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  • 1.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Golz, Anna-lea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Conservation Success as a Function of Good Alignment of Social and Ecological Structures and Processes2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1371-1379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to create and adjust governing institutions so that they align (fit) with complex ecosystem processes and structures across scales is an issue of increasing concern in conservation. It is argued that lack of such social-ecological fit makes governance and conservation difficult, yet progress in explicitly defining and rigorously testing what constitutes a good fit has been limited. We used a novel modeling approach and data from case studies of fishery and forest conservation to empirically test presumed relationships between conservation outcomes and certain patterns of alignment of social-ecological interdependences. Our approach made it possible to analyze conservation outcome on a systems level while also providing information on how individual actors are positioned in the complex web of social-ecological interdependencies. We found that when actors who shared resources were also socially linked, conservation at the level of the whole social-ecological system was positively affected. When the scales at which individual actors used resources and the scale at which ecological resources were interconnected to other ecological resources were aligned through tightened feedback loops, conservation outcome was better than when they were not aligned. The analysis of individual actors' positions in the web of social-ecological interdependencies was helpful in understanding why a system has a certain level of social-ecological fit. Results of analysis of positions showed that different actors contributed in very different ways to achieve a certain fit and revealed some underlying difference between the actors, for example in terms of actors' varying rights to access and use different ecological resources.

  • 2. Chaigneau, Tomas
    et al.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Brown, Katrina
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Incorporating basic needs to reconcile poverty and ecosystem services2019In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 655-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation managers frequently face the challenge of protecting and sustaining biodiversity without producing detrimental outcomes for (often poor) human populations that depend on ecosystem services for their well-being. However, mutually beneficial solutions are often elusive and can mask trade-offs and negative outcomes for people. To deal with such trade-offs, ecological and social thresholds need to be identified to determine the acceptable solution space for conservation. Although human well-being as a concept has recently gained prominence, conservationists still lack tools to evaluate how their actions affect it in a given context. We applied the theory of human needs to conservation by building on an extensive historical application of need approaches in international development. In an innovative participatory method that included focus groups and household surveys, we evaluated how human needs are met based on locally relevant thresholds. We then established connections between human needs and ecosystem services through key-informant focus groups. We applied our method in coastal East Africa to identify households that would not be able to meet their basic needs and to uncover the role of ecosystem services in meeting these. This enabled us to identify how benefits derived from the environment were contributing to meeting basic needs and to consider potential repercussions that could arise through changes to ecosystem service provision. We suggest our approach can help conservationists and planners balance poverty alleviation and biodiversity protection and ensure conservation measures do not, at the very least, cause serious harm to individuals. We further argue it can be used as a basis for monitoring the impacts of conservation on multidimensional poverty.

  • 3. Crone, Elizabeth E.
    et al.
    Ellis, Martha M.
    Morris, William F.
    Stanley, Amanda
    Bell, Timothy
    Bierzychudek, Paulette
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Kaye, Thomas N.
    Knight, Tiffany M.
    Lesica, Peter
    Oostermeijer, Gerard
    Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.
    Ticktin, Tamara
    Valverde, Teresa
    Williams, Jennifer L.
    Doak, Daniel F.
    Ganesan, Rengaian
    Mceachern, Kathyrn
    Thorpe, Andrea S.
    Menges, Eric S.
    Ability of Matrix Models to Explain the Past and Predict the Future of Plant Populations2013In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 968-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty associated with ecological forecasts has long been recognized, but forecast accuracy is rarely quantified. We evaluated how well data on 82 populations of 20 species of plants spanning 3 continents explained and predicted plant population dynamics. We parameterized stage-based matrix models with demographic data from individually marked plants and determined how well these models forecast population sizes observed at least 5 years into the future. Simple demographic models forecasted population dynamics poorly; only 40% of observed population sizes fell within our forecasts' 95% confidence limits. However, these models explained population dynamics during the years in which data were collected; observed changes in population size during the data-collection period were strongly positively correlated with population growth rate. Thus, these models are at least a sound way to quantify population status. Poor forecasts were not associated with the number of individual plants or years of data. We tested whether vital rates were density dependent and found both positive and negative density dependence. However, density dependence was not associated with forecast error. Forecast error was significantly associated with environmental differences between the data collection and forecast periods. To forecast population fates, more detailed models, such as those that project how environments are likely to change and how these changes will affect population dynamics, may be needed. Such detailed models are not always feasible. Thus, it may be wiser to make risk-averse decisions than to expect precise forecasts from models. Habilidad de los Modelos Matriciales para Explicar el Pasado y Predecir el Futuro de las Poblaciones de Plantas Resumen La incertidumbre asociada con el pronostico ecologico ha sido reconocida durante un largo tiempo pero rara vez se cuantifica su seguridad. Evaluamos que tan bien la informacion de 82 poblaciones de 20 especies de plantas a lo largo de 3 continentes explica y predice la dinamica de poblacion de las plantas. Realizamos parametros con modelos matriciales con base en estadios con datos demograficos a partir de plantas marcadas individualmente y determinamos que tan bien estos modelos pronostican el tamano de las poblaciones al menos 5 anos en el futuro. Los modelos demograficos simples pronosticaron pobremente las dinamicas de poblacion; solamente el 40% de las poblaciones observadas cayo dentro de los limites de confianza de 85% de nuestros pronosticos. Estos modelos sin embargo explicaron la dinamica de poblacion a lo largo de los anos en los que se colectaron datos; los cambios observados en el tamano de la poblacion durante el periodo de colecta de datos estuvieron positivamente correlacionados con la tasa de crecimiento de la poblacion. Asi, estos modelos son por lo menos una manera segura de cuantificar el estado de la poblacion. Los pronosticos debiles no estuvieron asociados con el numero de plantas individuales o con los anos de datos. Probamos si las tasas vitales dependian de la densidad y encontramos que existe dependencia hacia la densidad tanto positiva como negativa, sin embargo la dependencia de densidad no se asocio con el error de pronostico. El error de pronostico estuvo significativamente asociado con diferencias ambientales entre la recoleccion de datos y los periodos de pronostico. Para predecir el destino de las poblaciones se necesitan modelos mas detallados, como aquellos que proyectan los cambios probables en el ambiente y como estos cambios afectaran a la dinamica de las poblaciones. Tales modelos tan detallados no siempre son factibles. Por ello puede ser mejor tomar decisiones aversas a riesgos que esperar pronosticos precisos de los modelos.

  • 4. De Groot, Rudolf S.
    et al.
    Blignaut, James
    van der Ploeg, Sander
    Aronson, James
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Farley, Joshua
    Benefits of Investing in Ecosystem Restoration2013In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1286-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments.

  • 5. Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Association of Coloration Mode with Population Declines and Endangerment in Australian Frogs2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, p. 1535-1543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful protection of biodiversity requires increased understanding of the ecological characteristics that predispose some species to endangerment. Theory posits that species with polymorphic or variable coloration should have larger distributions, use more diverse resources, and be less vulnerable to population declines and extinctions, compared with taxa that do not vary in color. We used information from literature on 194 species of Australian frogs to search for associations of coloration mode with ecological variables. In general, species with variable or polymorphic color patterns had larger ranges, used more habitats, were less prone to have a negative population trend, and were estimated as less vulnerable to extinction compared with nonvariable species. An association of variable coloration with lower endangerment was also evident when we controlled statistically for the effects of range size. Nonvariable coloration was not a strong predictor of endangerment, and information on several characteristics is needed to reliably identify and protect species that are prone to decline and may become threatened by extinction in the near future. Analyses based on phylogenetic-independent contrasts did not support the hypothesis that evolutionary transitions between nonvariable and variable or polymorphic coloration have been accompanied by changes in the ecological variables we examined. Irrefutable demonstration of a role of color pattern variation in amphibian decline and in the dynamics and persistence of populations in general will require a manipulative experimental approach.

