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  • 1.
    Bergsten, Arvid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Protected areas in a landscape dominated by logging - A connectivity analysis that integrates varying protection levels with competition-colonization tradeoffs2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 160, p. 279-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation planning is challenging in landscapes where reoccurring habitat destruction and subsequent recovery affect metapopulation persistence, because different species respond differently to landscape change. By building on a graph-theoretical modeling framework, we here develop a connectivity model of how varying levels of area protection and unprotected areas predetermined for destruction affect species differently depending on (1) their tradeoff in colonization versus habitat utilization ability and (2) their maximum dispersal ability. We apply our model to 20,000 patches of old pine forest in northern Sweden, which host many threatened species but are scattered in a landscape dominated by intensive forestry. Unprotected mature forests stands predestined for logging are treated as adequate but temporarily available habitat for colonization specialists, whereas the same stands are assumed to, at best, serve only as intermediate stepping-stones for habitat specialists as they disperse between long-standing forests in protected areas. Our results show that the effect of habitat fragmentation on metapopulation persistence differs greatly not only depending on the dispersal distance of a particular species, but also on how well it utilizes habitat patches of different longevity. Such traits are discussed with respect to the spatiotemporal planning of habitat protection. Also, we suggest that the negative impacts of logging on biodiversity may be reduced if forestry practice is adjusted to better account for the ecological values of maturing production stands, through spatially explicit modeling of connectivity and of complementarity in the protection gradient.

  • 2.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Assessing connectivity in a tropical embayment: Fish migrations and seascape ecology2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 166, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seascape connectivity and configuration of multiple habitats are important features to include in marine spatial planning, and protecting seascapes with high connectivity is recommended. The present study examines the potential connectivity of reef fish assemblages in a shallow-water conservation area in Zanzibar (Tanzania) by analysing relationships between a set of habitat variables and fish diversity and density for different functional groups (based on diet) and life stages of fish using PLS-analysis. We combined spatial pattern metrics (habitat type, patch size, distance to patch) and dispersal abilities of a number of fish species using buffer radius to answer the questions; (i) do coral reefs with high connectivity to seagrass habitats have higher abundances and higher species richness of fish that undertake routine migrations during their life-history? and (ii) do coral reefs closer to mangrove forest support higher abundances of nursery species (i.e., fish species that use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat)? Habitat mosaics surrounding fish survey sites and within-patch measurements inside fish survey sites were quantified at multiple scales (meters to kilometers) using aerial photography and scuba. Fish data was collected using a standardized point census method. We found that both fine- and broad-scale variables were important in structuring fish communities and connectivity with surrounding habitats, where predominantly seagrass beds within a 750 m radius had a positive influence on fish abundances of invertebrate feeders/piscivores (especially for lutjanids and lethrinids). Additionally, fine-scale seagrass cover had a positive influence on nursery species. Depth also had a positive influence on total species richness and the abundance of invertebrate feeders/piscivores. This study highlights the importance of combining connectivity and habitat configuration at different scales to fully understand and manage the tropical seascape.

  • 3. Birkhofer, Klaus
    et al.
    Andersson, Georg K. S.
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Dänhardt, Juliana
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Ekroos, Johan
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hedlund, Katarina
    Jönsson, Annelie M.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Olsson, Ola
    Rader, Romina
    Rusch, Adrien
    Stjernman, Martin
    Williams, Alwyn
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Relationships between multiple biodiversity components and ecosystem services along a landscape complexity gradient2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 218, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of effects of anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity (BD) and ecosystem services (ES) and their relationships are key priorities of the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Agricultural landscapes and their associated BD provide multiple ES and it is crucial to understand how relationships between ES and BD components change along gradients of landscape complexity. In this study, we related eight ES potentials to the species richness of five invertebrate, vertebrate and plant taxonomic groups in cereal farming systems. The landscape complexity gradient ranged from areas dominated by annually tilled arable land to areas with high proportions of unfertilized, non-rotational pastures and uncultivated field borders. We show that after accounting for landscape complexity relationships between yield and bird richness or biological control became more positive, but relationships between bird richness and biological control became less positive. The relationship between bird and plant richness turned from positive to negative. Multidiversity (overall biodiversity), was positively related to landscape complexity, whereas multifunctionality (overall ES provision), was not significantly related to either one of these. Our results suggest that multidiversity can be promoted by increasing landscape complexity; however; we found no support for a simultaneous increase of several individual ES, BD components or multifunctionality. These results challenge the assumption that bio-diversity-friendly landscape management will always simultaneously promote multiple ES in agricultural landscapes. Future studies need to verify this pattern by using multi-year data, larger sets of ES and BD components and a study design that is appropriate to address larger spatial scales and relationships in several regions.

