2016In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 37, no 22, p. 2098-2105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CarbBuilder is a portable software tool for producing three-dimensional molecular models of carbohydrates from the simple text specification of a primary structure. CarbBuilder can generate a wide variety of carbohydrate structures, ranging from monosaccharides to large, branched polysaccharides. Version 2.0 of the software, described in this article, supports monosaccharides of both mammalian and bacterial origin and a range of substituents for derivatization of individual sugar residues. This improved version has a sophisticated building algorithm to explore the range of possible conformations for a specified carbohydrate molecule. Illustrative examples of models of complex polysaccharides produced by CarbBuilder demonstrate the capabilities of the software. CarbBuilder is freely available under the Artistic License 2.0.

  • 6.
    Laikov, Dimitri N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Neglect of four- and approximation of one-, two-, and three-center two-electron integrals in a symmetrically orthogonalized basis2007In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 698-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new integral approximation for use in molecular electronic structure calculations is proposed as an alternative to the traditional neglect of diatomic differential overlap models. The similarity between the symmetrically orthogonalized and the original basis functions (assumed orthonormal within each atomic set but nonorthogonal between different centers) is used to construct a robust approximation for the two-electron integrals, with the error being quadratic in the deviation between the products of the functions. Invariance proper-ties of this procedure are rigorously proved. Numerical studies on a representative set of molecules at valence-only minimal basis Hartree-Fock level show that the approximation introduces relatively small errors, encouraging its future application in the semiempirical field. 

  • 7.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lindahl, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    A High-Performance Parallel-Generalized Born Implementation Enabled by Tabulated Interaction Rescaling2010In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 31, no 14, p. 2593-2600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implicit solvent representations, in general, and generalized Born models, in particular, provide an attractive way to reduce the number of interactions and degrees of freedom in a system. The instantaneous relaxation of the dielectric shielding provided by an implicit solvent model can be extremely efficient for high-throughput and Monte Carlo studies, and a reduced system size can also remove a lot of statistical noise. Despite these advantages, it has been difficult for generalized Born implementations to significantly outperform optimized explicit-water simulations due to more complex functional forms and the two extra interaction stages necessary to calculate Born radii and the derivative chain rule terms contributing to the force. Here, we present a method that uses a rescaling transformation to make the standard generalized Born expression a function of a single variable, which enables an efficient tabulated implementation on any modern CPU hardware. The total performance is within a factor 2 of simulations in vacuo. The algorithm has been implemented in Gromacs, including single-instruction multiple-data acceleration, for three different Born radius models and corresponding chain rule terms. We have also adapted the model to work with the virtual interaction sites commonly used for hydrogens to enable long-time steps, which makes it possible to achieve a simulation performance of 0.86 μs/day for BBA5 with 1-nm cutoff on a single quad-core desktop processor. Finally, we have also implemented a set of streaming kernels without neighborlists to accelerate the non-cutoff setup occasionally used for implicit solvent simulations of small systems.

  • 8. Lundborg, Magnus
    et al.
    Apostolov, Rossen
    Spangberg, Daniel
    Gardenas, Anders
    van der Spoel, David
    Lindahl, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Royal Institute of Technology.
    An Efficient and Extensible Format, Library, and API for Binary Trajectory Data from Molecular Simulations2014In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 260-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics simulations is an important application in theoretical chemistry, and with the large high-performance computing resources available today the programs also generate huge amounts of output data. In particular in life sciences, with complex biomolecules such as proteins, simulation projects regularly deal with several terabytes of data. Apart from the need for more cost-efficient storage, it is increasingly important to be able to archive data, secure the integrity against disk or file transfer errors, to provide rapid access, and facilitate exchange of data through open interfaces. There is already a whole range of different formats used, but few if any of them (including our previous ones) fulfill all these goals. To address these shortcomings, we present Trajectory Next Generation (TNG)a flexible but highly optimized and efficient file format designed with interoperability in mind. TNG both provides state-of-the-art multiframe compression as well as a container framework that will make it possible to extend it with new compression algorithms without modifications in programs using it. TNG will be the new file format in the next major release of the GROMACS package, but it has been implemented as a separate library and API with liberal licensing to enable wide adoption both in academic and commercial codes.

  • 9.
    Mirzoev, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Physical Chemistry.
    Lyubartsev, Alexander P.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Physical Chemistry.
    Systematic Implicit Solvent Coarse Graining of Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Lipids2014In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 35, no 16, p. 1208-1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used systematic structure-based coarse graining to derive effective site-site potentials for a 10-site coarse-grained dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipid model and investigated their state point dependence. The potentials provide for the coarse-grained model the same site-site radial distribution functions, bond and angle distributions as those computed in atomistic simulations carried out at four different lipid-water molar ratios. It was shown that there is a non-negligible dependence of the effective potentials on the concentration at which they were generated, which is also manifested in the properties of the lipid bilayers simulated using these potentials. Thus, effective potentials computed at low lipid concentration favor to more condensed and ordered structure of the bilayer with lower average area per lipid, while potentials obtained at higher lipid concentrations provide more fluid-like structure. The best agreement with the reference data and experiment was achieved using the set of potentials derived from atomistic simulations at 1:30 lipid:water molar ratio providing fully saturated hydration of DMPC lipids. Despite theoretical limitations of pairwise coarse-grained potentials expressed in their state point dependence, all the resulting potentials provide a stable bilayer structure with correct partitioning of different lipid groups across the bilayer as well as acceptable values of the average lipid area, compressibility and orientational ordering. In addition to bilayer simulations, the model has proven its robustness in modeling of self-aggregation of lipids from randomly dispersed solution to ordered bilayer structures, bicelles, and vesicles.

