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  • 1.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The role of perceptual salience in bilingual speakers' integration of illicit long segments in loanwords2014In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 143, p. 162-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how bilingual borrowers integrate originally long vowels and consonants in loanwords from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish in illicit positions. Both historical corpus data and data from an elicitation task are used. The main focus is on the role of perceptual salience and the choice between adaptation and adoption as different integration strategies. The results show that length is accurately perceived in both cases of borrowing due to the particular linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts of second language acquisition. Phonologically long Arabic vowels and consonants as well as not phonologically but phonetically long Swedish vowels with high salience are adopted as innovations by the bilingual borrowers. The latter adoption confirms that the input to loanword integration is not phonological but phonetic in nature, i.e. the surface form. Phonologically long Swedish consonants with low salience due to short duration are, instead, adapted through shortening. This adaptation is done in production through a process called filtering in with the help of feedback from perception. The paper proposes that perceptual salience plays an important role not only in monolingual but also in bilingual borrowing by concluding that high perceptual salience is necessary but not sufficient for adoption in bilingual borrowing.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Spenader, Jennifer
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    RESULT and PURPOSE relations with and without 'so'2014In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 148, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence relations differ in their tendency to be explicitly marked. How such relations are recognized and what determines their tendency to be marked is a matter of debate. The connective so represents a special case: it can be used to signal RESULT coherence relations and the more specific cause-effect relation of PURPOSE, but overt marking has been claimed to be required for PURPOSE and optional for RESULT. We present written corpus and experimental results on the use of so that show that RESULT and PURPOSE with this connective can be reliably distinguished from each other, and that the modal auxiliaries can/could and will/would are strongly associated with PURPOSE. In the corpus study, PURPOSE always occurs with explicit so, while RESULT is often left unmarked. These results are in line with recent claims based on annotated corpus data that implicit (unmarked) and explicit (marked) coherence relations can be qualitatively different (e.g. Sporleder and Lascarides, 2008; Webber, 2009). However, in our experiments using strongly purposive event pairs, 35-40% of examples were identified as PURPOSE without a connective or a modal verb cue. We argue that the difference between the corpus results and the experimental results can be explained as a difference between the tasks of speakers and hearers, and we outline an explanation for how marking can be obligatory for PURPOSE relations and yet optional for RESULT. We also propose that nonveridicality seems to play a key role in a marking requirement for PURPOSE, and explain why the unusual marking pattern found makes it difficult to give a pragmatic account similar to more well-known language asymmetries.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of 'perspective' in epistemic marking2017In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 186, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on inter-personal aspects of the context in the analysis of evidential and related epistemic marking systems. While evidentiality is defined by its capacity to qualify the speaker's indexical point of view in terms of information source, it is argued that other aspects of the context are important to analyze evidentiality both conceptually and grammatically. These distinct, analytical components concern the illocutionary status of a given marker and its scope properties. The importance of the hearer's point of view in pragmatics and semantics is well attested and constitutes a convincing argument for an increased emphasis on the perspective of the hearer/addressee in analyses of epistemic marking, such as evidentiality. The paper discusses available accounts of evidentials that attend to the perspective of the addressee and also introduces lesser-known epistemic marking systems that share a functional space with evidentiality.

  • 4.
    Bouchard, Marie-Eve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Language shift from Forro to Portuguese: Language ideologies and the symbolic power of Portuguese on São Tomé Island2019In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 228, article id 102712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates causes of the language shift from Forro to Portuguese around the capital of São Tomé and Príncipe from a language ideology and political economy perspective. It examines the ideological and indexical processes supporting the differentiating social categories and how they are linked to language choice. It shows that accessing ideologies held by Forros is key to understanding how they have historically set themselves apart from the other racial groups on the island by choosing Portuguese as their first language. This research is based on observations in the public and private spheres in São Tomé City and on interviews conducted with 56 Santomean informants. Results indicate that the use and transmission of characterizations and evaluative comments enable Santomeans to convey ideologies of superiority of the Portuguese language and its speakers, and that these ideologies are important forces driving the ongoing language shift.

  • 5.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Animacy and egophoricity: Grammar, ontology and phylogeny2008In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 118, no 2, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some results of earlier work on animacy by Kari Fraurud and the author are reviewed, demonstrating the close relationship between (i) the role of animacy as a determinant of grammatical rules and the choice between types of referential expressions, and (ii) statistical regularities in discourse. The idea that animacy is an ontological category is developed further. In the final section, the phylogenetic basis of the notions behind animacy and egophoricity is discussed. It is argued that the grammatical animacy hierarchy corresponds to a three-step cognitive scale: the self is the model for other animate individuals, which are in their turn models for inanimate objects when understood as individual ‘things’.

