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  • 1.
    Aktürk Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language dominance as a factor in loanword phonology2017In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 584-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of language dominance in loanword phonology. It is investigated how onset clusters in loanwords are integrated into Turkish by two groups: English-Turkish bilinguals in Turkey and Swedish-Turkish bilinguals in Sweden. It is hypothesised that the bilinguals in Sweden will display significantly higher rates of cluster adoption because Turkish is not the dominant language there.

    The data were collected through an oral loanword elicitation task, a text recitation task in the second languages and a questionnaire on language proficiency and use.

    The study had 53 participants (24 in Turkey and 29 in Sweden). The material consisted of 29 loanwords from English and French, and of 50 structurally comparable words in the bilinguals’ second languages. The data were analysed auditively by the author and subjected to an interrater reliability test.

    The results confirmed the hypothesis as the bilinguals in Sweden displayed significantly higher cluster adoption rates. The difference between the groups’ medians was 36.5 percentage points. Furthermore, it was shown that in individual speakers the combination of accurate second-language pronunciation, and clearly higher proficiency in the second language (corresponding to the donor language) compared to the L1 (i.e. the recipient language) guaranteed very high cluster adoption rates.

    This paper provides the first rigorous quantitative proof for the theoretical assumption that accurate pronunciation is not sufficient for structural adoption in loanword phonology but needs to be complemented with sociolinguistic variables. Furthermore, it demonstrates in greater detail than before how societal and individual dominance are connected and through which channels they impact loanword integration.

    Self-reported relative proficiency in the donor language was shown to be a powerful predictor of the sociolinguistic incentive to adopt and could therefore be used as a quick and reliable alternative to elaborate and time-consuming attitude investigations in loanword phonology.

  • 2.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Segmentation and temporal structuring of events in early Spanish-Swedish bilinguals2011In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 56-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine patterns of segmentation and temporal structuring of events in early bilinguals. The participant group consists of 25 L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish adult bilinguals residing in Sweden, with ages of L2 acquisition ranging from 1 to 11 years. There were 15 native speakers of Swedish and 15 native speakers of Spanish engaged as monolingual controls. The participants provided online-retellings in both languages of an excerpt from the film Modern Times. The bilinguals' L1 and L2 retellings were compared with those of the monolingual speakers of the respective languages. The results indicated that the bilinguals resorted to the same event segmentation strategies in both L1 and L2, opting for an intermediate degree of event resolution. This behavior fell in between the monolingual Spanish high degree of resolution and the monolingual Swedish low degree of resolution. As for temporal structuring patterns, the results showed that the bilinguals in their L2 converged with the Swedish monolingual controls, linking the events by means of anaphoric adverbials (i.e., 'x then y'). The bilinguals also converged with the Spanish-speaking controls in their L1 perspectivation patterns, as both groups left the temporal relation between the events to be inferred and focused on ongoingness (i.e., now x, now y). These findings are discussed in terms of convergence and co-existence of conceptual patterns (Pavlenko, 1999, 2008).

  • 3. de Leeuw, Esther
    et al.
    Opitz, Conny
    Lubińska, Dorota
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dynamics of First Language Attrition across the Lifespan2013In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 667-674Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Power and resistance: Language mixing in three Chicano plays2014In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 118-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers insights into how multilingual resources such as language mixing can be used in theater to address power relations such as, for instance, domination, resistance and empowerment. Three plays by Chicana playwright Cherrie Moraga (Giving up the ghost, Heroes and saints, and Shadow of a man) will be used to illustrate language mixing in Chicano theater. Moraga's work has been selected since she is regarded as a representative of Chicano theater both by people within and by people outside the Chicano community. Chicano theater arose in the United States during the 1960s as an act of resistance. The aim was to empower Chicanos/Mexican Americans by informing them about their rights in the society in which they resided. Chicano theater has thus since its inception been linked to issues of power. Theoretically, this article builds upon philosopher Michel Foucault's view of power, which fits well with the study of Chicano theater since it acknowledges that power exists in all social relations and is negotiated in each relation and context. Foucault's view of power also asserts that power and resistance go hand in hand. This, then, can be translated to the Chicano context, where struggles take place on different levels in order to resist power. Chicano theater, also referred to by Moraga as theater of resistance is one such form of resistance. However, power is not merely resisted. It is also reproduced in a new form. Foucault's view of power and resistance and his emphasis on the productive functions of power allow for a possibility of empowerment.

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