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  • 1.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Shaw, Benjamin A.
    Smoking trajectories from midlife to old age and the development of non-life-threatening health problems: A 34-year prospective cohort study2013In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To examine how trajectories of smoking observed over a 34-year period, were associated with the progression of mobility impairment, musculoskeletal pain, and symptoms of psychological distress from midlife to old age. Method. The Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Panel Study of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) were merged to create a nationally representative longitudinal sample of Swedish adults (aged 30-50 at baseline; n = 1060), with four observation periods, from 1968 through 2002. Five discrete smoking trajectory groups were treated as predictors of variation in health trajectories using multilevel regression. Results. At baseline, there were no differences in mobility impairment between smoking trajectory groups. Over time all smokers, particularly persistent and former heavy smokers, exhibited faster increases in mobility problems compared with persistent non-smokers. Additionally, all smoking groups reported more pain symptoms than the non-smokers, at baseline and over time, but most of these differences did not reach statistical significance. Persistent heavy smokers reported elevated levels of psychological distress at baseline and over time. Conclusion. Smokers, and even some former smokers, who survive into old age appear to be at increased risk for non-life-threatening conditions that can diminish quality of life and increase demands for services.

  • 2.
    Ahacic, Kozma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kennison, Robert
    Thorslund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Trends in smoking in Sweden from 1968 to 2002: Age, period, and cohort patterns2008In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 558-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Smoking is related to many later life health outcomes. We examined age, period, and cohort patterns in smoking between 1968 and 2002. Methods. A nationally representative panel study allowed repeated cross-sectional comparisons of ages 18-75 (5 waves n approximate to 5000), and ages 77+ at later waves (2 waves n approximate to 500). Cross-sectional 10-year age group differences in 5 waves, time-lag differences between waves for age groups, and within-cohort differences between waves for 10-year birth cohorts were evaluated using graphs and ordered logistic regressions. Results. Age-period-cohort models suggested that period and age effects dominated smoking patterns, showing decreases over time and age. The 1935-44 and 1945-54 cohorts, however, showed lesser period decline. Moreover, men showed a period reduction of smoking rates but no age related decrease, while women showed an age related decrease but no period effect. The genders' cohort patterns were similar, with higher smoking rates in the last waves for some cohorts, for men the 1945-54 cohort and women the 1935-44 cohort. Conclusions. Cross-sectional studies of cohorts must be aware of age effects. Due to the coming of age of the 1940s' cohorts smoking may increase among women in the oldest age groups.

  • 3. Bartram, Ashlea
    et al.
    Harrison, Nathan J.
    Norris, Christina A.
    Kim, Susan
    Pettigrew, Simone
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Miller, Caroline
    Olver, Ian
    Jenkinson, Rebecca
    Bowshall, Marina
    Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    Which parents provide zero-alcohol beverages to adolescents? A survey of Australian parents' practices and intentions2024In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 179, article id 107840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

     Zero-alcohol beverages (<0.5% alcohol by volume) appear and taste similar to alcoholic beverages but are regulated similarly to soft drinks in many countries, blurring the distinction between alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages. How parents view provision of zero-alcohol beverages to adolescents is likely a key determinant of adolescent consumption. We investigated factors associated with parents' provision of zeroalcohol beverages to adolescents, including attitudes toward zero-alcohol beverages and demographic, knowledge, and behavioural factors known to be associated with provision of alcoholic beverages.

    Methods 

    We conducted an online cross-sectional survey of N = 1197 Australian parents of adolescents aged 12-17 years in April-May 2022. We examined associations with zero-alcohol beverage provision using binomial logistic regression, and with future provision intentions using multinomial logistic regression analyses.

    Results

    Factors significantly associated (p < .001) with parents' provision and future intentions to provide zeroalcohol beverages to their adolescent included beliefs that zero-alcohol beverages had benefits for adolescents (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.69 (provision); 3.72 (intentions)), provision of alcoholic beverages (AOR 2.67 (provision); 3.72 (intentions)), and an incorrect understanding of alcohol guidelines for adolescents (AOR 2.38 (provision); 1.95 (intentions)).

    Conclusions

    Parents' provision and intentions to provide zero-alcohol beverages were associated with beliefs about zero-alcohol beverages as well as some factors associated with provision of alcoholic beverages. Precautionary advice to parents that the provision of zero-alcohol beverages may serve to normalise alcohol consumption may be warranted.

  • 4.
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Life-style and self-rated global health in Sweden: A prospective analysis spanning three decades2013In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 802-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To study the relations between lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, exercise, vegetable consumption, social relations) and global self-rated health in the adult Swedish population. Method. The data come from the Swedish Level of Living Survey, a face-to-face panel study. The analysis follows the respondents with good health in 1991 (N = 4035) and uses multivariate logistic regression to assess the relations between lifestyle factors in 1991 and health in 2000 and 2010. Results. Baseline (1991) exercise, social support, smoking and vegetable consumption are associated with health in 2000 and/or 2010.2000: Weekly exercise in 1991 increases the probability of good health by 6 percentage points [95% CI: 1-10] compared to no exercise, and smoking 10 or more cigarettes a day decreases the probability of good health by 5 percentage points [95% CI 1-8]. Lacking social support decreases the probability of good health by 17 percentage points (95% CI: 9-25). 2010: Smoking 10 or more cigarettes a day decreases the probability of good health by 10 percentage points [95% CI 5-15], and eating vegetables every day increases the probability of good health by 4 percentage points [95% CI 0.2-7]. Conclusions. Exercise, smoking, social support and vegetable consumption are related to self-rated health 2000 and/or 2010.

  • 5.
    Raza, Auriba
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Pulakka, Anna
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Halonen, Jaana I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Commuting distance and behavior-related health: A longitudinal study2021In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 150, article id 106665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health benefits of active commuting and short commuting time are well-documented; however, limited evidence exists on the effects of commuting distance. We examined longitudinal associations between commuting distance and behavior-related health. Participants were from four survey waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018). Analytical sample included 11,023 individuals and 21,769 observations. Random effects method used binomial logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. The outcomes were self-reported physical inactivity, overweight, smoking, problem drinking, and disturbed sleep. Models were adjusted for age, sex, occupational position, civil status, chronic disease, work strain, number of children under 12, and home/workplace neighborhood socioeconomic status. Using continuous measure, long commuting distance was associated with a higher odds of physical inactivity (OR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04–1.09 per doubling of distance), overweight (OR 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00–1.04), and disturbed sleep (OR 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.05) in fully adjusted models. Using categorized measure, individuals who commuted longer distance had a higher odds of physical inactivity compared to those with the shortest commute (3.1 km - <7.9 km vs. <3.1 km: OR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04–1.28 and 7.9 km - <20 km vs. <3.1 km: OR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06–1.32, fully adjusted model). Such dose-response associations were not observed for overweight or disturbed sleep. Our results suggest short commuting distance may be beneficial for behavior-related health.

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