  • 10.
    Nikitin, Alexei
    et al.
    Institute of molecular biology, Moscow.
    Lyubartsev, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    New six-site acetonitrile model for simulations of liquid acetonitrile and its aqueous mixtures2007In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 2020-2026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new six site flexible acetonitrile molecular model is developed. The AMBER force field was used for description of intramolecular parameters, the atomic charges were calculated from a high level ab initio theory and finally the Lennard-Jones parameters were tuned to fit the experimental density and evaporation heat. The obtained in this way model reproduces correctly densities of water-acetonitrile mixtures as well as provides qualitative description of the dielectric permittivity and self-diffusion coefficients.

  • 11.
    Pei, Han-Wen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laaksonen, Aatto
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Nanjing Tech University, China; Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Romania.
    Feature vector clustering molecular pairs in computer simulationsIn: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A clustering framework is introduced to analyze the microscopic structural organization of molecular pairs in liquids and solutions. A molecular pair is represented by a representative vector (RV). To obtain RV, intermolecular atom distances in the pair are extracted from simulation trajectory as components of the key feature vector (KFV). A specific scheme is then suggested to transform KFV to RV by removing the influence of permutational molecular symmetry on the KFV as the predicted clusters should be independent of possible permutations of identical atoms in the pair. After RVs of pairs are obtained, a clustering analysis technique is finally used to classify all the RVs of molecular pairs into the clusters. The framework is applied to analyze trajectory from molecular dynamics simulations of an ionic liquid (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(oxalato)borate ([P-6,P-6,P-6,P-14][BOB])). The molecular pairs are successfully categorized into physically meaningful clusters, and their effectiveness is evaluated by computing the product moment correlation coefficient (PMCC). (Willett, Winterman, and Bawden, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 1986, 26, 109-118; Downs, Willett, and Fisanick, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 1994, 34, 1094-1102) It is observed that representative configurations of two clusters are related to two energy local minimum structures optimized by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, respectively. Several widely used clustering analysis techniques of both nonhierarchical (k-means) and hierarchical clustering algorithms are also evaluated and compared with each other. The proposed KFV technique efficiently reveals local molecular pair structures in the simulated complex liquid. It is a method, which is highly useful for liquids and solutions in particular with strong intermolecular interactions. 

  • 12. Pinjari, Rahul V.
    et al.
    Delcey, Mickael G.
    Guo, Meiyuan
    Odelius, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Lundberg, Marcus
    Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra2016In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 477-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6](3-) and [Fe(CN)(6)](3-). For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of 1 eV in peak positions, 30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and 50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double- basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems.

  • 13.
    Siegbahn, Per E. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Is there computational support for an unprotonated carbon in the E-4 state of nitrogenase?2018In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 743-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the key enzyme for nitrogen fixation in nature, nitrogenase, the active site has a metal cluster with seven irons and one molybdenum bound by bridging sulfurs. Surprisingly, there is also a carbon in the center of the cluster, with a role that is not known. A mechanism has been suggested experimentally, where two hydrides leave as a hydrogen molecule in the critical E-4 state. A structure with two hydrides, two protonated sulfurs and an unprotonated carbon has been suggested for this state. Rather recently, DFT calculations supported the experimental mechanism but found an active state where the central carbon is protonated all the way to CH3. Even more recently, another DFT study was made that instead supported the experimentally suggested structure. To sort out the origin of these quite different computational results, additional calculations have here been performed using different DFT functionals. The conclusion from these calculations is very clear and shows no computational support for an unprotonated carbon in E-4.

  • 14.
    Siegbahn, Per E. M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Xichen
    Cluster size convergence for the energetics of the oxygen evolving complex in PSII2017In: Journal of Computational Chemistry, ISSN 0192-8651, E-ISSN 1096-987X, Vol. 38, no 25, p. 2157-2160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density functional theory calculations have been made to investigate the stability of the energetics for the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II. Results published elsewhere have given excellent agreement with experiments for both energetics and structures, where many of the experimental results were obtained several years after the calculations were done. The computational results were obtained after a careful extension from small models to a size of about 200 atoms, where stability of the results was demonstrated. However, recently results were published by Isobe et al., suggesting that very different results could be obtained if the model was extended from 200 to 340 atoms. The present study aims at understanding where this difference comes from.

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