Change search
Refine search result
1 - 12 of 12
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Arama, Charles
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute. University of Sciences Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Mali.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    The path of malaria vaccine development: challenges and perspectives2014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, no 5, 456-466 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus. In many parts of the world, the parasites have developed resistance to a number of antimalarial agents. Key interventions to control malaria include prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies, use of insecticidal nets by individuals at risk and active research into malaria vaccines. Protection against malaria through vaccination was demonstrated more than 30years ago when individuals were vaccinated via repeated bites by Plasmodium falciparum-infected and irradiated but still metabolically active mosquitoes. However, vaccination with high doses of irradiated sporozoites injected into humans has long been considered impractical. Yet, following recent success using whole-organism vaccines, the approach has received renewed interest; it was recently reported that repeated injections of irradiated sporozoites increased protection in 80 vaccinated individuals. Other approaches include subunit malaria vaccines, such as the current leading candidate RTS,S (consisting of fusion between a portion of the P.falciparum-derived circumsporozoite protein and the hepatitis B surface antigen), which has been demonstrated to induce reasonably good protection. Although results have been encouraging, the level of protection is generally considered to be too low to achieve eradication of malaria. There is great interest in developing new and better formulations and stable delivery systems to improve immunogenicity. In this review, we will discuss recent strategies to develop efficient malaria vaccines.

  • 2.
    Drefahl, Sven
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lundström, Hans
    Modig, Karin
    Ahlbom, Anders
    The era of centenarians: mortality of the oldest old in Sweden2012In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 272, no 1, 100-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Hooshmand, Babak
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Solomon, Alina
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI), Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Rusanen, Minna
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Leiviskä, Jaana
    Winblad, Bengt
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Associations between serum homocysteine, holotranscobalamin, folate and cognition in the elderly: a longitudinal study2012In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 271, no 2, 204-212 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  To examine the associations of serum homocysteine (tHcy), Holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the biologically active fraction of vitamin B12, and folate with cognitive functioning in a longitudinal population-based study of Finnish elderly. Subjects and design:  tHcy, holoTC, and folate were measured at baseline in 274 dementia-free subjects aged 65-79 years derived from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study. Subjects were re-investigated 7 years later and global cognition, episodic memory, executive functioning, verbal expression, and psychomotor speed were assessed. Results:  Higher baseline tHcy values were associated with poorer performance on global cognition: relative difference (95% confidence interval) was: 0.90 (0.81 - 0.99); episodic memory: 0.87 (0.77 - 0.99); executive functions: 0.86 (0.75 - 0.98), and verbal expression: 0.89 (0.81 - 0.97) at follow-up. Increased holoTC levels were related to better performance on global cognition: 1.09 (1.00 - 1.19), executive functions: 1.11 (1.01 - 1.21), and psychomotor speed: 1.13 (1.01 - 1.26). After excluding 20 incident dementia cases, increased tHcy remained associated with poorer performance in episodic memory, execution functions, and verbal expression. Higher holoTC values tended to relate to better performance in executive functions and psychomotor speed while elevated serum folate concentrations were significantly related to higher scores in global cognition and verbal expression tests. Conclusions:  tHcy, holoTC, and folate measured 7 years earlier are related to cognitive performance even in non-demented elderly. Randomized trials are needed to determine the impact of vitamin B12 and folate supplementations on preventing cognitive decline in the elderly.