  • 6. Guerrero, A. M.
    et al.
    Barnes, M.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Chadès, I
    Davis, K. J.
    Iftekhar, M. S.
    Morgans, C.
    Wilson, K. A.
    Key considerations and challenges in the application of social-network research for environmental decision making2020In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attempts to better understand the social context in which conservation and environmental decisions are made has led to increased interest in human social networks. To improve the use of social-network analysis in conservation, we reviewed recent studies in the literature in which such methods were applied. In our review, we looked for problems in research design and analysis that limit the utility of network analysis. Nineteen of 55 articles published from January 2016 to June 2019 exhibited at least 1 of the following problems: application of analytical methods inadequate or sensitive to incomplete network data; application of statistical approaches that ignore dependency in the network; or lack of connection between the theoretical base, research question, and choice of analytical techniques. By drawing attention to these specific areas of concern and highlighting research frontiers and challenges, including causality, network dynamics, and new approaches, we responded to calls for increasing the rigorous application of social science in conservation.

  • 7.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Nemomissa, Sileshi
    Addis Ababa University.
    Complementary roles of home gardens and exotic tree plantations as alternative habitats for Ethiopian montane rainforest plant biodiversity2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, p. 400-409Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Nemomissa, Sileshi
    Delrue, Josefien
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Enkosa, Woldeyohannes
    Effects of Coffee Management on Deforestation Rates and Forest Integrity2013In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1031-1040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation risks than forests with coffee production and that forests with coffee production often have lower biodiversity value. Efectos de la Administracion Cafetalera sobre las Tasas de Deforestacion y la Integridad de los Bosques Resumen El conocimiento sobre como se utilizan los margenes de los bosques puede ser crucial para el entendimiento general de los cambios en la cubierta boscosa, la estructura de los bosques y la biodiversidad en el paisaje. Estudiamos transiciones bosque-agricultura en el suroeste de Etiopia y partimos de la hipotesis de que la presencia del cafe (Coffea arabica) disminuye las tasas de deforestacion por la importancia del cafe para las economias locales y su ocurrencia extensa en los bosques y los margenes de estos. Usando imagenes de satelite e informacion de elevacion, comparamos los cambios en la cubierta boscosa a traves de 37 anos (1973-2010) a lo largo de elevaciones en 2 paisajes mosaico de bosque y sembradios (1100 km(2) alrededor de Bonga y 3000 km(2) en Goma-Gera). En el campo en el area de Bonga determinamos la cobertura de cafe y la estructura del bosque en 40 margenes de bosque que difirieron en el tiempo desde la deforestacion. Tanto la tasa absoluta como la relativa de deforestacion fueron mas bajas en las elevaciones donde se cultiva cafe comparadas con las de elevaciones mas altas (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparando tasas relativas en 1800 msnm y 2300-2500 msnm, respectivamente). Dentro de la elevacion donde se cultiva cafe, la proporcion de sitios con una alta cobertura de cafe (>20%) fue significativamente mas alta en los margenes estables (42% de los sitios que habian estado en la misma localidad durante el periodo entero) que en los margenes con cambios recientes (0% de los sitios donde la expansion anual de cultivos habian alterado el margen). El nivel de perturbacion y de estructura del bosque no difirio entre los sitios con 30% o 3% de cafe. Sin embargo, un creciente cuerpo de literatura sobre los gradientes de administracion del cafe en Etiopia reportan los efectos negativos del cafe sobre la abundancia de especies especialistas de bosques. Aunque sea cierto que la presencia de cafe disminuye la conversion de bosque a sembradios de cosecha anual, existe el riesgo de que la intensificacion de la administracion de cafe todavia amenace la biodiversidad del bosque, incluyendo la diversidad genetica del cafe silvestre. La politica de conservacion para los bosques etiopes entonces debe desarrollar estrategias que reconozcan que los bosques sin produccion cafetalera pueden tener riesgos mayores de deforestacion que los bosques con produccion cafetalera y que los bosques con produccion cafetalera seguido tienen un valor bajo de biodiversidad.

