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  • 1.
    Bradshaw, Clare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Kautsky, Ulrik
    Kumblad, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Ecological stoichiometry and multi element transfer in a coastal ecosystem2012In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 591-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy (carbon) flows and element cycling are fundamental, interlinked principles explaining ecosystem processes. The element balance in components, interactions and processes in ecosystems (ecological stoichiometry; ES) has been used to study trophic dynamics and element cycling. This study extends ES beyond its usual limits of C, N, and P and examines the distribution and transfer of 48 elements in 16 components of a coastal ecosystem, using empirical and modeling approaches. Major differences in elemental composition were demonstrated between abiotic and biotic compartments and trophic levels due to differences in taxonomy and ecological function. Mass balance modeling for each element, based on carbon fluxes and element:C ratios, was satisfactory for 92.5% of all element similar to compartment combinations despite the complexity of the ecosystem model. Model imbalances could mostly be explained by ecological processes, such as increased element uptake during the spring algal bloom. Energy flows in ecosystems can thus realistically estimate element transfer in the environment, as modeled uptake is constrained by metabolic rates and elements available. The dataset also allowed us to examine one of the key concepts of ES, homeostasis, for more elements than is normally possible. The relative concentrations of elements in organisms compared to their resources did not provide support for the theory that autotrophs show weak homeostasis and showed that the strength of homeostasis by consumers depends on the type of element (for example, macroelement, trace element). Large-scale, multi-element ecosystem studies are essential to evaluate and advance the framework of ES and the importance of ecological processes.

  • 2.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Role of Golf Courses in Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Management.2009In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 12, p. 191-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract We assessed the ecological value of golf courses based on a quantitative synthesis of studies in the scientific literature that have measured and compared biota on golf courses to that of biota in green-area habitats related to other land uses. We found that golf courses had higher ecological value in 64% of comparative cases. This pattern was consistent also for comparisons based on measures of species richness, as well as for comparisons of overall measures of birds and insectsthe fauna groups most widely examined in the studies. Many golf courses also contribute to the preservation of fauna of conservation concern. More broadly, we found that the ecological value of golf courses significantly decreases with land types having low levels of anthropogenic impact, like natural and nature-protected areas. Conversely, the value of golf courses significantly increases with land that has high levels of anthropogenic impact, like agricultural and urban lands. From an ecosystem management perspective, golf courses represent a promising measure for restoring and enhancing biodiversity in ecologically simplified landscapes. Furthermore, the review suggests that golf courses hold a real potential to be designed and managed to promote critical ecosystem services, like pollination and natural pest control, providing an opportunity for joint collaboration among conservation, restoration and recreational interests.

  • 3.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ecosystem subsidies to Swedish agricultural consumption, industrial intensification and trade 1962-19942005In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 8, p. 512-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of food consumption and agricultural production trends in Sweden has focused on domestic food production levels and yields, over looking human dependence on ecosystem support. We estimate the ecosystem areas appropriated (ArEAs) for agricultural production (crop and animal feed production and grazing in arable land and marine production for fishmeal used in ani mal feed) to satisfy Swedish food consumption needs from 1962 to 1994. The total agroecosystem areas worldwide supporting Swedish food con sumption (that is, domestic production less ex ports plus imports) have declined by almost one third since the 1960s as a result of consumption changes and agricultural intensification. By 1994, Swedish consumption of domestic food crops was halved and consumers relied on agricultural areas outside Sweden to satisfy more than a third (35%) of food consumption needs. Surprisingly, 74% of manufactured animal feed ArEAs were from im ported inputs. Moreover, marine ArEAs equal to 12% of the total appropriated areas were needed to support fishmeal usage in animal feed. The results show that domestic agricultural areas do not support Swedish food consumption and that the bulk of manufactured feed used in animal products' production in Sweden is supplied by ecosystems of other nations. These are hidden subsidies of nature, not explicit in Swedish na tional agricultural policy. Sweden must recognize its high level of dependence on the capacity of ecosystems of other nations to supply its food needs. Ignorance of ecosystem support may in crease vulnerability.