  • 4.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Solomon, Alina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Johansson, G
    Lannfelt, L
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Winblad, B
    9th Key symposium introduction: updating Alzheimer's disease diagnosis implications for prevention and treatment.2014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, no 3, 202-203 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Kulmala, J.
    et al.
    Solomon, Alina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). University of Eastern Finland, Finland; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingmar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ngandu, T.
    Rantanen, T.
    Laatikainen, T.
    Soininen, H.
    Tuomilehto, J.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). University of Eastern Finland, Finland; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Association between mid- to late life physical fitness and dementia: evidence from the CAIDE study2014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 276, no 3, 296-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. This study investigated the association between perceived physical fitness at midlife, changes in perceived fitness during the three decades from mid-to late life and dementia risk. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Cardiovascular risk factors, ageing and incidence of dementia (CAIDE) study. Subjects. Subjects were selected from four independent, random samples of population-based cardiovascular surveys and were first examined in 1972, 1977, 1982 or 1987, when they were on average 50 years old. The CAIDE target population included 3559 individuals. A random sample of 2000 individuals still alive in 1997 was drawn for re-examinations (performed in 1998 and 2005-2008) that consisted of cognitive assessments, with 1511 subjects participating in at least one re-examination. Dementia diagnoses were also confirmed from national registers for the entire target population. Main outcome measure. All-cause dementia. Results. Poor physical fitness at midlife was associated with increased dementia risk in the entire target population [hazard ratio (HR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0]. In participants, odds ratio (OR) was 2.0 (95% CI, 0.9-4.0). This association was significant in apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele (APO epsilon 4) noncarriers (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4-13.3), men (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0) and people with chronic conditions (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.6). A decline in fitness after midlife was also associated with dementia (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.1), which was significant amongst both men and women and more pronounced in APOE epsilon 4 carriers (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.1-9.1). Conclusions. Perceived poor physical fitness reflects a combination of biological and lifestyle-related factors that can increase dementia risk. A simple question about perceived physical fitness may reveal at-risk individuals who could benefit from preventive interventions.

  • 6. Li, X.
    et al.
    Westman, E.
    Ståhlbom, A. K.
    Thordardottir, S.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Blennow, K.
    Wahlund, L. -O.
    Graff, C.
    White matter changes in familial Alzheimer's disease2015In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 278, no 2, 211-218 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundFamilial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) resulting from gene mutations in PSEN1, PSEN2 and APP is associated with changes in the brain. ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate changes in grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in FAD. SubjectsTen mutation carriers (MCs) with three different mutations in PSEN1 and APP and 20 noncarriers (NCs) were included in the study. Three MCs were symptomatic and seven were presymptomatic (pre-MCs). MethodsWhole-brain GM volume as well as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics analyses, respectively, were compared between MCs and NCs. FA and MD maps were obtained from diffusion tensor imaging. ResultsA significant increase in MD was found in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus in pre-MCs compared with NCs. After inclusion of the three symptomatic MCs in the analysis, the regions became wider. The mean MD of these regions showed significant negative correlation with the CSF level of A42, and positive correlations with P-tau(181p) and T-tau. No differences were observed in GM volume and FA between the groups. ConclusionsThe results of this study suggest that FAD gene mutations affect WM diffusivity before changes in GM volume can be detected. The WM changes observed were related to changes in the CSF, with similar patterns previously observed in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

  • 7.
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Westman, E.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Muehlboeck, J. -S.
    Cecchetti, R.
    Baglioni, M.
    Tarducci, R.
    Gobbi, G.
    Floridi, P.
    Soininen, H.
    Ktoszewska, I.
    Tsolaki, M.
    Vellas, B.
    Spenger, C.
    Lovestone, S.
    Wahlund, L. -O.
    Simmons, A.
    Mecocci, P.
    Classification and prediction of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on MRI and plasma measures of α-/γ-tocotrienols and γ-tocopherol.2013In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 273, no 6, 602-621 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of combined structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and plasma levels of vitamin E forms, including all eight natural vitamin E congeners (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols) and markers of vitamin E oxidative/nitrosative damage, in differentiating individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from cognitively intact control (CTL) subjects.

    Methods: Overall, 81 patients with AD, 86 with MCI and 86 CTL individuals were enrolled from the longitudinal multicentre AddNeuroMed study. MRI and plasma vitamin E data were acquired at baseline. MRI scans were analysed using Freesurfer, an automated segmentation scheme which generates regional volume and cortical thickness measures. Orthogonal partial least squares to latent structures (OPLS), a multivariate data analysis technique, was used to analyse MRI and vitamin E measures in relation to AD and MCI diagnosis.

    Results: The joint evaluation of MRI and plasma vitamin E measures enhanced the accuracy of differentiating individuals with AD and MCI from CTL subjects: 98.2% (sensitivity 98.8%, specificity 97.7%) for AD versus CTL, and 90.7% (sensitivity 91.8%, specificity 89.5%) for MCI versus CTL. This combination of measures also identified 85% of individuals with MCI who converted to clinical AD at follow-up after 1 year.