  • 6.
    Ljung, Magnus
    Engelska institutionen Göteborgs universitet.
    State control1975In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 37, no 2-3, p. 129-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Magnusson Petzell, Erik
    et al.
    Hellberg, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Deviant word order in Swedish poetry2014In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 143, p. 203-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally assumed that recurrent deviations from ordinary language in poetry have a non-complex relationship to ordinary grammar. This assumption has been formulated by Fabb (2010) as the Development Hypothesis (DH). In this paper, DH is elaborated within a generative framework and tested upon deviant word order in a sample of 19th century Swedish poetry. The result is that the hypothesis is fairly well corroborated, although not totally. In closing, an alternative hypothesis by Thoms (2010), the Non-Uniformity Hypothesis, is tested. It claims that poetry has more of its own syntax. This hypothesis is shown to yield, on the whole, predictions just as good as OH. Neither of the hypotheses, however, lasts the entire course.

  • 8.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jacobs, Bart
    The genesis of Chavacano revisited and solved2018In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 215, p. 53-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper revisits the origins of the Philippine Spanish Creole language Chavacano. Earlier work saw Chavacano as the result of relexification of an originally Portuguese-lexicon creole towards Spanish within an immigrant group known as the Mardikas in the 17th century. Their language would subsequently have spread from their new home town to the other locations where it is currently spoken. More recently, however, it has been claimed that Chavacano emerged independently in different places, in the second half of the 18th century, and that the creators were people of mixed Chinese-Filipino origin. We take issue with both the older and the more recent hypothesis, arguing the varieties are indeed related, and that proto-Chavacano emerged around the beginning of the 17th century in the Manila/Cavite area among Spanish military forces and various non-European groups in their service.

  • 9.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Culminativity, stress and tone accent in Central Swedish2012In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 122, no 13, p. 1352-1379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish stress and tone accent exhibits an interesting mixture of properties. I argue that the stress system is arranged in a largely morphological fashion, with clear similarities to dominance systems of Japanese, Basque and Greek, where there is a distinction between accented and unaccented stems, and where prefixes and, in particular, suffixes influence stress/accent placement. A major difference is that none of the lexical specifications for stress in Swedish is pre- or post-accenting, but rather post- and pretonic. Thus, no stress is assigned by affixes, but affixes impose adjacency conditions on stress placement in stems, or else the structure is either inhibited, or becomes noticeably marked. Beside the morphological specifications of stress information, there is a phonological default stress assignment, similar to what we find in Greek. The phonological default of Swedish applies blindly when prosodic specification is lacking at the right edge of prosodic words. An accentual default occurs also in Basque, but it applies at a phrasal level rather than at the word level. Beside stress, Swedish also exhibits a lexical tone ('accent 2', 'grave'), which occurs only in primary stressed syllables, and which (in the analysis assumed here) is mostly assigned from posttonic suffixes to an immediately preceding primary stress. So-called 'accent 1' (acute) is lexically unmarked, but both tonal contours signal prominence in a similar fashion, that is, in a way that is independent of the lexical distinction as such. Stress and tonal accent both instantiate culminativity. Building on the theory of projecting words and phrases (Ito and Mester, 2007), I argue that stress instantiates culminativity within the minimal prosodic word, and tonal accent instantiates culminativity in the maximal prosodic word.

  • 10.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Towards a unified account of the Spanish subjunctive mood: Epistemic dominion and dominion of effective control2013In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 131, p. 179-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyses the semantics of the Spanish subjunctive mood from a Cognitive Grammar perspective. The proposed hypothesis is that the subjunctive mood designates events that are located outside the conceptualiser’s dominion in two alternate ways. In accordance with Maldonado (1995), the subjunctive mood is claimed to designate events that are located outside the conceptualiser’s epistemic dominion. However, the present paper goes one step further, extending the notion of dominion to also include the conceptualiser’s effective control over the event described by the subjunctive mood. A qualitative analysis of the occurrence of the subjunctive mood in a number of grammatical contexts corroborates the initial claim that the semantics of the subjunctive mood is related to the notion of dominion.

1 - 10 of 10
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