We consider the estimation of the multi-period optimal portfolio obtained by maximizing an exponential utility. Employing the Jeffreys non-informative prior and the conjugate informative prior, we derive stochastic representations for the optimal portfolio weights at each time point of portfolio reallocation. This provides a direct access not only to the posterior distribution of the portfolio weights but also to their point estimates together with uncertainties and their asymptotic distributions. Furthermore, we present the posterior predictive distribution for the investor's wealth at each time point of the investment period in terms of a stochastic representation for the future wealth realization. This in turn makes it possible to use quantile-based risk measures or to calculate the probability of default, i.e the probability of the investor wealth to become negative. We apply the suggested Bayesian approach to assess the uncertainty in the multi-period optimal portfolio by considering assets from the FTSE 100 in the weeks after the British referendum to leave the European Union. The behaviour of the novel portfolio estimation method in a precarious market situation is illustrated by calculating the predictive wealth, the risk associated with the holding portfolio, and the probability of default in each period.

For a sample of $n$ independent identically distributed $p$-dimensional centered random vectorswith covariance matrix $\bSigma_n$ let $\tilde{\bS}_n$ denote the usual sample covariance(centered by the mean) and $\bS_n$ the non-centered sample covariance matrix (i.e. the matrix of second moment estimates), where $p> n$. In this paper, we provide the limiting spectral distribution andcentral limit theorem for linear spectralstatistics of the Moore-Penrose inverse of $\bS_n$ and $\tilde{\bS}_n$. We consider the large dimensional asymptotics when the number of variables $p\rightarrow\infty$ and the sample size $n\rightarrow\infty$ such that $p/n\rightarrow c\in (1, +\infty)$. We present a Marchenko-Pastur law for both types of matrices, which shows that the limiting spectral distributions for both sample covariance matrices are the same. On the other hand, we demonstrate that the asymptotic distribution of linear spectral statistics of the Moore-Penrose inverse of $\tilde{\bS}_n$ differs in the mean from that of $\bS_n$.

In this work we construct an optimal shrinkage estimator for the precision matrix in high dimensions. We consider the general asymptotics when the number of variables p -> infinity and the sample size n -> infinity so that p/n -> c is an element of (0, +infinity). The precision matrix is estimated directly, without inverting the corresponding estimator for the covariance matrix. The recent results from random matrix theory allow us to find the asymptotic deterministic equivalents of the optimal shrinkage intensities and estimate them consistently. The resulting distribution-free estimator has almost surely the minimum Frobenius loss. Additionally, we prove that the Frobenius norms of the inverse and of the pseudo-inverse sample covariance matrices tend almost surely to deterministic quantities and estimate them consistently. Using this result, we construct a bona fide optimal linear shrinkage estimator for the precision matrix in case c < 1. At the end, a simulation is provided where the suggested estimator is compared with the estimators proposed in the literature. The optimal shrinkage estimator shows significant improvement even for non-normally distributed data.

The inverse of the standard estimate of covariance matrix is frequently used in the portfolio theory to estimate the optimal portfolio weights. For this problem, the distribution of the linear transformation of the inverse is needed. We obtain this distribution in the case when the sample size is smaller than the dimension, the underlying covariance matrix is singular, and the vectors of returns are independent and normally distributed. For the result, the distribution of the inverse of covariance estimate is needed and it is derived and referred to as the singular inverse Wishart distribution. We use these results to provide an explicit stochastic representation of an estimate of the mean-variance portfolio weights as well as to derive its characteristic function and the moments of higher order. The results are illustrated using actual stock returns and a discussion of practical relevance of the model is presented.

In this paper we derive the optimal linear shrinkage estimator for the high-dimensional mean vector using random matrix theory. The results are obtained under the assumption that both the dimension $p$ and the sample size $n$ tend to infinity in such a way that $p∕n\to c\in(0,\infty)$. Under weak conditions imposed on the underlying data generating mechanism, we find the asymptotic equivalents to the optimal shrinkage intensities and estimate them consistently. The proposed nonparametric estimator for the high-dimensional mean vector has a simple structure and is proven to minimize asymptotically, with probability 1, the quadratic loss when $c\in(0,1)$. When $c\in(1,\infty)$ we modify the estimator by using a feasible estimator for the precision covariance matrix. To this end, an exhaustive simulation study and an application to real data are provided where the proposed estimator is compared with known benchmarks from the literature. It turns out that the existing estimators of the mean vector, including the new proposal, converge to the sample mean vector when the true mean vector has an unbounded Euclidean norm.

In the paper, we suggest three tests on the validity of a factor model which can be applied for both, small-dimensional and large-dimensional data. The exact and asymptotic distributions of the resulting test statistics are derived under classical and high dimensional asymptotic regimes. It is shown that the critical values of the proposed tests can be calibrated empirically by generating a sample from the inverse Wishart distribution with identity parameter matrix. The powers of the suggested tests are investigated by means of simulations. The results of the simulation study are consistent with the theoretical findings and provide general recommendations about the application of each of the three tests. Finally, the theoretical results are applied to two real data sets, which consist of returns on stocks from the DAX index and on stocks from the S&P 500 index. Our empirical results do not support the hypothesis that all linear dependencies between the returns can be entirely captured by the factors considered in the paper.

In an approach aiming at high-dimensional situations, we first introduce a distribution-free approach to parameter estimation in the standard random factor model, that is shown to lead to the same estimating equations as maximum likelihood estimation under normality. The derivation is considerably simpler, and works equally well in the case of more variables than observations (p > n). We next concentrate on the latter case and show results of type: Albeit factor, loadings and specific variances cannot be precisely estimated unless n is large, this is not needed for the factor scores to be precise, but only that p is large; A classical fixed point iteration method can be expected to converge safely and rapidly, provided p is large. A microarray data set, with p = 2000 and n = 22, is used to illustrate this theoretical result.