  • 4.
    Carlén, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. AquaBiota Water Research, Sweden.
    Thomas, Len
    Carlström, Julia
    Amundin, Mats
    Teilmann, Jonas
    Tregenza, Nick
    Tougaard, Jakob
    Koblitz, Jens C.
    Sveegaard, Signe
    Wennerberg, Daniel
    Loisa, Olli
    Daehne, Michael
    Brundiers, Katharina
    Kosecka, Monika
    Kyhn, Line Anker
    Ljungqvist, Cinthia Tiberi
    Pawliczka, Iwona
    Koza, Radomil
    Arciszewski, Bartlomiej
    Galatius, Anders
    Jabbusch, Martin
    Laaksonlaita, Jussi
    Niemi, Jussi
    Lyytinen, Sami
    Gallus, Anja
    Benke, Harald
    Blankett, Penina
    Skora, Krzysztof E.
    Acevedo-Gutierrez, Alejandro
    Basin-scale distribution of harbour porpoises in the Baltic Sea provides basis for effective conservation actions2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 226, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on spatial and seasonal distribution of species is crucial when designing protected areas and implementing management actions. The Baltic Proper harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) population is critically endangered, and its distribution is virtually unknown. Here, we used passive acoustic monitoring and species distribution models to describe the spatial and seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises in the Baltic Proper. Porpoise click detectors were deployed over a systematic grid of 297 stations in eight countries from April 2011 through July 2013. Generalized additive models were used to describe the monthly probability of detecting porpoise clicks as a function of spatially-referenced covariates and time. During the reproductive season, two main areas of high probability of porpoise detection were identified. One of those areas, situated on and around the offshore banks in the Baltic Proper, is clearly separated from the known distribution range of the Belt Sea population during breeding season, suggesting this is an important breeding ground for the Baltic Proper population. We commend the designation of this area as a marine protected area and recommend Baltic Sea countries to also protect areas in the southern Baltic Sea and the Hand Bight where additional important harbour porpoise habitats were identified. Further conservation measures should be carried out based on analyses of overlap between harbour porpoise distribution and potentially harmful anthropogenic activities. Our study shows that large-scale systematic monitoring using novel techniques can give important insights on the distribution of low-density populations, and that international cooperation is pivotal when studying transnationally migratory species.

  • 5.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Landscape history and soil properties affect grassland decline and plant species richness in rural landscapes.2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, no 142, p. 2752-2758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past semi-natural grassland extent is thought to have a major influence on contemporary species richness in rural landscapes. The loss of grasslands over the last 300 years was reconstructed for 12 rural landscapes in Sweden, ranging from open modern agricultural landscapes to more forested landscapes. Old maps and aerial photographs from 1950s and today were used to reconstruct landscape patterns in four time-steps to investigate how present plant species richness relates to past grassland extent and decline in old and new grassland habitats. The relative importance of soil properties on the timing of grassland decline was assessed. Plant species occurrence was recorded in managed and abandoned grassland habitats in each landscape. Past and present grassland distribution was a major factor in determining plant species patterns found in grasslands today. All landscapes had an average of 80% grassland 300 years ago. Since then grassland has declined by 90% across all landscapes. Proportion of clay soils influenced the timing of grassland decline, where grasslands in landscapes dominated by clay soils were conversed to crop-fields more than 100 years ago. Grasslands on coarser soils declined later, primarily to forest. Landscapes with more than 10% semi-natural grassland left today had 50% higher species richness in all  rasslands, including both abandoned and new grassland. Time since major grassland decline also seems to have an effect on the landscapes’ species richness. The results show that plant species patterns in grasslands at local scales are determined by broader landscape processes which may have occurred many centuries ago.

  • 6.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Vanhoenacker, Didrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Detection of extinction debt depends on scale and specialisation2011In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 782-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many plants can persist in landscapes for a long time after focal habitats have disappeared or become fragmented, which might contribute to an extinction debt. Delayed responses of plant occurrence have recently received great attention, particularly in conservation, although evidence for extinction debts is incongruent. Here we asked if we could detect an extinction debt for plant species after 100 years of fragmentation, depending on regional or local (gamma or alpha respectively) diversity measure used, and if all plant species or only habitat specialists were investigated. Historical and contemporary grassland patterns were analysed in 33 rural landscapes (each 1 km(2) in diameter) in south-eastern Sweden. Results show that managed semi-natural grassland had declined from 39% to 3% in 100 years. Diversity measured at regional scale was best explained by grassland extent 100 years ago, for both all species and grassland specialists. Present-day management, but neither present nor past grassland extent, was important for grassland specialists' occurrence at the local scale, although present-day grassland proportion had a positive influence on species richness at the local scale. We found evidence of an extinction debt at both local and regional scale when all species were included in the analysis, but not for grassland specialist species at the local scale. However, the extinction debt is still to be settled for grassland specialists at the regional scale, and therefore the estimation of extinction debts in fragmented habitats presents one of the greatest challenges for conservation today and in the future.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Bolmgren, Kjell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westin, Anna
    Lennartsson, Tommy
    Historic hay cutting dates from Sweden 1873-1951 and their implications for conservation management of species-rich meadows2015In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 184, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-natural hay meadows are species rich habitats, formed by a long history of management and they have experienced a drastic decline all over Europe. There is a vast literature on conservation and species diversity of semi-natural hay-meadows, but very limited information on historic timing of hay cutting. We analyzed data collected between 1873 and 1951 on hay cutting dates and phenology of six plant species from farms distributed across Sweden. The data set comprised 16,015 observations from 175 sites. Results show that date of start and end of hay cutting varied across Sweden. The start of hay cutting was generally delayed by 2.2 days per latitudinal degree and 1.5 days per 100 m altitude, while the end of hay cutting was generally delayed by 2.9 days per latitudinal degree and 2.5 days per 100 m altitude. The average hay cutting period was 18.5 +/- 6.6 days, and became slightly shorter northwards. Site-specific factors had a great impact on when hay cutting was performed, as indicated by a significant correlation between flowering (and leafing) phenology in other species and start date of hay cutting. Today, management for conservation is usually related to a calendar date (e.g. regulated in eligibility criteria and requirements for payment in agri-environment programs in EU). In order to mimic historic management that formed this habitat, management should instead account for latitude and altitude, between-year variation in timing of hay cutting, variation in both start and end dates of hay cutting and if possible local phenological conditions.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Dalerum, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. University of Oviedo, Spain; University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Identifying potential areas for an expanding wolf population in Sweden2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 220, p. 170-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large carnivores have historically been decreasing worldwide, often as a result of human-carnivore conflicts. However, large carnivores are recovering throughout Europe, and European management scenarios can provide important insights into broad issues related to human-large carnivore existence. After becoming almost extinct in Sweden during the mid-19th century the Swedish grey wolf (Canis lupus) population has now recovered. Current national wolf management aims to promote distribution shifts from the current areas in central Sweden, potentially also into a previously exempt reindeer husbandry area. Prior wolf re-introductions have highlighted the necessity of pro-active management for colonization success. Identification of likely range expansion areas could therefore be paramount for a successful Swedish wolf management. We characterized the demographic and spatial progression of Swedish wolves during 2001-2015 and used a MaxEnt approach to species distribution models to identify potential range expansion areas. The Swedish wolf population had expanded from 10 to almost 60 reproductions or territorial pairs, and increased in both range size and density. Our distribution models suggested that Swedish wolf management may face trade-offs between costs of hosting wolves in densely populated areas in southern Sweden with cattle and sheep and the costs of allowing wolves to expand into reindeer husbandry areas with associated cultural and economic consequences. Spatially explicit data on the economic, social and cultural factors associated with wolf conflict and acceptance may be paramount for developing optimal management strategies in the face of such a trade-off.

  • 9.
    Geijer, Christina K. A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. University College London.
    Read, Andrew J.
    Mitigation of marine mammal bycatch in US fisheries since 19942013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 159, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bycatch in fishing gear is one of the most pressing conservation issues facing marine mammals today. In the United States a formal regime to address bycatch of marine mammals was adopted in 1994 as Amendments to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This regime provides quantitative conservation goals and a transparent reporting system, allowing for a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of bycatch mitigation within U.S. waters. In the present analysis, we compile bycatch estimates for each stock of U.S. marine mammals since 1994 to determine whether mitigation efforts under the Amendments have been successful in reducing bycatch. Bycatch trends were analysed on a national level, and for two regional case studies; harbor porpoises in the Gulf of Maine and common dolphins along the U.S. Pacific coast. The estimated annual marine mammal bycatch was 4356 (SE 424) and bycatch levels declined since the MMPA was amended. Harbor porpoise bycatch in the Gulf of Maine was, however, correlated with landings of cod, suggesting that effort controls in the fishery, rather than porpoise conservation measures, were responsible for initial bycatch reduction. Bycatch mitigation efforts were more successful in the Pacific, where higher levels of compliance with mitigation measures are known to occur. We conclude that the 1994 Amendments have in general been successful, but that implementation has not always translated into conservation success, as illustrated by the harbor porpoise case study. Further studies are required to determine factors that promote compliance and mitigation success within the MMPA framework.

  • 10. Hammond, Philip S.
    et al.
    Macleod, Kelly
    Berggren, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Borchers, David L.
    Burt, Louise
    Canadas, Ana
    Desportes, Genevieve
    Donovan, Greg P.
    Gilles, Anita
    Gillespie, Douglas
    Gordon, Jonathan
    Hiby, Lex
    Kuklik, Iwona
    Leaper, Russell
    Lehnert, Kristina
    Leopold, Mardik
    Lovell, Phil
    Oien, Nils
    Paxton, Charles G. M.
    Ridoux, Vincent
    Rogan, Emer
    Samarra, Filipa
    Scheidat, Meike
    Sequeira, Marina
    Siebert, Ursula
    Skov, Henrik
    Swift, Rene
    Tasker, Mark L.
    Teilmann, Jonas
    Van Canneyt, Olivier
    Vazquez, Jose Antonio
    Cetacean abundance and distribution in European Atlantic shelf waters to inform conservation and management2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 164, p. 107-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union (EU) Habitats Directive requires Member States to monitor and maintain at favourable conservation status those species identified to be in need of protection, including all cetaceans. In July 2005 we surveyed the entire EU Atlantic continental shelf to generate robust estimates of abundance for harbour porpoise and other cetacean species. The survey used line transect sampling methods and purpose built data collection equipment designed to minimise bias in estimates of abundance. Shipboard transects covered 19,725 km in sea conditions <= Beaufort 4 in an area of 1,005,743 km(2). Aerial transects covered 15,802 km in good/moderate conditions (<= Beaufort 3) in an area of 364,371 km(2). Thirteen cetacean species were recorded; abundance was estimated for harbour porpoise (375,358; CV = 0.197), bottlenose dolphin (16,485; CV = 0.422), white-beaked dolphin (16,536; CV = 0.303), short-beaked common dolphin (56,221; CV = 0.234) and minke whale (18,958; CV = 0.347). Abundance in 2005 was similar to that estimated in July 1994 for harbour porpoise, white-beaked dolphin and minke whale in a comparable area. However, model-based density surfaces showed a marked difference in harbour porpoise distribution between 1994 and 2005. Our results allow EU Member States to discharge their responsibilities under the Habitats Directive and inform other international organisations concerning the assessment of conservation status of cetaceans and the impact of bycatch at a large spatial scale. The lack of evidence for a change in harbour porpoise abundance in EU waters as a whole does not exclude the possibility of an impact of bycatch in some areas. Monitoring bycatch and estimation of abundance continue to be essential. (C) 2013 The Authors.

  • 11. Henden, J-A
    et al.
    Yoccoz, Nigel G
    Ims, Rolf A
    Bårdsen, B-J
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Phase-dependent effect of conservation efforts in cyclically fluctuating populations of Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, p. 2586-2592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predator populations with demographic cycles driven by multi-annual cycles of their key prey resourcecan be expected to be ‘‘cyclic phase sensitive” to management actions. We explored this by means ofmodelling in the case of the highly endangered Fennoscandian arctic fox population which is driven by4-year population cycles in small rodent prey. By using a model in which the management actionimproved arctic fox vital rate through increased resource availability, we show that arctic fox populationgrowth was most improved when management action was applied in the increase and decrease phase ofthe cycle. Except in the low phase of the cycle, the growth rate was more affected when the managementaction worked through improved reproduction than improved survival. There was a synergistic effect tobe gained by performing management action during multiple phases during a demographic cycle. Thuswe recommend that arctic fox conservation programs ought to be continuous in time, but with the highestintensities of management action in the phases of the cycle in which the target population is mostprone to respond.

  • 12. Hersteinsson, P.
    et al.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Frafjord, K.
    Kaikusalo, A.
    The Arctic Fox in Fennoscandia and Iceland - Management Problems1989In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 67-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arctic for Alopex lagopus was an important fur animal in Fennoscandia until the 1920s when numbers crashed, and in spite of total protection for over half a century has not recovered and is now regarded as vulnerable.

    In Iceland, on the other hand, the species is well established and can withstand heavy exploitation by man, being regarded as vermin and hunted at all seasons.

    In this paper we review the latest available information on the status of the arctic fox in the Nordic countries, both with regard to minimum sizes and fluctuations in population, and various factors which have been suggested as the cause of the non-recovery of the population in Fennoscandia. These include fewer available large mammal carcasses due to the near-disappearance of the wolf, increased competition with the red fox, increased predation by red foxes on arctic foxes, etc.

    The views that arctic foxes are an important predator on sheep in Iceland at present, and that foxhunting alone in its present form is capable of significantly reducing the population there, are challenged.

    At present there is insufficient information to make sound management programmes for the arctic fox populations in Fennoscandia and Iceland. Suggestions are made concerning those factors which need to be explored so that workable management programmes can be put into effect in the two regions.

  • 13.
    Jakobsson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Padron, Benigno
    Traveset, Anna
    Pollen transfer from invasive Carpobrotus spp. to natives: A study of pollinator behaviour and reproduction success2008In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 141, no 1, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of invasive plant species on native community composition is well-documented, but less is known about underlying mechanisms. Especially scarce is knowledge about effects on biotic interactions such as relationships between native plants and their pollinators. In this study we investigate if pollen transfer from the invasive and highly pollen productive Carpobrotus spp. affects seed production and/or seed quality in three native species. We monitored pollinator movements and pollen loads on pollinators and native stigmas, and in a field pollination experiment we investigated the effect of invasive pollen on reproduction. Invasive pollen adhered to pollinators, pollinators switched from Carpobrotus spp. to natives, invasive pollen was transferred to native stigmas, and it affected seed production in one species. Although all possible steps for interference with seed production were found to be qualitatively taken, invasive pollen has probably little impact on the native community because the frequency of invasive pollen transfer to natives was low. However, pollination interactions may change with plant abundance and our study provides evidence that pollen transfer from Carpobrotus spp. to natives does occur and have the potential to affect seed production. We found the species identity of shared pollinators to be of importance, higher flower constancy and lower capacity of pollen adherence are likely to result in less invasive pollen transfer. 

  • 14.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Governing nature by numbers - EU subsidy regulations do not capture the unique values of woody pastures2015In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 191, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vast majority of European farmers are dependent on EU subsidies, which makes subsidy regulations through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) powerful tools in shaping agricultural landscapes. Unfortunately, steering recommendations are sometimes arbitrary, like in the case of pasture management, where 50 trees per hectare constitute an upper limit to qualify for subsidies. Although pasture biodiversity is well studied and the core of many CAP conservation programmes, it is seldom studied as direct effects of subsidy systems. In this paper, we examine plant diversity in relation to the impact of subsidy systems in Swedish woody pastures along a gradient from 3 to 214 trees per hectare. We selected 64 sites where we recorded vascular plants, soil properties and canopy cover. We found a general increase in γ- and β-diversity along the gradient, whereas α-diversity and the number of grassland specialists remained indifferent along the gradient. Additionally, tree density, organic content and C:N-ratio were the strongest predictors of species composition. Hence, when CAP regulations encourage tree cutting for pastures to qualify for subsidies there is risk of homogenisation of EU grasslands, leading to decreased γ- and β-diversity. If a general target for the subsidies is to increase biodiversity, there is need to scrutinise these regulation details to preserve the high values of woody pastures. We argue that habitat variation, species diversity and low intensity management, rather than a specific number of trees, should be the main incentives for financial support to preserve biodiversity.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wikström, Carl-Johan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Time-lagged lichen extinction in retained buffer strips 16.5 years after clear-cutting2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 225, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tree retention on clear-cuts is a relatively new measure in forestry aimed at lifeboating' forest species during young seral periods. However, the effectiveness of tree retention for maintaining biodiversity for more than a few years is still poorly known. We investigated lichen persistence in retained buffer strips along small streams after clear-cutting of the surrounding forest, and compared with clear-cuts and un-cut references. Specifically, we compared richness and frequency of red-listed/signal species, calicioids and pendulous species before clear cutting with 2.5 years and 16.5 years after clear-cutting, and also analysed their colonization-extinction dynamics over time. The results show that the richness of red-listed/signal species and calicioids in buffer strips had declined significantly after 16.5 years, but not after 2.5 years, while frequency displayed a significant difference already after 2.5 years. The richness of pendulous lichens remained relatively stable over time, but the frequency had declined significantly after 16.5 years. In clear-cuts all groups declined more than in buffer-strips (-2-3.5 times more) and the main decline had occurred already after 2.5 years. References remained stable over time. The colonization-extinctions dynamics reflected the richness declines, with high early extinction in clear cuts and lower but late extinction in buffer-strips, and low (re)colonization. We conclude that retained buffer strips cannot maintain lichen richness over time due to time-lagged extinction, but they are clearly more effective than clear-cuts. Wider buffer strips could potentially reduce tree mortality and decrease lichen extinction. The large amounts of standing dead wood makes buffer strips potential future colonization targets.

  • 16.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Andersson, K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Function of small habitat elements for enhancing plant diversity in different agricultural landscapes2014In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 169, p. 206-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive transformation of agricultural landscapes worldwide has led to a decrease in grassland species related to traditional low-intensive farming. To properly manage and protect species, habitats and ecosystems in any of these landscapes requires a better understanding of direct and indirect effects of the processes driving biodiversity decline. In this study, we investigated how small habitat elements, represented by mid-field islets and road verges, in different types of agricultural landscapes can sustain a regional species pool for plant diversity otherwise associated to semi-natural grasslands. Although semi-natural grasslands had higher total and specialist richness, we found that small habitat elements harboured relatively high plant species richness, especially in a landscape with many semi-natural grasslands left. In the most intensively managed landscape, total richness declined as distance to the nearest semi-natural grassland increased. In contrast, beta-diversity was highest in these landscapes indicating that small habitats are also negatively affected by distance to grassland. We found that species trait composition varied depending on habitat and landscape. The results confirm that fragmentation shape trait composition within plant communities, e.g. plant size, clonality, longevity, and dispersal traits. We conclude that small habitat elements increase the total area available to grassland species present in the landscape, boosting the spatio-temporal dynamics of grassland communities. Small habitat elements may hence function as refugia or stepping stone habitats, especially in intensively utilized agricultural landscapes, and should be regarded as a functional part of a semi-natural grassland network, analogous to a meta-population.

  • 17. Penteriani, Vincenzo
    et al.
    López-Bao, José Vicente
    Bettega, Chiara
    Dalerum, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Oviedo University, Spain; University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    del Mar Delgado, María
    Jerina, Klemen
    Kojola, Ilpo
    Krofel, Miha
    Ordiz, Andrés
    Consequences of brown bear viewing tourism: A review2017In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 206, p. 169-180Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries promote wildlife observation as part of ecotourism offerings. The brown bear Ursus arctos is among the most targeted species for ecotourism in Notth America and Europe, making it an ideal candidate to examine the consequences of wildlife viewing upon the species. As bear viewing often occurs in sensitive places where bears congregate for mating, rearing young and/or feeding, it is important to evaluate potential positive and negative effects of different viewing practices. Here we reviewed available information on bear viewing practices and their effects on bears, people and ecosystems. Behavioural, physiological and ecological aspects related to bears are reviewed from three different perspectives: ecotourism consequences for bears, direct bear-human interactions and social impacts of bear ecotourism. Because bear viewing can have positive and negative impacts on both bear populations and bear-human interactions, it is important to carefully evaluate every practice associated with bear viewing at a local scale. Because bear populations around the world have diverse population statuses and different management regimes, successful procedures and rules effective in one place do not guarantee that they will be adequate elsewhere. Effective management of bear viewing practices requires a better understanding of the consequences for bears, the mechanisms behind observed bear reactions to humans, and the results of bear habituation. Because inappropriate beat viewing practices can lead to processes such as food conditioning and habituation, which can have serious consequences for both people and bears, regulations on bear ecotourism are urgently needed to minimize unintended consequences of bear viewing practices.