  • 9.
    Kolm, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Zooekologi.
    Wild Populations of a Reef Fish Suffer from the “Nondestructive” Aquarium Trade Fishery2003In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 910-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The commercial fishery for coral reef fish for the aquarium trade has begun to change, at least in some parts of the world, from destructive methods such as cyanide and dynamite fishing to less-destructive methods such as hand-net fishing. However, data on the effects on wild populations of such relatively nondestructive methods is nonexistent. The Banggai cardinalfish (   Pterapogon kauderni ) is a paternal mouthbrooder living in groups of 2–200 individuals in the proximity of sea urchins (   Diadema setosum ). This fish has limited dispersal abilities because it lacks a pelagic larval phase, and it is believed to be endemic to the Banggai archipelago off the east coast of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Since its rediscovery in 1995, the Banggai cardinalfish has become a popular aquarium fish, and thousands have been exported—mainly to North America, Japan, and Europe. To study the effects of the aquarium trade fishery on wild populations of the Banggai cardinalfish, we performed a field study in which we quantified density, age distribution ( quantified as the ratio of numbers of juveniles to adults ) and habitat quality ( i.e., sea urchin density ) at eight sites in the Banggai archipelago. Through interviews with local fishers, we estimated the fishing pressure at each site and related this to data on fish density. We found a marginally significant negative effect of fishing pressure on density of fish and significant negative effects on group size in both sea urchins and fish. We did not find any effect of fishing on fish size structure. To our knowledge this is the first study to compare sites under different amounts of fishing pressure that has demonstrated the negative effects of the aquarium trade on wild populations of reef fish, despite the widespread use of relatively nondestructive fishing methods.

  • 10.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Jansson, Mija
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Allendorf, Fred W.
    Jakobsson, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Ethology.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Population Genetics.
    Hunting Effects on Favourable Conservation Status of Highly Inbred Swedish Wolves2013In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 248-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is classified as endangered in Sweden by the Swedish Species Information Centre, which is the official authority for threat classification. The present population, which was founded in the early 1980s, descends from 5 individuals. It is isolated and highly inbred, and on average individuals are more related than siblings. Hunts have been used by Swedish authorities during 2010 and 2011 to reduce the population size to its upper tolerable level of 210 wolves. European Union (EU) biodiversity legislation requires all member states to promote a concept called “favourable conservation status” (FCS) for a series of species including the wolf. Swedish national policy stipulates maintenance of viable populations with sufficient levels of genetic variation of all naturally occurring species. Hunting to reduce wolf numbers in Sweden is currently not in line with national and EU policy agreements and will make genetically based FCS criteria less achievable for this species. We suggest that to reach FCS for the wolf in Sweden the following criteria need to be met: (1) a well-connected, large, subdivided wolf population over Scandinavia, Finland, and the Russian Karelia-Kola region should be reestablished, (2) genetically effective size (Ne) of this population is in the minimum range of Ne = 500–1000, (3) Sweden harbors a part of this total population that substantially contributes to the total Ne and that is large enough to not be classified as threatened genetically or according to IUCN criteria, and (4) average inbreeding levels in the Swedish population are <0.1.

  • 11.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Ihse, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Marissink, Mark
    Dock Gustavsson, Ann-Marie
    Ebenhard, Torbjörn
    Hagberg, Lovisa
    Stål, Pär-Olof
    von Walter, Susanne
    Wramner, Per
    Wanted: Scientists in the CBD process2008In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 814-815Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Laikre, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Nilsson, T
    Länsstyrelsen Värmland.
    Primmer, CR
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Ryman, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Allendorf, FW
    University of Montana, USA.
    Importance of Genetics in the Interpretation of Favourable Conservation Status2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, p. 1378-1381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Favourable Conservation Status” (FCS) is a central concept in the biodiversity conservation legislation of the European Union (EU). Here, we highlight the importance of incorporating aspects of conservation genetics in interpretation of this concept. Recent documents from the EU Commission indicate that knowledge of conservation genetics has so far been lacking among those who have tried to employ the concept. We think it is crucial that aspects of conservation genetics be incorporated in discussion of this concept and that this be done before the EU Court of Justice takes a position on the legal interpretation of FCS.

  • 13.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Evaluating the extinction risk of a perennial herb: demographic data versus historical records2002In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic information is frequently used to project the long-term extinction risk of endangered species, but the limitations of this approach have not been extensively discussed. We examined demographic data for the endangered perennial herb Primula farinosa with matrix models to assess population growth rates and extinction risks. The data came from six populations in contrasting habitats followed over a 4-year period. The results of these demographic models were compared to the results of experimental manipulations and to the actual change in occurrence of P. farinosa over a 70-year period in different habitat types. According to demographic models, all managed populations had a projected negative population growth rate and experienced a high extinction risk in 100 years, whereas unmanaged populations had increasing population sizes. In contrast, experiments and historical records suggested that continuous grazing is positively correlated with population persistence. Our results thus show that demographic studies done during a transient phase of population growth after management cessation may not capture the long-term changes. In such cases, projections of population growth rates may give misleading guidance for conservation. Short-term demographic studies are in many cases unlikely to correctly assess the survival probability of a species. We therefore argue that complementary information, such as long-term historical data or experimental manipulations of the environment, should be used whenever possible.

  • 14. Milner-Gulland, E. J.
    et al.
    Mcgregor, J. A.
    Agarwala, M.
    Atkinson, G.
    Bevan, P.
    Clements, T.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of East Anglia, England .
    Homewood, K.
    Kumpel, N.
    Lewis, J.
    Mourato, S.
    Fry, B. Palmer
    Redshaw, M.
    Rowcliffe, J. M.
    Suon, S.
    Wallace, G.
    Washington, H.
    Wilkie, D.
    Accounting for the Impact of Conservation on Human Well-Being2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1160-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideracion del Impacto de la Conservacion sobre el Bienestar Humano

  • 15. Moura, N.G.
    et al.
    Lees, A.C.
    Aleixo, A.
    Barlow, J.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, and International Institute for Sustainability, Rio de Janeiro.
    Two Hundred Years of Local Avian Extinctions in Eastern Amazonia2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1271-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local, regional, and global extinctions caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation have been widely reported for the tropics. The patterns and drivers of this loss of species are now increasingly well known in Amazonia, but there remains a significant gap in understanding of long-term trends in species persistence and extinction in anthropogenic landscapes. Such a historical perspective is critical for understanding the status and trends of extant biodiversity as well as for identifying priorities to halt further losses. Using extensive historical data sets of specimen records and results of contemporary surveys, we searched for evidence of local extinctions of a terra firma rainforest avifauna over 200 years in a 2500 km2 eastern Amazonian region around the Brazilian city of Belém. This region has the longest history of ornithological fieldwork in the entire Amazon basin and lies in the highly threatened Belém Centre of Endemism. We also compared our historically inferred extinction events with extensive data on species occurrences in a sample of catchments in a nearby municipality (Paragominas) that encompass a gradient of past forest loss. We found evidence for the possible extinction of 47 species (14% of the regional species pool) that were unreported from 1980 to 2013 (80% last recorded between 1900 and 1980). Seventeen species appear on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and many of these are large-bodied. The species lost from the region immediately around Belém are similar to those which are currently restricted to well-forested catchments in Paragominas. Although we anticipate the future rediscovery or recolonization of some species inferred to be extinct by our calculations, we also expect that there are likely to be additional local extinctions, not reported here, given the ongoing loss and degradation of remaining areas of native vegetation across eastern Amazonia.

  • 16. Ochoa-Quintero, Jose Manuel
    et al.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
    Rosa, Isabel
    Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros
    Sutherland, William J.
    Thresholds of species loss in Amazonian deforestation frontier landscapes2015In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 440-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Brazilian Amazon, private land accounts for the majority of remaining native vegetation. Understanding how land-use change affects the composition and distribution of biodiversity in farmlands is critical for improving conservation strategies in the face of rapid agricultural expansion. Working across an area exceeding 3 million ha in the southwestern state of Rondônia, we assessed how the extent and configuration of remnant forest in replicate 10,000-ha landscapes has affected the occurrence of a suite of Amazonian mammals and birds. In each of 31 landscapes, we used field sampling and semistructured interviews with landowners to determine the presence of 28 large and medium sized mammals and birds, as well as a further 7 understory birds. We then combined results of field surveys and interviews with a probabilistic model of deforestation. We found strong evidence for a threshold response of sampled biodiversity to landscape level forest cover; landscapes with <30–40% forest cover hosted markedly fewer species. Results from field surveys and interviews yielded similar thresholds. These results imply that in partially deforested landscapes many species are susceptible to extirpation following relatively small additional reductions in forest area. In the model of deforestation by 2030 the number of 10,000-ha landscapes under a conservative threshold of 43% forest cover almost doubled, such that only 22% of landscapes would likely to be able to sustain at least 75% of the 35 focal species we sampled. Brazilian law requires rural property owners in the Amazon to retain 80% forest cover, although this is rarely achieved. Prioritizing efforts to ensure that entire landscapes, rather than individual farms, retain at least 50% forest cover may help safeguard native biodiversity in private forest reserves in the Amazon.

  • 17.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A Cross-National Analysis of How Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1304-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used socioeconomic models that included economic inequality to predict biodiversity loss, measured as the proportion of threatened plant and vertebrate species, across 50 countries. Our main goal was to evaluate whether economic inequality, measured as the Gini index of income distribution, improved the explanatory power of our statistical models. We compared four models that included the following: only population density, economic footprint (i.e., the size of the economy relative to the country area), economic footprint and income inequality (Gini index), and an index of environmental governance. We also tested the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, but it was not supported by the data. Statistical comparisons of the models revealed that the model including both economic footprint and inequality was the best predictor of threatened species. It significantly outperformed population density alone and the environmental governance model according to the Akaike information criterion. Inequality was a significant predictor of biodiversity loss and significantly improved the fit of our models. These results confirm that socioeconomic inequality is an important factor to consider when predicting rates of anthropogenic biodiversity loss.

  • 18.
    Sangster, George
    University of Amsterdam.
    Taxonomic stability and avian extinctions2000In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 579-581Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Steneck, R. S.
    et al.
    Hughes, T. P.
    Cinner, J. E.
    Adger, W. N.
    Arnold, S. N.
    Berkes, F.
    Boudreau, S. A.
    Brown, K.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gunderson, L.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, M.
    Stephenson, E.
    Walker, B.
    Wilson, J.
    Worm, B.
    Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery2011In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies.

  • 20.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Catching Up on Fisheries Crime2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 877-879Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global Cooperation among Diverse Organizations to Reduce Illegal Fishing in the Southern Ocean2012In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is prevalent globally and has detrimental effects on commercial fish stocks and nontarget species. Effective monitoring and enforcement aimed at reducing the level of IUU fishing in extensive, remote ocean fisheries requires international collaboration. Changes in trade and vessel activities further complicate enforcement. We used a web-based survey of governmental and nongovernmental organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean to collect information on interorganizational collaborations. We used social-network analyses to examine the nature of collaborations among the identified 117 organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing. International collaboration improved the ability to control and manage harvest of commercially important toothfish (Dissostichus spp.) stocks and reduced bycatch of albatrosses (Diomedeidae) and petrels (Procellariidae) in longlines of IUU fishing vessels. The diverse group of surveyed organizations cooperated frequently, thereby making a wide range of resources available for improved detection of suspected IUU vessels and trade flows, cooperation aimed at prosecuting suspected offenders or developing new policy measures. Our results suggest the importance of a central agency for coordination and for maintaining commonly agreed-upon protocols for communication that facilities collaboration. Despite their differences, the surveyed organizations have developed common perceptions about key problems associated with IUU fishing. This has likely contributed to a sustained willingness to invest in collaborations. Our results show that successful international environmental governance can be accomplished through interorganizational collaborations. Such cooperation requires trust, continuous funding, and incentives for actors to participate.

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