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  • 1. Ahmed, S.E.
    et al.
    Lees, A.C.
    Moura, N.G.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called ‘roadless volume (RV)’ at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  • 3.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Baird, Julia
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Vulturius, Gregor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Analysis of Swedish Forest Owners' Information and Knowledge-Sharing Networks for Decision-Making: Insights for Climate Change Communication and Adaptation2017In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 885-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.

  • 4.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bruzell, Susanna
    Centrum för miljö- och klimatforskning, Lunds universitet.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Lagergren, Fredrik
    Vulturius, Gregor
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Blennow, Kristina
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Engström, Kerstin
    Hassler, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Lindeskog, Mats
    Olsson, Olle
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Klimatanpassat skogsbruk: drivkrafter, risker och möjligheter : Mistra-SWECIA syntesrapport2015Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Jonsson, C. Anna
    Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Science-practice interactions linked to climate adaptation in two contexts: municipal planning and forestry in Sweden2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 297-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the science-practice interface in the process of adapting to climate change in society. This paper analyses science-based stakeholder dialogues with climate scientists, municipal officers and private individual forest owners in Sweden, and examines how local experts both share scientific knowledge and experience and integrate it into their work strategies and practices. The results demonstrate how local experts jointly conceptualise climate adaptation, how scientific knowledge is domesticated among local experts in dialogue with scientific experts, the emergence of anchoring devices, and the boundary-spanning functions that are at work in the respective sectors.

  • 6.
    Asselt, Harro van
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. University of Oxford.
    Review Essay: Pluralism, Informality and Transnational Environmental Law2014In: Transnational environmental law, ISSN 2047-1025, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 173-189Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 7. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Mehling, Michael E.
    Siebert, Clarisse Kehler
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    The Changing Architecture of International Climate Change Law2015In: Research Handbook on Climate Change Mitigation Law / [ed] G. van Calster et al., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. Ch. 2-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8. Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Rayner, Tim
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Climate policy integration2015In: Research handbook on climate governance / [ed] Karin Bäckstrand, Eva Lövbrand, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 388-399Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2009 United Nations climate conference in Copenhagen is often represented as a turning point in global climate politics, when the diplomatic efforts to negotiate a successor agreement to the Kyoto Protocol failed and was replaced by a fragmented and decentralized climate governance order. In the post-Copenhagen landscape the top-down universal approach to climate governance has gradually given way to a more complex, hybrid and dispersed political landscape involving multiple actors, arenas and sites. Drawing upon contributions from more than 50 internationally renowned scholars, the Handbook assesses the state and direction of climate governance at multilateral, EU, national and local levels. The volume mobilizes multiple scholarly traditions ranging from grand theorizing to close empirical studies of micro-political practices, and spans the ideational and the material, the historical and the contemporary, the normative and the critical. The resulting collection of chapters represents the state of the art and most recent thinking in the rich and expanding scholarship on climate politics and governance.

  • 9.
    Asselt, Harro van
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Zelli, Fariborz
    Lund University.
    Connect the dots: Managing the fragmentation of global climate governance2014In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 137-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate about post-2012 global climate governance has been framed largely by proponents and opponents of the policymaking process established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In light of the proliferation of institutions governing some aspects of climate change, analysts have asked whether a centralized or a polycentric climate governance architecture will be more effective, efficient, equitable, or viable. While these are valid questions, they obscure the fact that global climate governance is already polycentric, or rather: fragmented. This article argues that the more pertinent questions are how to sensibly link the different elements of global climate governance, and what the role of the UNFCCC could be in this regard. We examine these two questions for three aspects of global climate governance: international climate technology initiatives, emerging emissions trading systems, and unilateral trade measures. The article shows that there are strong arguments for coordination in all of these cases, and illustrates the possible role of the UNFCCC. It concludes, however, that possibilities for coordination will eventually be limited by underlying tensions that will plague any future climate governance architecture.

  • 10.
    Atteridge, Aaron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Steele, Paul
    Financing for Sustainable Development: Country system and other issues and options for enhancing the coherence and effectiveness of development and climate finance: Background paper 2.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Axelsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Elfors, Susanna
    André, Karin
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Carson, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hållbara Hökarängens fördjupade miljösatsning : Slutrapport: Oktober 2012 – juni 20152015Report (Other academic)
  • 12. Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Nilsson, Annika E.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Miljöpolitikens spelplan: rapport från Miljöforskningsberedningen2014Book (Other academic)
  • 13. Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Kemp-Benedict, Eric
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Morris, Joanne
    de Bruin, Annemarieke
    Wang, Douglas
    Fencl, Amanad
    Mapping the potential success of agricultural water management interventions for smallholders: Where are the best opportunities?2015In: Water Resources and Rural Development, ISSN 1745-6231, E-ISSN 2212-6082, Vol. 6, p. 24-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From field to basin scales, there are many appropriate interventions used to manage rainfall efficiently and productively in smallholder farming systems. Yet, successful targeting and scaling-out of these approaches remains a challenge. This paper presents an innovative approach in decision support called ‘Targeting Agricultural Water Management Interventions’ (TAGMI) with application in Limpopo and Volta river basins (available at http://www.seimapping.org/tagmi/). The online open-access TAGMI uses country-scale Bayesian network models to assess the likelihood of success for outscaling various agricultural water management (AWM) interventions at sub-national level. The web tool integrates multiple sources of expertise on the enabling environment for outscaling based on key social, human, physical, financial, and natural factors. It estimates the relative probability of success of an AWM intervention across the Limpopo and Volta river basins. Here we present TAGMI as a ‘proof of concept’, areas of high, medium, and low probabilities of success for three AWM technologies common in Limpopo and Volta River Basins: the soil water conservation/in situ rainwater harvesting technologies in rain-fed systems, small-scale private irrigation and small reservoirs used for communal irrigation purposes. We then apply a climate change scenario and discuss the robustness in potential AWM, according to the TAGMI tool. Finally, we discuss the need for generic or specific information on ‘best practices of implementation’ for successful uptake of technologies in poverty-constrained smallholder farming systems.

  • 14.
    Benzie, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Social justice and adaptation in the UK2014In: Ecology and Society, ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Benzie, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Wallgren, Oskar
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Initiating and sustaining adaptation in the private sector2014In: Climate change adaptation manual: lessons learned from European and other industrialized countries / [ed] