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  • 1. Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro
    et al.
    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Alvarado, Jorge A.
    Arboleda, Juan Camilo
    Suarez, Daniel R.
    Spence, Charles
    Drawing sounds: representing tones and chords spatially2016In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 234, no 12, p. 3509-3522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the crossmodal correspondences has revealed that seemingly unrelated perceptual information can be matched across the senses in a manner that is consistent across individuals. An interesting extension of this line of research is to study how sensory information biases action. In the present study, we investigated whether different sounds (i.e. tones and piano chords) would bias participants' hand movements in a free movement task. Right-handed participants were instructed to move a computer mouse in order to represent three tones and two chords. They also had to rate each sound in terms of three visual analogue scales (slow-fast, unpleasant-pleasant, and weak-strong). The results demonstrate that tones and chords influence hand movements, with higher-(lower-)pitched sounds giving rise to a significant bias towards upper (lower) locations in space. These results are discussed in terms of the literature on forward models, embodied cognition, crossmodal correspondences, and mental imagery. Potential applications sports and rehabilitation are discussed briefly.

  • 2.
    Sand, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Asymmetric transfer of sound localization learning between indistinguishable interaural cues2014In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 232, no 6, p. 1707-1716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning in perceptual tasks is typically highly specific to the trained stimulus parameters. However, can learning be specific to a stimulus parameter that is perceptually indistinguishable from another? We assessed this question using a perceived sound location task in which the perceived sound location was created through either an interaural time difference (ITD) cue or an interaural level difference (ILD) cue. We used the same transient, broadband sound (clicks) for both cues, and after training on one of the cues, listeners switched cue mid-session. This allowed us to assess cue specificity or transfer when the subjectively unnoticed cue switch occurred. One group of listeners improved their ITD performance as a function of training, but deteriorated in performance when switching to ILD in mid training session. Another group of listeners started with ILD training; their improved performance level did not deteriorate as they switched to the ITD cue. This transfer asymmetry was not hypothesized, and we therefore extended our study with a second data collection. Both the training effect and the transfer asymmetry remained after the second data collection. Our results indicate (a) listeners can improve both their ITD and ILD performance for click sounds, extending previous findings on tones; (b) learning can be specific to a stimulus parameter that is indistinguishable from another, as ITD learning did not transfer to ILD performance; but (c) ILD learning can transfer to ITD performance. This transfer asymmetry may have occurred because of how ITD and ILD are coded in early brainstem areas.

  • 3. Verrel, Julius
    et al.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Center for Lifespan Psychology; Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Motor-equivalent covariation stabilizes step parameters and center of mass position during treadmill walking2010In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 207, no 1-2, p. 13-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated motor-equivalent stabilization of task-related variables (TRV) at times of heel strike in eight healthy young men (23-30 years) who walked on a motorized treadmill at self-selected and prescribed speeds within the normal walking speed range. The TRV consisted of step parameters (step length and width) and the center of mass (CoM) position relative to the support (back and front feet). Motor-equivalent stabilization of the TRV was assessed using a decorrelation technique, comparing empirical to decorrelated (covariation-free) variability. Analysis indicated reliable covariation for all TRV. In both the fore-aft and lateral directions, stabilization by covariation was highest for CoM position relative to the front foot, indicating a prioritization of equilibrium-related variables. Correlations among TRV revealed that the relation between CoM and step parameter control differed between the fore-aft and lateral directions. While stabilization of lateral foot position appears to be due to control of CoM relative to each foot, step length showed small, but reliable, stabilization beyond CoM stabilization, which may be related to spatiotemporal regularity of the step pattern.

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