  • 18.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Temporal dispersal in fragmented landscapes2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 160, p. 250-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a good understanding on how dispersal in space structures plant communities in fragmented landscapes, we know little about dispersal in time. Empirical evidence on temporal dispersal - the soil seed bank - is lacking, with only trait-based evidence on the seed banks' importance for species persistence in fragmented landscapes. Therefore, seed banks of remnant grassland fragments were analyzed in how they changed compared to semi-natural grasslands following fragmentation. We studied the historical trajectories in time since fragmentation, fragment size and habitat quality of 134 grassland plots, linking these to their seed bank and plant community to understand how seed banks temporally connect grassland fragments, potentially conserving the flora of historically large semi-natural grasslands. Seed-banking grassland species were present in similar proportions in all remnant grassland fragments. The seed bank composition changed with time since fragmentation started, triggered by the deterministic loss of grassland species, generating nested subsets of the seed banks of semi-natural grasslands. The spatial heterogeneity in seed bank composition among grassland fragments limited the loss of grassland species at the landscape scale. The seed bank became an increasingly important constituent of total plant diversity with time since fragmentation started, as grassland species stored an increasingly larger proportion of their local diversity in the seed bank. Temporal dispersal enables the prolonged presence and persistence of numerous typical grassland species in fragmented landscapes. The seed banks' storage effect of plant diversity is of considerable significance to efforts aimed at conserving and restoring plant diversity in fragmented landscapes.

  • 19. Rodrigues, Patrícia
    et al.
    Shumi, Girma
    Dorresteijn, Ine
    Schultner, Jannik
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Senbeta, Feyera
    Fischer, Joern
    Coffee management and the conservation of forest bird diversity in southwestern Ethiopia2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 217, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moist evergreen forests of southwestern Ethiopia host high levels of biodiversity and have a high economic value due to coffee production. Coffee is a native shrub that is harvested under different management systems; its production can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for biodiversity. We investigated how bird community composition and richness, and abundance of different bird groups responded to different intensities of coffee management and the landscape context. We surveyed birds at 66 points in forest habitat with different intensities of coffee management and at different distances from the forest edge. We explored community composition using detrended correspondence analysis in combination with canonical correspondence analysis and indicator species analysis, and used generalized linear mixed models to investigate the responses of different bird groups to coffee management and landscape context. Our results show that (1) despite considerable bird diversity including some endemics, species turnover in the forest was relatively low; (2) total richness and abundance of birds were not affected by management or landscape context; but (3) the richness of forest and dietary specialists increased with higher forest naturalness, and with increasing distance from the edge and amount of forest cover. These findings show that traditional shade coffee management practices can maintain a diverse suite of forest birds. To conserve forest specialists, retaining undisturbed, remote forest is particularly important, but structurally diverse locations near the forest edge can also harbour a high diversity of specialists.

  • 20. Shumi, Girma
    et al.
    Rodrigues, Patricia
    Schultner, Jannik
    Dorresteijn, Ine
    Hanspach, Jan
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Senbeta, Feyera
    Fischer, Joern
    Conservation value of moist evergreen Afromontane forest sites with different management and history in southwestern Ethiopia2019In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 232, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical forest ecosystems harbor high biodiversity, but they have suffered from ongoing human-induced degradation. We investigated the conservation value of moist evergreen Afromontane forest sites across gradients of site-level disturbance, landscape context and forest history in southwestern Ethiopia. We surveyed woody plants at 108 randomly selected sites and grouped them into forest specialist, pioneer, and generalist species. First, we investigated if coffee dominance, current distance from the forest edge, forest history, heat load and altitude structured the variation in species composition using constrained correspondence analysis. Second, we modelled species richness in response to the same explanatory variables. Our findings show that woody plant community composition was significantly structured by altitude, forest history, coffee dominance and current distance from forest edge. Specifically, (1) total species richness and forest specialist species richness were affected by coffee management intensity; (2) forest specialist species richness increased, while pioneer species decreased with increasing distance from the forest edge; and (3) forest specialist species richness was lower in secondary forest compared to in primary forest. These findings show that coffee management intensity, landscape context and forest history in combination influence local and landscape level biodiversity. We suggest conservation strategies that foster the maintenance of large undisturbed forest sites and that prioritize local species in managed and regenerating forests. Creation of a biosphere reserve and shade coffee certification could be useful to benefit both effective conservation and people's livelihoods.

  • 21.
    Ström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Different long-term and short-term responses of land snails to clear-cutting of boreal stream-side forests2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, p. 1580-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Waldén, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Öckinger, Erik
    Winsa, Marie
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Effects of landscape composition, species pool and time on grassland specialists in restored semi-natural grasslands2017In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 214, p. 176-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat restoration is an important complement to protecting habitat for the conservation of biodiversity. Semi-natural grasslands are target habitats for ecological restoration in temperate Europe. Restoration of abandoned semi-natural grasslands often relies on spontaneous colonisation of plant species from the soil seed bank or the surrounding landscape. Although many studies show that the regional species pool is important for upholding local diversity, its effect on restoration outcome in semi-natural grasslands is poorly known. In this multi landscape study, we examined grassland specialist species occurring in restored grasslands and the effect of specialist species pool, landscape composition and local temporal factors. We found that specialist richness and frequency was positively affected by specialist richness and frequency in the surrounding landscape. Specialist richness in the restored grasslands also increased with time since restoration. Moreover, specialist frequency in the restored grassland increased with the proportion of semi-natural and remnant grassland habitats in the landscape. We also found a positive relationship between the proportion of species occurring in both the restored grassland and its surrounding landscape and time since restoration, in landscapes with high proportions of semi natural grasslands. This suggests that both temporal factors, as well as the landscape composition and species pool, affect plant recolonisation in restored semi-natural grasslands.

  • 23.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cairns, Rose
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    What constitutes a successful biodiversity corridor?: A Q-study in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa2016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 198, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Success’ is a vigorously debated concept in conservation. There is a drive to develop quantitative, comparable metrics of success to improve conservation interventions. Yet the qualitative, normative choices inherent in decisions about what to measure — emerging from fundamental philosophical commitments about what conservation is and should be — have received scant attention. We address this gap by exploring perceptions of what constitutes a successful biodiversity corridor in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa, an area of global biodiversity significance. Biodiversity corridors are particularly illustrative because, as interventions intended to extend conservation practices from protected areas across broader landscapes, they represent prisms in which ideas of conservation success are contested and transformed. We use Q method to elicit framings of success among 20 conservation scientists, practitioners and community representatives, and find three statistically significant framings of successful corridors: ‘a last line of defence for biodiversity under threat,’ ‘a creative process to develop integrative, inclusive visions of biodiversity and human wellbeing,’ and ‘a stimulus for place-based cultural identity and economic development.’ Our results demonstrate that distinct understandings of what a corridor is — a planning tool, a process of governing, a territorialized place — produce divergent framings of ‘successful’ corridors that embody diverse, inherently contestable visions of conservation. These framings emerge from global conservation discourses and distinctly local ecologies, politics, cultures and histories. We conclude that visions of conservation success will be inherently plural, and that in inevitably contested and diverse social contexts success on any terms rests upon recognition of and negotiation with alternative visions.

  • 24.
    Wood, Heather
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    European Union tree density limits do not reflect bat diversity in wood-pastures2017In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 210, p. 60-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) recommends subsidies are only granted for wood-pastures with < 100 trees/ha. This guidance exists despite these habitats being among the most biodiverse in boreal Europe and currently under threat due to land conversion. Bats are important bio-indicators of agricultural landscapes, but bat diversity has not explicitly been studied in relation to this policy. We investigate how bat activity, foraging, species richness and functional groups are affected in twenty-six wood-pastures along a gradient of tree density, from open to dense. In parallel, open fields and deciduous forests were sampled and the effect of the surrounding landscape configuration was explored. Our results show a consistent increase in total bat activity, foraging activity and species richness within wood-pastures along the tree density gradient. We find optimal tree densities within wood-pastures are higher than values reported in previous studies, and suggest thresholds might depend on the landscape context. Shrub density was a strong predictor of total bat activity and foraging; whilst structural variation of tree size in wood-pastures was most strongly correlated with species richness. We show that wood-pastures are an important habitat and in comparison to forests they contribute to higher bat species richness and activity levels. Interestingly, higher activity levels of forest feeding specialists were observed in wood-pastures compared to forests. At the landscape level, amount of water in the landscape was the strongest predictor of bat activity whilst deciduous forest mostly influenced foraging activity. This study demonstrates that tree density within wood-pastures is not a limiting factor of bat activity and foraging and that other habitat and landscape parameters are important. Thereby focusing solely on tree density limits will not help to promote the ecological requirements for bats. Instead we suggest that a results based approach to CAP payments would be preferable.

  • 25. Zydelis, R.
    et al.
    Österblom, H.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bycatch in gillnet fisheries: — An overlooked threat to waterbird populations2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, no 7, p. 1269-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 25 of 25
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