  • 4. Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Kraus, Andrea
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Meili, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bishop, Kevin
    Forestry Influence by Stump Harvest and Site Preparation on Methylmercury, Total Mercury and Other Stream Water Chemistry Parameters Across a Boreal Landscape2012In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1308-1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry has been reported to cause elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in runoff water. However, the degree to which forestry operations influence Hg in runoff varies among sites. A synoptic study, covering 54 catchments distributed all over Sweden, subjected to either stump harvest (SH), site preparation (SP) or no treatment (Ref), was undertaken to reveal the degree of forestry impact and causes of eventual variation. All streams were sampled twice, in autumn 2009 and summer 2010. There were no significant differences in total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations between the three treatments in either 2009 or 2010. However, when pooling the treated catchments (that is, SH and SP) and taking catchment properties such as latitude into account, the treatment had a significant influence on the THg and MeHg concentrations. Although the treatment effect on THg and MeHg did not differ between SH and SP, the study did reveal significant forestry effects on potassium (K) and total nitrogen (TN) that were greater in the SH catchments and lower in the SP catchments. Partial least square (PLS) regressions indicated that organic matter was the most important variable influencing both the THg and MeHg concentrations. There were no significant differences between the treatment groups when comparing the ratios of THg/total organic carbon (TOC) and MeHg/TOC, suggesting that the high concentrations of THg and MeHg observed at some of the treated catchments are associated with increased concentrations of TOC rather than new methylation or increased mobilization caused by factors other than TOC.

  • 5. Gammal, Johanna
    et al.
    Järnström, Marie
    Bernard, Guillaume
    Norkko, Joanna
    Norkko, Alf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Environmental Context Mediates Biodiversity–Ecosystem Functioning Relationships in Coastal Soft-sediment Habitats2019In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 137-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing loss of biodiversity and global environmental changes severely affect the structure of coastal ecosystems. Consequences, in terms of ecosystem functioning, are, however, difficult to predict because the context dependency of the biodiversity–ecosystem function relationships within these heterogeneous seascapes is poorly understood. To assess the effects of biological and environmental factors in mediating ecosystem functioning (nutrient cycling) in different natural habitats, intact sediment cores were collected at 18 sites on a grain size gradient from coarse sand to silt, with varying organic matter content and vegetation. To assess ecosystem functioning, solute fluxes (O2, NH4+, PO43−, Si) across the sediment–water interface were measured. The macrofaunal communities changed along the grain size gradient with higher abundance, biomass and number of species in coarser sediments and in habitats with more vegetation. Across the whole gradient, the macrofauna cumulatively accounted for 25% of the variability in the multivariate solute fluxes, whereas environmental variables cumulatively accounted for 20%. Only the biomass and abundance of a few of the most dominant macrofauna species, not the number of species, appeared to contribute significantly to the nutrient recycling processes. Closer analyses of different sediment types (grouped into coarse, medium and fine sediment) showed that the macrofauna was an important predictor in all sediment types, but had the largest impact in fine and medium sediments. The results imply that even if the ecosystem functioning is similar in different sediment types, the underpinning mechanisms are different, which makes it challenging to generalize patterns of functioning across the heterogeneous shallow coastal zones.

  • 6. Green, Tom L.
    et al.
    Kronenberg, Jakub
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Insurance Value of Green Infrastructure in and Around Cities2016In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1051-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of climate change and urbanization projected to occur until 2050 poses new challenges for land-use planning, not least in terms of reducing urban vulnerability to hazards from projected increases in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. Interest in investments in green infrastructure (interconnected systems of parks, wetlands, gardens and other green spaces), as well as in restoration of urban ecosystems as part of such adaptation strategies, is growing worldwide. Previous research has highlighted the insurance value of ecosystems in securing the supply of ecosystem services in the face of disturbance and change, yet this literature neglects urban areas even though urban populations are often highly vulnerable. We revisit the insurance value literature to examine the applicability of the concept in urban contexts, illustrating it with two case studies: watersheds providing drinking water for residents of Vancouver, Canada; and private gardens ensuring connectedness between other parts of urban green infrastructure in London, UK. Our research supports the notion that investments in green infrastructure can enhance insurance value, reducing vulnerability and the costs of adaptation to climate change and other environmental change. Although we recommend that urban authorities consider the insurance value of ecosystems in their decision-making matrix, we advise caution in relying upon monetary evaluations of insurance value. We conclude by identifying actions and management strategies oriented to maintain or enhance the insurance value of urban ecosystems. Ecosystems that are themselves resilient to external disturbances are better able to provide insurance for broader social-ecological systems.

  • 7.
    Gullström, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lyimo, Liberatus D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of Dodoma, Tanzania.
    Dahl, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Göran S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Eggertsen, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Anderberg, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Rasmusson, Lina M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Linderholm, Hans W.
    Knudby, Anders
    Bandeira, Salomao
    Mtwana Nordlund, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Björk, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Blue Carbon Storage in Tropical Seagrass Meadows Relates to Carbonate Stock Dynamics, Plant–Sediment Processes, and Landscape Context: Insights from the Western Indian Ocean2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 551-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, seagrass ecosystems are considered major blue carbon sinks and thus indirect contributors to climate change mitigation. Quantitative estimates and multi-scale appraisals of sources that underlie long-term storage of sedimentary carbon are vital for understanding coastal carbon dynamics. Across a tropical–subtropical coastal continuum in the Western Indian Ocean, we estimated organic (Corg) and inorganic (Ccarb) carbon stocks in seagrass sediment. Quantified levels and variability of the two carbon stocks were evaluated with regard to the relative importance of environmental attributes in terms of plant–sediment properties and landscape configuration. The explored seagrass habitats encompassed low to moderate levels of sedimentary Corg (ranging from 0.20 to 1.44% on average depending on species- and site-specific variability) but higher than unvegetated areas (ranging from 0.09 to 0.33% depending on site-specific variability), suggesting that some of the seagrass areas (at tropical Zanzibar in particular) are potentially important as carbon sinks. The amount of sedimentary inorganic carbon as carbonate (Ccarb) clearly corresponded to Corg levels, and as carbonates may represent a carbon source, this could diminish the strength of seagrass sediments as carbon sinks in the region. Partial least squares modelling indicated that variations in sedimentary Corg and Ccarb stocks in seagrass habitats were primarily predicted by sediment density (indicating a negative relationship with the content of carbon stocks) and landscape configuration (indicating a positive effect of seagrass meadow area, relative to the area of other major coastal habitats, on carbon stocks), while seagrass structural complexity also contributed, though to a lesser extent, to model performance. The findings suggest that accurate carbon sink assessments require an understanding of plant–sediment processes as well as better knowledge of how sedimentary carbon dynamics are driven by cross-habitat links and sink–source relationships in a scale-dependent landscape context, which should be a priority for carbon sink conservation.

  • 8.
    Hentati Sundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hjelm, J.
    Boonstra, Wiebren J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Management Forcing Increased Specialization in a Fishery System2015In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries systems are shaped by dynamic social-ecological interactions that determine their capacity to provide ecosystem services. Human adaptation is often considered a key uncertainty, and there are few quantitative empirical analyses that address long-term social and ecological change in the analyses of fisheries systems. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to understand how different drivers influenced the adaptations by fishers, and (ii) to evaluate different consequences of such adaptations, especially with regard to diversity of social and ecological links. We used the Baltic Sea as a case study, a system with different fisheries, largely managed with a single-stock advice, in a top-down basis. The study period 1995-2009 was characterized by profound inter-annual fluctuations in fish stock status and prices, and introduction of new types of management measures. We used multivariate statistical methods to define longitudinal changes in fishing tactics and strategies based on logbook data. Our results indicate that changes in fishing strategies have mainly been driven by regulations, and there were only weak linkages between fishing activities, fish stocks, and price fluctuations. We found contrasting trends between large- and small-scale fishers, where large-scale fishers became more specialized and inflexible, whereas small-scale fishers diversified over time. We conclude that management has had a dominating role in shaping fishing patterns, leading to a reduction of important qualities related to the resilience in this social-ecological system.

  • 9.
    Kolb, Gundula S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Jerling, Lenn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    The impact of cormorants on plant–arthropod food webs on their nesting islands2010In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 353-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cormorant colonies on plant–arthropod island food webs, the consequences of nutrient-rich runoff on marine communities, and feedback loops from marine to terrestrial ecosystems. Terrestrial plant responses were as expected, with the highest plant biomass on islands with low nest density and the highest nitrogen (N) content on islands with high nest density. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found no uniform density response across guilds. Among herbivores, the variable responses may depend on the relative importance of plant quality or quantity. As expected, nutrient-rich runoff entered water bodies surrounding cormorant nesting islands, but only at high nest density, and increased the density of emerging insects. This created a potential feed-back loop to spiders (major terrestrial predators), where stable isotope analyses suggested great use of chironomids. Contrary to our expectation, this potential feed-back did not result in the highest spider density on islands with a high cormorant nest density. Web spiders showed no changes in density on active cormorant islands, and lycosids were actually less abundant on active cormorant islands compared to reference islands. The variable response of spiders despite increased dipteran densities, and also in other consumer groups, may be due to direct negative effects of cormorants on soil chemistry, vegetation cover, and other density regulating forces (for example, top–down forces) not studied here. This study highlights the importance of including processes in the surrounding marine ecosystem to understand the impacts of seabirds on the food web structures of their nesting islands. 

  • 10.
    Kolb, Gundula S.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Palmborg, Cecilia
    Taylor, Astrid R.
    Bååth, Erland
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Effects of Nesting Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) on Soil Chemistry, Microbial Communities and Soil Fauna2015In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 643-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seabirds act as vectors transporting marine nutrients to land by feeding on fish while nesting and roosting on islands. By depositing large amounts of nutrient-rich guano on their nesting islands they strongly affect island soils, vegetation and consumers. However, few studies have investigated how nesting seabirds affect soil communities. In this study, we investigated how cormorant nesting colonies affect soil chemistry, soil microbes and soil and litter fauna on their nesting islands in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden. We found that cormorant colonies strongly increase organic soil N and P concentrations, and the effect is stronger close to cormorant nests. Microbial communities were studied by extracting phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) from the soil. The total amounts of PLFA and the amount of PLFA indicating bacterial biomass were lower on active cormorant islands than on reference islands. Furthermore, PLFA structure and thus microbial community structure differed between cormorant and reference islands. Among ten investigated soil and litter arthropod groups three groups (Thysanoptera, Araneae and Oribatida) showed lower densities and one group (Astigmata) showed higher densities in soils on active cormorant than on reference islands. Some arthropod groups showed strong spatial variation on the cormorant islands. Astigmata, Mesostigmata and Diptera showed higher densities in soil samples close to cormorant nests, whereas Oribatida, Collembola and Hemiptera showed lower densities in litter samples close to cormorant nests than in samples taken 3-20 m away from nests. Overall, the cormorant colonies strongly affected soil ecosystems of their nesting islands, but causal correlations between arthropod densities and soil factors were difficult to reveal. One likely reason may be that nesting cormorant islands are very heterogeneous habitats showing large spatial variation in both soil properties as well as fauna densities.

  • 11.
    Mellbrand, Kajsa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Lavery, Paul S.
    Hyndes, Glenn
    Hamback, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Linking Land and Sea: Different Pathways for Marine Subsidies2011In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 732-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrients and energy derived from marine autotrophs subsidize shore ecosystems, increasing productivity and affecting food web dynamics and structure. In this study we examined how the inland reach of such inflow effects depends on vectors carrying the marine inflow inland and on landscape structure. We used stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to examine the roles of arthropod vectors in carrying marine-derived nutrients inland in two very different shore ecosystems: shore meadows in Sweden with marine inflows of algae and emerging chironomid midges; and sandy beaches and shore dunes in south-western Australia with marine inflows of algae and seagrass. In a colonization experiment, we found that deposited wrack on the beach is quickly colonized by both grazers and predators. However, in both systems we found a larger inland reach of the marine subsidy than could be accounted for by deposited macrophytes on shores alone, and that dipterans and spiders potentially functioned as vectors for the inflow. Our results indicate that marine inflows are important for near-shore terrestrial ecosystems well above the water's edge, and that this effect is largely due to arthropod vectors (mainly dipterans and spiders) in both low-productivity sandy beach ecosystems at the Indian Ocean coast of Australia, and more productive shore meadows on the Baltic Sea coast of Sweden. Our findings also suggest that the type of vector transporting marine material inland may be as important as the productivity contrast between ecosystems for explaining the degree of marine influence on the terrestrial system.

  • 12.
    Nyström, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Steneck, Robert S.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Troell, Max
    Confronting Feedbacks of Degraded Marine Ecosystems2012In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 695-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many coastal areas, marine ecosystems have shifted into contrasting states having reduced ecosystem services (hereafter called degraded). Such degraded ecosystems may be slow to revert to their original state due to new ecological feedbacks that reinforce the degraded state. A better understanding of the way human actions influence the strength and direction of feedbacks, how different feedbacks could interact, and at what scales they operate, may be necessary in some cases for successful management of marine ecosystems. Here we synthesize interactions of critical feedbacks of the degraded states from six globally distinct biomes: coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass beds, shallow soft sediments, oyster reefs, and coastal pelagic food webs. We explore to what extent current management captures these feedbacks and propose strategies for how and when (that is, windows of opportunity) to influence feedbacks in ways to break the resilience of the degraded ecosystem states. We conclude by proposing some challenges for future research that could improve our understanding of these issues and emphasize that management of degraded marine states will require a broad social-ecological approach to succeed.

  • 13.
    Rodil, Iván F.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Porto, Portugal.
    Lastra, Mariano
    López, Jesús
    Mucha, Ana P.
    Fernandes, Joana P.
    Fernandes, Sara V.
    Olabarria, Celia
    Sandy Beaches as Biogeochemical Hotspots: The Metabolic Role of Macroalgal Wrack on Low-productive Shores2019In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sandy beaches, which represent the most common type of land-sea interface, harbor distinctive biotic communities and regulate the flow of energy between marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Accumulations of sea wrack on sandy beaches are of crucial importance for recycling beach nutrients and for regulating trophic connectivity and coastal functioning. We investigated the role of beaches as biogeochemical hotspots by examining the metabolic activity in accumulations of different species of wrack on two exposed beaches affected by different levels of human pressure. Experimental wrack patches provided large amounts of different sedimentary nutrients over time due to remineralization of the algae. Unsurprisingly, the variation in the nutrients present in the beach sediments was related to the species of wrack considered. Macroalgal wrack was metabolically very active and supported high respiration rates represented by intense CO2 fluxes. Importantly, we demonstrated that the wrack metabolic rate differed significantly depending on the algal species considered. Different macrofauna and bacterial assemblages were identified in the different wrack patches and on the different beaches. We suggest that human activities such as beach grooming can modify the wrack-associated communities, thus contributing to the variability in the biogeochemical processes and metabolic rates. Significant changes in the type and amount of wrack deposited on beaches can change fundamental processes related to the marine-terrestrial transfer of nutrients and energy and to the marine-atmospheric transfer of CO2 emissions, with ecological consequences for nearshore environments.

  • 14.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Marine Ecosystem Science on an Intertwined Planet2017In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ecosystem science has developed since the 1940s, when humans obtained the ability to spend substantial time underneath the surface of the ocean. Since then, and drawing on several decades of scientific advances, a number of exciting research frontiers have emerged. We find: Understanding interacting drivers of change, Identifying thresholds in ecosystems, and Investigating social-ecological dynamics to represent particularly interesting frontiers, which we speculate will soon emerge as new mainstreams in marine ecosystem science. However, increasing human impacts on ecosystems everywhere and a new level of global connectivity are shifting the context for studying, understanding, and managing marine ecosystems. As a consequence, we argue that ecosystem scientists today also need to address a number of critical challenges and devote new energy and expertise to Modeling the Anthropocene, Operationalizing resilience, and Understanding social-ecological dynamics across scales. This new deep dive into unknown waters requires a number of strategies to be successful. We suggest that marine ecosystem scientists need to actively: Prepare for the unexpected, cross boundaries, and understand our cognitive limitations to further develop the exciting field of marine ecosystem science.

  • 15.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Human-induced trophic cascades and ecological regime shifts in the Baltic Sea2007In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 877-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecosystems of coastal and enclosed seas are under increasing anthropogenic pressure worldwide, with Chesapeake Bay, the Gulf of Mexico and the Black and Baltic Seas as well known examples. We use an ecosystem model (Ecopath with Ecosim, EwE) to show that reduced top-down control (seal predation) and increased bottom-up forcing (eutrophication) can largely explain the historical dynamics of the main fish stocks (cod, herring and sprat) in the Baltic Sea between 1900 and 1980. Based on these results and the historical fish stock development we identify two major ecological transitions. A shift from seal to cod domination was caused by a virtual elimination of marine mammals followed by a shift from an oligotrophic to a eutrophic state. A third shift from cod to clupeid domination in the late 1980s has previously been explained by overfishing of cod and climatic changes. We propose that the shift from an oligotrophic to a eutrophic state represents a true regime shift with a stabilizing mechanism for a hysteresis phenomenon. There are also mechanisms that could stabilize the shift from a cod to clupeid dominated ecosystem, but there are no indications that the ecosystem has been pushed that far yet. We argue that the shifts in the Baltic Sea are a consequence of human impacts, although variations in climate may have influenced their timing, magnitude and persistence.

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