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  • 1.
    Elmongy, Hatem
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Damanhour University, Egypt.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Saliva as an alternative specimen to plasma for drug bioanalysis: A review2016In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 83, p. 70-79Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saliva provides a suitable medium for screening and determination of drugs. It is easy to collect and handle besides the non-invasive sampling. Extraction techniques such as micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and dried saliva spot (DSS) provides fast and efficient recovery of the analytes. Moreover, MEPS could be fully automated to ascertain method reproducibility and DSS provides fast simultaneous collection and extraction of samples. Several studies were conducted to determine drugs in saliva in correlation to plasma aiming to establish rigid evidence on the suitability of saliva in monitoring of drug levels. Only free drug could be present in salivary fluid thus protein binding of drugs affect markedly on the salivary levels of drugs. Pharmacokinetic parameters could be determined for drugs in saliva with emphasis on diffusion parameters of drugs to salivary fluid such as pH and drug lipophilicity. Screening techniques are mainly based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to limited sample volumes and the low detection limits. Saliva could make drug testing outside laboratory environments feasible with the appropriate techniques for analysis. This review focuses on the developments and challenges in testing of drugs in saliva in correlation to plasma and application to drug analysis in saliva regarding therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetics.

  • 2. Horvai, G.
    et al.
    Worsfold, P.
    Karlberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersen, J. E. T.
    Analytical chemistry and bioanalytical chemistry - A yet unshaped social relationship2011In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 422-424Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Karlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Grasserbauer, Manfred
    Andersen, Jens E. T.
    European Analytical Column: Analytical chemistry faces challenges2009In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 515-518Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Abdel-Rehim, Abbi
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS)2015In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 67, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sample preparation is an important stage in separation and determination of components of interest from complex matrices. Sample preparation strongly influences the reliability and the accuracy of the analysis and the data quality. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance, on-line coupling with analytical instruments and low-cost operation using little or no solvent consumption. In the past decade, microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) was introduced as a simple, fast, on-line sample-preparation technique. Also, MEPS requires less sample and less solvent. This review gives an outline of the MEPS technique, including fields of application, common formats and sorbents, factors that affect performance, and the major advantages and limitations. Further, we offer and discuss our perspective on the future of MEPS.

  • 5. Schwesig, David
    et al.
    Borchers, Ulrich
    Chancerelle, Laure
    Dulio, Valeria
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Farre, Marinella
    Goksoyr, Anders
    Lamoree, Marja
    Leonards, Pim
    Lepom, Peter
    Leverett, Dean
    O'Neill, Anne
    Robinson, Rod
    Silharova, Katarina
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Tolgyessy, Peter
    Tutundjian, Renaud
    Wegener, Jan-Willem
    Westwood, David
    A harmonized European framework for method validation to support research on emerging pollutants2011In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1233-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any investigation of environmental processes related to chemical substances or their effects depends on reliable, comparable analytical data. This also holds true for the impact of climate change on occurrence, distribution and effects of emerging pollutants, with respect to which there is particular concern regarding the reliability of analytical data, due to lack of harmonization in method validation and requirements for quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC). We present a recent European approach to developing a harmonized framework for method validation, QA/QC and provision of environmental data on emerging pollutants. The validation approach has been tested and improved by three case studies. We outline the main concept of the validation approach as well as the results of the case studies. This European validation framework turned out to be a feasible tool to check the fitness for purpose of analytical methods and to improve the reliability of environmental analytical data, particularly for emerging pollutants.

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