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  • 1. Anderson, Maria E.
    et al.
    Runesson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Saar, Indrek
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry. University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Robinson, John K.
    Galanin, through GalR1 but not GalR2 receptors, decreases motivation at times of high appetitive behavior2013In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 239, p. 90-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Galanin is a 29/30-amino acid long neuropeptide that has been implicated in many physiological and behavioral functions. Previous research has shown that i.c.v. administration of galanin strongly stimulates food intake in sated rats when food is freely available, but fails to stimulate this consumption when an operant response requirement is present. Using fixed ratio (FR) schedules, we sought to further clarify galanin's role in motivated behavior by administering galanin i.c.v. to rats working on fixed ratio schedules requiring either a low work condition (FR1) or higher work conditions (FR > 1) to obtain a 0.2% saccharin reward. Rats in the FR > 1 group were assigned to either an FR3, FR5 or FR7 schedule of reinforcement. The rate of reinforcement decreased for only the FR > 1 group as compared to saline controls. Furthermore, injections of GalR1 receptor agonist M617 led to a similar, marginally significant decrease in the number of reinforcers received in the FR > 1 condition, but a decrease was not seen after injections of GalR2 receptor agonist M1153. Taken together, these results show that galanin may be playing a role in decreasing motivation at times of high appetitive behavior, and that this effect is likely mediated by the GalR1 receptor.

  • 2. Frick, Andreas
    et al.
    Gingnell, Malin
    Marquand, Andre F.
    Howner, Katarina
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Williams, Steven C. R.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Furmark, Tomas
    Classifying social anxiety disorder using multivoxel pattern analyses of brain function and structure2014In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 259, p. 330-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional neuroimaging of social anxiety disorder (SAD) support altered neural activation to threat-provoking stimuli focally in the fear network, while structural differences are distributed over the temporal and frontal cortices as well as limbic structures. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated the brain at the voxel level using mass-univariate methods which do not enable detection of more complex patterns of activity and structural alterations that may separate SAD from healthy individuals. Support vector machine (SVM) is a supervised machine learning method that capitalizes on brain activation and structural patterns to classify individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate if it is possible to discriminate SAD patients (n = 14) from healthy controls (n = 12) using SVM based on (1) functional magnetic resonance imaging during fearful face processing and (2) regional gray matter volume. Whole brain and region of interest (fear network) SVM analyses were performed for both modalities. For functional scans, significant classifications were obtained both at whole brain level and when restricting the analysis to the fear network while gray matter SVM analyses correctly classified participants only when using the whole brain search volume. These results support that SAD is characterized by aberrant neural activation to affective stimuli in the fear network, while disorder-related alterations in regional gray matter volume are more diffusely distributed over the whole brain. SVM may thus be useful for identifying imaging biomarkers of SAD.

  • 3. Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    et al.
    Salami, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Boraxbekk, C.-J.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Furmark, Tomas
    Structural but not functional neuroplasticity one year after effective cognitive behaviour therapy for social anxiety disorder2017In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 318, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective psychiatric treatments ameliorate excessive anxiety and induce neuroplasticity immediately after the intervention, indicating that emotional components in the human brain are rapidly adapTable Still, the interplay between structural and functional neuroplasticity is poorly understood, and studies of treatment-induced long-term neuroplasticity are rare. Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (using 3 T MRI) was performed in 13 subjects with social anxiety disorder on 3 occasions over 1 year. All subjects underwent 9 weeks of Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy in a randomized cross-over design and independent assessors used the Clinically Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale to determine treatment response. Gray matter (GM) volume, assessed with voxel-based morphometry, and functional blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity to self-referential criticism were compared between treatment responders and non-responders using 2 × 2 (group × time; pretreatment to follow-up) ANOVA. At 1-year follow-up, 7 (54%) subjects were classified as CGI-I responders. Left amygdala GM volume was more reduced in responders relative to non-responders from pretreatment to 1-year follow-up (Z = 3.67, Family-Wise Error corrected p = 0.02). In contrast to previous short-term effects, altered BOLD activations to self-referential criticism did not separate responder groups at follow-up. The structure and function of the amygdala changes immediately after effective psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, but only reduced amygdala GM volume, and not functional activity, is associated with a clinical response 1 year after CBT.

  • 4. Riemer, Martin
    et al.
    Kubik, Veit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany; Martin-Luther Universität, Germany.
    Wolbers, Thomas
    The effect of feedback on temporal error monitoring and timing behavior2019In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 369, article id 111929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metacognitive processes in human timing behavior are rarely investigated, which stands in sharp contrast to the wide research field of metacognition itself. To date, little is known about the sources and the reliability of information that humans possess to judge their own timing abilities and to monitor errors in time-keeping. Here, we intended to fill this gap by determining the degree to which humans depend on external feedback to adjust their timing behavior and make metacognitive accuracy judgments. Two groups of participants performed a time reproduction task under different feedback conditions. After each trial, participants were informed either about the magnitude and the direction of their timing error (signed feedback group) or about its magnitude alone (absolute feedback group). Reproduction errors were related to retrospective, metacognitive judgments on the overall timing performance. The results indicate that the under reproduction effect occurred, rather independently of the type of feedback; however, signed feedback was essential to reduce the bias in metacognitive judgments on timing accuracy. Without being explicitly informed about the direction of timing errors (whether the reproduction interval was stopped too early or too late), participants significantly overestimated their reproduced durations. These results extend previous reports of metacognitive processes in timing behavior measured on a single-trial basis, and provide new insights into the ability of temporal error monitoring in humans.

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