    Conclusions: Plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols together with automated MRI measures can help to differentiate AD and MCI patients from CTL subjects, and to prospectively predict MCI conversion into AD. Our results suggest the potential role of nutritional biomarkers detected in plasma–tocopherols and tocotrienols–as indirect indicators of AD pathology, and the utility of a multimodality approach.

  • 8. Nyberg, S. T.
    et al.
    Heikkilä, K.
    Fransson, E. I.
    Alfredsson, L.
    De Bacquer, D.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    Bonenfant, S.
    Borritz, M.
    Burr, H.
    Casini, A.
    Clays, E.
    Dragano, N.
    Erbel, R.
    Geuskens, G. A.
    Goldberg, M.
    Hooftman, W. E.
    Houtman, I. L.
    Jöckel, K-H
    Kittel, F.
    Knutsson, A.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lunau, T.
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Marmot, M. G.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Nordin, M.
    Oksanen, T.
    Pentti, J.
    Rugulies, R.
    Siegrist, J.
    Suominen, S.
    Vahtera, J.
    Virtanen, M.
    Westerholm, P.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University College London, UK.
    Zins, M.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Steptoe, A.
    Hamer, M.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Batty, G. D.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies2012In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 272, no 1, 65-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studies. J Intern Med 2012; 272: 6573. Background. Evidence of an association between job strain and obesity is inconsistent, mostly limited to small-scale studies, and does not distinguish between categories of underweight or obesity subclasses. Objectives. To examine the association between job strain and body mass index (BMI) in a large adult population. Methods. We performed a pooled cross-sectional analysis based on individual-level data from 13 European studies resulting in a total of 161 746 participants (49% men, mean age, 43.7 years). Longitudinal analysis with a median follow-up of 4 years was possible for four cohort studies (n = 42 222). Results. A total of 86 429 participants were of normal weight (BMI 18.524.9 kg m-2), 2149 were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg m-2), 56 572 overweight (BMI 25.029.9 kg m-2) and 13 523 class I (BMI 3034.9 kg m-2) and 3073 classes II/III (BMI = 35 kg m-2) obese. In addition, 27 010 (17%) participants reported job strain. In cross-sectional analyses, we found increased odds of job strain amongst underweight [odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001.25], obese class I (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.021.12) and obese classes II/III participants (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.011.28) as compared with participants of normal weight. In longitudinal analysis, both weight gain and weight loss were related to the onset of job strain during follow-up. Conclusions. In an analysis of European data, we found both weight gain and weight loss to be associated with the onset of job strain, consistent with a U-shaped cross-sectional association between job strain and BMI. These associations were relatively modest; therefore, it is unlikely that intervention to reduce job strain would be effective in combating obesity at a population level.

  • 9.
    Pan, K-Y.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Xu, W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mangialasche, F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fratiglioni, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Wang, Hui Xin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life2017In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 281, no 6, 601-610 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores.

    Methods: From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged 60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM.

    Results: During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53).

    Conclusion: Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load.

  • 10. Petersen, R. C.
    et al.
    Caracciolo, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Brayne, C.
    Gauthier, S.
    Jelic, V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fratiglioni, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mild cognitive impairment: a concept in evolution2014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, no 3, 214-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construct of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has evolved over the past 10years since the publication of the new MCI definition at the Key Symposium in 2003, but the core criteria have remained unchanged. The construct has been extensively used worldwide, both in clinical and in research settings, to define the grey area between intact cognitive functioning and clinical dementia. A rich set of data regarding occurrence, risk factors and progression of MCI has been generated. Discrepancies between studies can be mostly explained by differences in the operationalization of the criteria, differences in the setting where the criteria have been applied, selection of subjects and length of follow-up in longitudinal studies. Major controversial issues that remain to be further explored are algorithmic versus clinical classification, reliability of clinical judgment, temporal changes in cognitive performances and predictivity of putative biomarkers. Some suggestions to further develop the MCI construct include the tailoring of the clinical criteria to specific populations and to specific contexts. The addition of biomarkers to the clinical phenotypes is promising but requires deeper investigation. Translation of findings from the specialty clinic to the population setting, although challenging, will enhance uniformity of outcomes. More longitudinal population-based studies on cognitive ageing and MCI need to be performed to clarify all these issues.

  • 11. Schneider, L. S.
    et al.
    Mangialasche, F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Andreasen, N.
    Feldman, H.
    Giacobini, E.
    Jones, R.
    Mantua, V.
    Mecocci, P.
    Pani, L.
    Winblad, B.
    Kivipelto, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Clinical trials and late-stage drug development for Alzheimer's disease: an appraisal from 1984 to 20142014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, no 3, 251-283 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modern era of drug development for Alzheimer's disease began with the proposal of the cholinergic hypothesis of memory impairment and the 1984 research criteria for Alzheimer's disease. Since then, despite the evaluation of numerous potential treatments in clinical trials, only four cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have shown sufficient safety and efficacy to allow marketing approval at an international level. Although this is probably because the other drugs tested were ineffective, inadequate clinical development methods have also been blamed for the failures. Here, we review the development of treatments for Alzheimer's disease during the past 30years, considering the drugs, potential targets, late-stage clinical trials, development methods, emerging use of biomarkers and evolution of regulatory considerations in order to summarize advances and anticipate future developments. We have considered late-stage Alzheimer's disease drug development from 1984 to 2013, including individual clinical trials, systematic and qualitative reviews, meta-analyses, methods, commentaries, position papers and guidelines. We then review the evolution of drugs in late clinical development, methods, biomarkers and regulatory issues. Although a range of small molecules and biological products against many targets have been investigated in clinical trials, the predominant drug targets have been the cholinergic system and the amyloid cascade. Trial methods have evolved incrementally: inclusion criteria have largely remained focused on mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease criteria, recently extending to early or prodromal Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease', for drugs considered to be disease modifying. The duration of trials has remained at 6-12months for drugs intended to improve symptoms; 18- to 24-month trials have been established for drugs expected to attenuate clinical course. Cognitive performance, activities of daily living, global change and severity ratings have persisted as the primary clinically relevant outcomes. Regulatory guidance and oversight have evolved to allow for enrichment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease trial samples using biomarkers and phase-specific outcomes. In conclusion, validated drug targets for Alzheimer's disease remain to be developed. Only drugs that affect an aspect of cholinergic function have shown consistent, but modest, clinical effects in late-phase trials. There is opportunity for substantial improvements in drug discovery and clinical development methods.

  • 12. Solomon, A.
    et al.
    Mangialasche, F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Richard, E.
    Andrieu, S.
    Bennett, D. A.
    Breteler, M.
    Fratiglioni, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Hooshmand, B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Khachaturian, A. S.
    Schneider, L. S.
    Skoog, I.
    Kivipelto, M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Advances in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia2014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, no 3, 229-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundDefinitions and diagnostic criteria for all medical conditions are regularly subjected to reviews and revisions as knowledge advances. In the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) research, it has taken almost three decades for diagnostic nomenclature to undergo major re-examination. The shift towards presymptomatic and pre-dementia stages of AD has brought prevention and treatment trials much closer to each other than before. MethodsHere we discuss: (i) the impact of diagnostic reliability on the possibilities for developing preventive strategies for AD; (ii) the scientific evidence to support moving from observation to action; (iii) ongoing intervention studies; and (iv) the methodological issues and prospects for balancing strategies for high-risk individuals with those for broad population-based prevention. ResultsThe associations between neuropathology and cognition are still not entirely clear. In addition, the risk factors for AD dementia and the neuropathological hallmarks of AD may not necessarily be the same. Cognitive impairment has a clearer clinical significance and should therefore remain the main focus of prevention. Risk/protective factors for dementia/AD need to be studied from a life-course perspective. New approaches in prevention trials include enrichment strategies based on genetic risk factors or beta-amyloid biomarkers (at least four ongoing pharmacological trials), and multidomain interventions simultaneously targeting various vascular and lifestyle-related risk factors (at least three ongoing trials). Experience from prevention programmes in other chronic diseases can provide additional methodological improvements. ConclusionsBuilding infrastructures for international collaborations is necessary for managing the worldwide public health problem of AD and dementia. The International Database on Aging and Dementia (IDAD) and the European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI) are examples of ongoing international efforts aiming to improve the methodology of preventive studies and provide the basis for larger intervention trials.

1 - 12 of 12
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf