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  • 1.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Shaw, Benjamin
    Trajectories of social activities from middle age to old age and late-life disability: a 36-year follow-up2013In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 790-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: to examine the association between 34-year trajectories of social activity, from middle age to old age and late-life disability.                  

    Methods: data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Panel Study of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD) were used. LNU data from 1968, 1981, 1991 and 2000 were merged with SWEOLD data from 1992, 2002 and 2004 to create a longitudinal data set  with five observation periods. Trajectories of social activities covered 1968–2002, and late-life disability was measured  in 2004. The sample consisted of 729 individuals aged 33–61 at baseline (1968), who participated in at least four observation periods and who were free from mobility limitations at baseline. Four trajectories of social activity were identified and used as predictors of late-life disability.                  

    Results: reporting low/medium levels of social activity from mid-life to old age was the most common trajectory group. Persons reporting continuously low/medium or decreasing levels of social activity had higher odds ratios for late-life disability (OR = 2.33 and OR = 2.15, respectively) compared with those having continuously high levels of activity, even when adjusting for age, sex and mobility limitations, and excluding persons with baseline mobility limitations.                  

    Conclusions: results suggest that the disability risk associated with social activities is related to recent levels of activity, but also that risk may accumulate over time, as indicated by the higher disability risk associated with the continuously low/medium level social activity trajectory.

  • 2. Bell, J. Simon
    et al.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wimmer, Barbara C.
    Wiese, Michael D.
    Multidose drug dispensing and optimising drug use in older people2013In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 556-558Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Garcia-Ptacek, Sara
    et al.
    Nilsson Modeer, Ingrid
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Farahmand, Bahman
    Religa, Dorota
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Differences in diagnostic process, treatment and social Support for Alzheimer's dementia between primary and specialist care: resultss from the Swedish Dementia Registry2017In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 314-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) has shifted the burden of management towards primary care (PC). Our aim is to compare diagnostic process and management of AD in PC and specialist care (SC). Design: cross-sectional study. Subjects: a total of, 9,625 patients diagnosed with AD registered 2011-14 in SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry. Methods: descriptive statistics are shown. Odds ratios are presented for test performance and treatment in PC compared to SC, adjusted for age, sex, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and number of medication. Results: a total of, 5,734 (60%) AD patients from SC and 3,891 (40%) from PC. In both, 64% of patients were women. PC patients were older (mean age 81 vs. 76; P < 0.001), had lower MMSE (median 21 vs. 22; P < 0.001) and more likely to receive home care (31% vs. 20%; P < 0.001) or day care (5% vs. 3%; P < 0.001). Fewer diagnostic tests were performed in PC and diagnostic time was shorter. Basic testing was less likely to be complete in PC. The greatest differences were found for neuroimaging (82% in PC vs. 98% in SC) and clock tests (84% vs. 93%). These differences remained statistically significant after adjusting for MMSE and demographic characteristics. PC patients received less antipsychotic medication and more anxiolytics and hypnotics, but there were no significant differences in use of cholinesterase inhibitors between PC and SC. Conclusion: primary and specialist AD patients differ in background characteristics, and this can influence diagnostic work-up and treatment. PC excels in restriction of antipsychotic use. Use of head CT and clock test in PC are areas for improvement in Sweden.

  • 4.
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Welmer, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wang, Rui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Santoni, Giola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Angleman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Qu, Chengxuan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Association of mobility limitations with incident disability among older adults: a population-based study2016In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 812-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: mobility-related limitations predict future disability; however, the extent to which individual and combined mobility tests may predict disability remains unclear.

    Objectives: to estimate the odds of developing disability in activities of daily living (ADL) according to limitations in walking speed, balance or both; and explore the role of chronic diseases and cognitive function.

    Design: a prospective cohort study.

    Setting: urban area of Stockholm, Sweden.

    Subjects: one thousand nine hundred and seventy-one disability-free persons (age >= 60 years, 63% women) from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), who underwent baseline examination in 2001-04 and follow-up assessments for 6 years.

    Measurements: mobility limitation was defined as a one-leg balance stand <5 s or walking speed <0.8 m/s. ADL disability was defined as the inability to complete one or more ADL: bathing, dressing, using the toilet, transferring and eating.

    Results: during a total of 11,404 person-years (mean per person 5.8 years, SD 0.30) of follow-up, 119 (incidence 1.5/100 person-years) participants developed ADL disability. The demographic adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals, CI) of incident ADL disability related to balance stand and walking speed limitations were 3.8 (2.3-6.3) and 8.4 (5.2-13.3), respectively. The associations remained statistically significant after controlling for number of chronic diseases and cognitive status. People with limitations in both balance and walking speed had an OR of 12.9 (95% CI 7.0-23.7) for incident disability compared with no limitation.

    Conclusion: balance and walking speed tests are simple clinical procedures that can indicate hierarchical risk of ADL dependence in older adults.

  • 5.
    Morin, Lucas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). French National Observatory on End-of-Life Care, France.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Aubry, Regis
    Variation in the place of death among nursing home residents in France2015In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 415-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: recent studies have reported that hospitals have become a common place of death for nursing home residents. This study aimed to (i) measure variations in the proportion of in-hospital deaths across regions after adjustment for facility-level characteristics and (ii) identify environmental risk factors that might explain these variations in France. Design: a cross-sectional retrospective survey was conducted in 2013. Setting and participants: coordinating physicians in 3,705 nursing homes in France. Measurements: a regression model was used to construct risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital deaths considering the facilities' characteristics. At the regional level, the outcome was defined as the difference between the observed rate of in-hospital deaths and the expected risk-adjusted rate. Values exceeding zero indicated rates that exceeded the national predicted rate of in-hospital deaths and thus highlighted regions in which the risk-adjusted probability for nursing home residents to die in a hospital was greater than average. Results: among 70,119 nursing home decedents, 25.4% (n = 17,789) died in hospitals. The characteristics of the facilities had a significant influence on the proportion of in-hospital deaths among the nursing home decedents. However, after adjustment for these facility-level risk factors, the proportion of nursing homes that reported worse-than-average outcomes showed significant variation (range 26.0-79.6%). At the regional level, both the rate of acute hospital beds and the rate of general practitioners were found to be strongly correlated with the probability of reporting worse-than-average outcomes (P < 0.001). Conclusion: our study demonstrates the existence of major differences across regions in France and highlights the need for targeted interventions regarding end-of-life care in nursing home facilities.

  • 6.
    Morin, Lucas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). French National Observatory on End-of-Life Care, France.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Van den Block, Lieve
    Aubry, Regis
    Discussing end-of-life issues in nursing homes: a nationwide study in France2016In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 395-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: discussing end-of-life issues with nursing home residents and their relatives is needed to ensure patient-centred care near the end of life. Objectives: this study aimed to estimate the frequency of nursing home physicians discussing end-of-life issues with residents and their relatives and to investigate how discussing end-of-life issues was associated with care outcomes in the last month of life. Methods: post-mortem cohort study in a nationwide, representative sample of 78 nursing home facilities in France. Residents who died from non-sudden causes between 1 October 2013 and 31 May 2014 in these facilities were included n = 674). Results: end-of-life issues were discussed with at most 21.7% of the residents who died during the study period. In one-third of the situations (32.8%), no discussion about end-of-life-related topics ever occurred, either with the resident or with the relatives. Older people with severe dementia were less likely to have discussed more than three of the six end-of-life topics we investigated, compared with residents without dementia (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.08-0.22). In the last month of life, discussing more than three end-of-life issues with the residents or their relatives was significantly associated with reduced odds of dying in a hospital facility (adjusted OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.33-0.79) and with a higher likelihood of withdrawing potentially futile life-prolonging treatments (adjusted OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.72-3.29). Conclusion: during the last months of life, discussions about end-of-life issues occurred with only a minority of nursing home decedents, although these discussions may improve end-of-life care outcomes.

  • 7.
    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Mossello, Enrico
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study2015In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 828-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods: a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS).

    Results: prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors.

    Conclusion: health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults.

  • 8. Pentikäinen, Heikki
    et al.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Liu, Yawu
    Savonen, Kai
    Komulainen, Pirjo
    Hallikainen, Merja
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volumes in men and women in the FINGER study2017In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 310-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with larger brain volumes but data on sex differences in the association of CRF with brain volumes are scarce. We investigated whether the association of CRF with total grey matter (GM) and white matter volumes as well as medial temporal lobe and striatum volumes is different between men and women at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: we used baseline data from The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) in which the inclusion criteria were set to select individuals with cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age according to Finnish population norms. Our sub-study included 39 randomly selected men and 29 women aged 61-75 years. CRF was assessed as peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) measured in a maximal exercise test on cycle ergometer. Brain structural imaging was performed using a 1.5-T scanner. Results: in men, VO2peak was associated with cortical GM volume (beta = 0.56, P = 0.001) and total GM volume (beta = 0.54, P = 0.001). In women, no associations were found between VO2peak and brain volumes. VO2peak accounted for 23% and 1% of total variance of cortical GM volume as well as 25% and 4% of total variance of total GM volume in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: CRF is associated with cortical GM and total GM volumes in elderly men at increased risk for AD, but not in women.

  • 9.
    Wastesson, Jonas W.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Parker, Marti G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fastbom, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Thorslund, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Drug use in centenarians compared with nonagenarians and octogenarians in Sweden: a nationwide register-based study2012In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 218-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: the number of centenarians increases rapidly. Yet, little is known about their health and use of medications. Objective: to investigate pharmacological drug use in community-dwelling and institutionalised centenarians compared with nonagenarians and octogenarians. Methods: we analysed data on dispensed drugs for centenarians (n = 1,672), nonagenarians (n = 76,584) and octogenarians (n = 383,878) from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, record-linked to the Swedish Social Services Register. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse whether age was associated with use of drugs, after adjustment for sex, living situation and co-morbidity. Results: in the adjusted analysis, centenarians were more likely to use analgesics, hypnotics/sedatives and anxiolytics, but less likely to use antidepressants than nonagenarians and octogenarians. Moreover, centenarians were more likely to use high-ceiling diuretics, but less likely to use beta-blockers and ACE-inhibitors. Conclusions: centenarians high use of analgesics, hypnotics/sedatives and anxiolytics either reflects a palliative approach to drug treatment in centenarians or that pain and mental health problems increase into extreme old age. Also, centenarians do not seem to be prescribed cardiovascular drug therapy according to guidelines to the same extent as nonagenarians and octogenarians. Whether this reflects an age or cohort effect should be evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  • 10. Wikgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Nordin, Annelie
    Roos, Göran
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Shorter telomere length is linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities2014In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 212-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: leukocyte telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging. Several studies have investigated the link between leukocyte TL and aging-associated functional attributes of the brain, but no prior study has investigated whether TL can be linked to brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs); two prominent structural manifestations of brain aging. Methods: we investigated whether leukocyte TL was related to brain atrophy and WMHs in a sample of 102 non-demented individuals aged 64-75 years. Results: shorter TL was related to greater degree of subcortical atrophy (beta = -0.217, P = 0.034), but not to cortical atrophy. Furthermore, TL was 371 bp shorter (P = 0.041) in participants exhibiting subcortical WMHs, and 552 bp shorter (P = 0.009) in older participants exhibiting periventricular WMHs. Conclusion: this study provides the first evidence of leukocyte TL being associated with cerebral subcortical atrophy and WMHs, lending further support to the concept of TL as a marker of biological aging, and in particular that of the aging brain.

  • 11. Yang, Lei
    et al.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany .
    Silventoinen, Karri
    Konttinen, Hanna
    Association of socioeconomic status and cognitive functioning change among elderly Chinese people2016In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 673-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: the inverse association between high socioeconomic status and impaired cognitive functioning in old age has been widely studied. However, it is still inconclusive whether higher socioeconomic status slows the rate of cognitive decline over ageing, especially in non-Western populations. We examined this association using a large population-based longitudinal survey of older Chinese persons. Methods: the sample came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) (from the years 2002 to 2011, N = 15,798 at baseline, aged 65-105). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) based on face-to-face interviews was used to assess cognitive functioning. Socioeconomic status was assessed using educational attainment and household income per capita. Latent growth curve and selection model considering the attrition during the follow-up were utilised to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the rate of change in cognitive functioning. Results: at baseline, younger elderly people, urban residents and elderly people living alone had better cognitive performance in both genders. Educational attainment was positively associated with cognitive functioning at baseline but did not have a significant effect on the rate of change in cognitive functioning. Higher incomes were associated with better cognitive functioning at baseline, but this difference diminished during the follow-up. Conclusion: higher socioeconomic status was associated with better cognitive performance at baseline but could not protect against the rate of decline in cognitive functioning measured by MMSE in this longitudinal study for elderly Chinese people.

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