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  • 1. Fernaeus, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Östberg, Per
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Cut the coda: Early fluency intervals predict diagnoses2008In: Cortex, ISSN 0010-9452, E-ISSN 1973-8102, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to clarify whether letter and category fluency tap different cognitive abilities; (ii) to make diagnostic comparisons and predictions using temporally resolved fluency data; (iii) to challenge and test the widely made assumption that 1-min sum scores are the fluency test measure of choice in the diagnosis of dementia. Scores from six 10-sec intervals of letter and category fluency tests were obtained from 240 participants including cognitive levels ranging from mild subjective cognitive complaints to Alzheimer's disease. Factor analysis revealed clearly separate factors corresponding to letter and category fluency. Category fluency was markedly impaired in Alzheimer's disease but not in Mild Cognitive Impairment. Only scores from relatively early intervals predicted Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. The conclusions are (i) letter and category fluency are different tests, category fluency being the best diagnostic predictor; (ii) it would be possible to administer category fluency tests only for 30 sec, because after this point the necessary differential diagnostic information about the patient's word fluency capacity has already been gathered.

  • 2. Peter, Moa G.
    et al.
    Porada, Danja K.
    Regenbogen, Christina
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, USA; University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Sensory loss enhances multisensory integration performance2019In: Cortex, ISSN 0010-9452, E-ISSN 1973-8102, Vol. 120, p. 116-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory and visual sensory loss has repeatedly been shown to alter abilities in remaining sensory modalities. It is, however, unclear whether sensory loss also impacts multisensory integration; an ability that is fundamental for the perception of the world around us. We determined effects of olfactory sensory deprivation on multisensory perception by assessing temporal as well as semantic aspects of audio-visual integration in 37 individuals with anosmia (complete olfactory sensory loss) and 37 healthy, matched controls. Participants performed a simultaneity judgement task to determine the temporal binding window, and a multisensory object identification task with individually degraded, dynamic visual, auditory, and audio-visual stimuli. Individuals with anosmia demonstrated an increased ability to detect multisensory temporal asynchronies, represented by a narrowing of the audio-visual temporal binding window. Furthermore, individuals with congenital, but not acquired, anosmia demonstrated indications of greater benefits from bimodal, as compared to unimodal, stimulus presentation when faced with degraded, semantic information. This suggests that the absence of the olfactory sense alters multisensory integration of remaining senses by sharpening the perception of cross-modal temporal violations, independent of sensory loss etiology. In addition, congenital sensory loss may further lead to increased gain from multisensory, compared to unisensory, information. Taken together, multisensory compensatory mechanisms at different levels of perceptual complexity are present in individuals with anosmia.

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