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  • 1.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, USA.
    Armitage, Derek
    Carrington, Peter J.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Examining horizontal and vertical social ties to achieve social-ecological fit in an emerging marine reserve network2017In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1209-1223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most MPA networks are designed only with ecological processes in mind to increase their conservation utility. However, since MPA networks often involve large geographic areas, they also affect and involve multiple actors, institutions, and policy sectors. A key challenge when establishing an effective MPA network is to align the social system' with the biophysical MPA network (the ecological system'). This challenge is often denoted as social-ecological fit'. Facilitating collaborative social interactions among various actors and stakeholders (social connectivity) is equally as important as accomplishing ecological connectivity. New analytical approaches are required to effectively examine this social' dimension of fit. An emerging marine reserve network in Jamaica and the recent invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish are used as a case study to: (1) examine the extent to which horizontal and vertical social ties bring local and national actors together to collaborate, coordinate, and share knowledge; and (2) assess the extent to which different attributes and features of such multilevel social networks may enhance or inhibit particular aspects of social-ecological fit. Findings suggest that multilevel linkages have played the greatest role in relation to enhancing fit in the marine reserve network in the context of the recent lionfish invasion. However, the long-term propensity of the multi-actor and multilevel networks to enhance social-ecological fit is uncertain given the prevalence of weak social ties, lack of a culture of information sharing and collaboration, and limited financial resources.

  • 2. McClanahan, Tim R.
    et al.
    Muthiga, Nyawira A.
    Maina, Joseph
    Kamukuru, Alboghast T.
    Yahya, Saleh A.S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Changes in northern Tanzania coral reefs during a period of increased fisheries management and climatic disturbance2009In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 758-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Surveys of coral reefs in northern Tanzania were conducted in 2004/5 with the aim of comparing them over an∼8-year period during a time of increased efforts at fisheries management and the 1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) coral mortality event that caused 45% mortality in northern Tanzania and much of the Indian Ocean.

    2. Changes associated with both management, its absence, and the ENSO were found but changes were generally small and ecological measures indicated stability or improvements over this period, particularly when compared with reports from much of the northern Indian Ocean.

    3. Fisheries management in two areas increased the biomass of fish and benthic communities. A small fisheries closure (0.3 km2) displayed little change in the coral community but ecological conditions declined as measured by sea urchins and fish abundances. This change may be associated with its small size because similar changes were not measured in the large closure (28 km2).

    4. The few sites without any increased management were still degraded and one site had experienced a population explosion of a pest sea urchin, Echinometra mathaei.

    5. The lack of significant changes across this disturbance indicates that these reefs are moderately resilient to climate change and, therefore, a high priority for future conservation actions.

  • 3.
    Mvungi, Esther F.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Mamboya, Florence A.
    Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology, Department of Sciences and Laboratory Technology.
    Photosynthetic performance, epiphyte biomass and nutrient content of two seagrass species in two areas with different level of nutrients along the Dar es Salaam coastIn: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy nutrient loads in coastal waters often lead to excessive growth of micro- and macroalgal epiphytes on seagrass leaves, with varying effects on the underlying seagrasses. This study evaluates the photosynthetic performance, epiphytic biomass, and tissue nutrient content of two common tropical seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata and Thalassia hemprichii, in two intertidal areas along the Dar es Salaam coast in the Indian ocean; Ocean Road (near the city centre, nutrient-rich) and Mjimwema (south of the centre, nutrient-poor). Epiphyte biomass was significantly higher at the nutrient-rich site, and epiphytes were associated with reduced photosynthetic performance in both seagrass species at both sites. Likewise, nitrogen and phosphorus tissue content was higher in both species at the nutrient-rich site than at the nutrient-poor site, further illustrating the documented difference in nutrients between the two areas. Epiphytic species composition on the seagrass leaves varied between seagrass species and between sites. Cymodocea serrulata had a higher number of epiphytic species at Mjimwema than at Ocean Road, while Thalassia hemprichii had more epiphytic species at Ocean Road than at Mjimwema. Our results indicate that seagrass photosynthetic performance, epiphytic biomass and nutrient content of the seagrass are influenced by nutrient gradients in the water.

  • 4.
    Oyanedel, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Marín, Andrés
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile; Universidad de Los Lagos, Chile.
    Castilla, Juan C.
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Gelcich, Stefan
    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile.
    Establishing marine protected areas through bottom-up processes: insights from two contrasting initiatives in Chile2016In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Bottom-up participatory processes to create and manage no-take marine protected areas have been proposedas a way to scale-up marine conservation and deal with the lack of support and compliance of top-downconservation approaches. However, bottom-up conservation does not always lead to positive outcomes, thus itis increasingly important to understand the conditions that determine the establishment and implementation ofthese initiatives.

    2. Establishment and implementation processes were compared empirically for two contrasting bottom-upno-take marine protected areas that have been developing under the same political setting, however, one has beensuccessful and the other has stalled.

    3. Using mixed methods, stakeholders’ (a) motivations to participate in the no-take marine protected areainitiatives, (b) communication, support and information flow networks, (c) perceived participation, and(d) satisfaction with the establishment process of the bottom-up no-take marine protected areas, were assessed.

    4. Non-significant differences were found between the two initiatives in terms of stakeholders’ motivations tocreate a no-take marine protected area.

    5. Significant differences were found in stakeholders’ communication, support and information flow networks,in addition to differences in participation, and satisfaction with the establishment and implementation process.

    6. Results highlight that for the implementation and consolidation of bottom-up no-take marine protected areasinitiatives, common interests do not necessarily lead to common action, partnerships will not emerge automaticallyin response to potential benefits.

    7. Understanding disparities in participation, information sharing and communication are key aspects which must beconsidered for creating and supporting successful marine protected areas based on bottom-up participatory processes.

  • 5.
    Wennerström, Lovisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jansson, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Institute of Marine Research, Norway.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Baltic Sea genetic biodiversity: Current knowledge relating to conservation management2017In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1069-1090Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea has a rare type of brackish water environment which harbours unique genetic lineages of many species. The area is highly influenced by anthropogenic activities and is affected by eutrophication, climate change, habitat modifications, fishing and stocking. Effective genetic management of species in the Baltic Sea is highly warranted in order to maximize their potential for survival, but shortcomings in this respect have been documented. Lack of knowledge is one reason managers give for why they do not regard genetic diversity in management. Here, the current knowledge of population genetic patterns of species in the Baltic Sea is reviewed and summarized with special focus on how the information can be used in management. The extent to which marine protected areas (MPAs) protect genetic diversity is also investigated in a case study of four key species. Sixty-one species have been studied genetically in the Baltic Sea, but comprehensive genetic information exists for only seven of them. Genetic monitoring shows genetic stability in some species but fluctuations and genetic changes in others. About half of the scientific studies published during the last 6years provide conservation advice, indicating a high interest in the scientific community for relating results to practical management. Populations in MPAs do not differ genetically from populations outside MPAs, indicating that MPAs in the Baltic Sea do not protect genetic diversity specifically, but that populations in MPAs are a representative subset of populations in the Baltic Sea. Recommendations are provided for cases where genetic information is available but not used in management, particularly for non-commercial species with important ecosystem function. Improved channels for effective communication between academia and practical management on Baltic Sea genetic biodiversity are needed. A web page that can be used for knowledge transfer is highlighted here.

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