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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vowel epenthesis of /sC(C)/ onsets in Spanish/Swedish inter­phonology: A longitudinal case study1999In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 473-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that vowel epenthesis of initial /sC(C)/ clusters in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers is conditioned by several variable constraints, such as preceding environment, onset length, and sonority relations among onset members. This case study was designed to investigate whether the patterns obtained from elicited speech also hold for conversational data. A longitudinal corpus of spontaneous/natural speech from 1 adult L1 Spanish learner of L2 Swedish was used. The study confirmed most of the results from previous research, for example, that the frequency of epenthesis varies with preceding phonetic environment. However, the study suggested that a lowering effect of preceding vowels must be present, not just the enhancing effect of preceding consonants suggested by Carlisle (1997).

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 249-306Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Bokander, Lars
    et al.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Probing the Internal Validity of the LLAMA Language Aptitude Tests2020In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 11-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, the LLAMA language aptitude test battery has come to play an increasingly important role as an instrument in research on individual differences in language development. However, a potentially serious problem that has been pointed out by several scholars is that the LLAMA has not yet been carefully validated. We addressed this issue by examining the internal validity of this test battery. We collected LLAMA data from 350 participants and assessed these data using classical item analysis, Rasch analysis, and principal component analysis within a framework of best practices in educational and psychological test validation. The results show that only one out of the four subtests (LLAMA B) produced scores that fit a latent trait model with sufficient accuracy. This suggests that researchers using the LLAMA battery must treat their results with appropriate carefulness and also that there is potential for refining the LLAMA further.

  • 4.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Maturational constraints and first language attrition2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 687-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the critical period and the interplay between maturation and nonmaturational factors in attrition. In view of findings from first language relearning/reactivation and theoretical-methodological advances in second language research on maturation, the article proposes a reinterpretation of maturational constraints in language attrition that, first, emphasizes the gradual decline of susceptibility to attrition and, second, puts forth the conditioning function that the maturational constraints have on nonmaturational factors.

  • 5.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Linguistic relativity in SLA: Towards a new research programme2014In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 952-985Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current article is to support the investigation of linguistic relativity in second language acquisition and sketch methodological and theoretical prerequisites toward developing the domain into a full research program. We identify and discuss three theoretical-methodological components that we believe are needed to succeed in this enterprise. First, we highlight the importance of using nonverbal methods to study linguistic relativity effects in second language (L2) speakers. The use of nonverbal tasks is necessary in order to avoid the circularity that arises when inferences about nonverbal behavior are made on the basis of verbal evidence alone. Second, we identify and delineate the likely cognitive mechanisms underpinning cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers by introducing the theoretical framework of associative learning. By doing so, we demonstrate that the extent and nature of cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers is essentially a function of variation in individual learners’ trajectories. Third, we offer an in-depth discussion of the factors (e.g., L2 proficiency and L2 use) that characterize those trajectories, anchoring them to the framework of associative learning, and reinterpreting their relative strength in predicting L2 speaker cognition.

  • 6.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Samuel, Steven
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Crosslinguistic Differences in Food Labels Do Not Yield Differences in Taste Perception2024In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that speakers of different languages may differ in their cognitive and perceptual processing of reality. A common denominator of this line of investigation has been its reliance on the sensory domain of vision. The aim of our study was to extend the scope to a new sense—taste. Using as a starting point crosslinguistic differences in the category boundaries of edible bulbs, we examined whether monolingual speakers of English and bilingual speakers of Norwegian and English were influenced by language-specific categories during tasting. The results showed no evidence of such effects, not even for the Norwegian participants in an entirely Norwegian context. This suggests that crosslinguistic differences in visual perception do not readily generalize to the domain of taste. We discuss the findings in terms of predictive processing, with particular reference to trigeminal stimulation (a central tasting component) and the interplay between chemosensory signals and top-down linguistic modulation.

  • 7.
    Håkansson, Gisela
    et al.
    Språk- och litteraturcentrum, Lunds universitet.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Environmental influence on language acquisition: Comparing second and
 foreign language acquisition of Swedish2010In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 628-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the influence of the learning environment on the second language acquisition of Swedish. Data were collected longitudinally over 1 year from 35 university students studying Swedish in Malmö, Sweden, and in Melbourne, Australia. Three areas were investigated: grammar, pragmatics, and lexicon. The development of grammar was analyzed within the framework of Processability Theory (Pienemann, 1998, 2005). For the pragmatic analysis, the learners’ production in a gap-filling task was measured against answers from 100 native speakers. A scoring system was devised to enable comparisons between learners and native speakers. The lexical analysis was based on a word association test. The results show that the grammar developed similarly in the two groups, whereas differences between the groups were found in pragmatics and lexicon. This variation is explained by differences in target language exposure.

  • 8.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Self‐repair in hearing L2 learners’ spontaneous signing: A developmental study2023In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 136-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a corpus-based investigation of self-repairs in hearing adult L2 (M2L2, second modality and second language) learners of Swedish Sign Language (Svenskt teckenspråk, STS). This study analyses M2L2 learners’ STS conversations with a deaf signer and examines the learners’ self-repair practices and whether there are differences among learners of different proficiency levels. This provides a description of characteristics of self-repair made by M2L2 learners as well as the frequency and distribution of self-repair categories. The results show that the frequency of self-repair decreases with increased proficiency, at least after the initial stage. Furthermore, the self-initiated repair categories of the beginners are often phonological repairs, while intermediate learners tend to carry out self-repairs at the lexical and syntactic level. The results also reveal a specific type of STS repair linked to fingerspelling repairs. We discuss the effects of second modality learning as well as the relationship between monitoring and language proficiency.

  • 9.
    Montero-Melis, Guillermo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Thinking Is Modulated by Recent Linguistic Experience: Second Language Priming Affects Perceived Event Similarity2016In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 636-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can recent second language (L2) exposure affect what we judge to be similar events? Using a priming paradigm, we manipulated whether native Swedish adult learners of L2 Spanish were primed to use path or manner during L2 descriptions of scenes depicting caused motion events (encoding phase). Subsequently, participants engaged in a nonverbal task, arranging events on the screen according to similarity (test phase). Path versus manner priming affected how participants judged event similarity during the test phase. The effects we find support the hypotheses that (a) speakers create or select ad hoc conceptual categories that are based on linguistic knowledge to carry out nonverbal tasks, and that (b) short-term, recent L2 experience can affect this ad hoc process. These findings further suggest that cognition can flexibly draw on linguistic categories that have been implicitly highlighted during recent exposure.

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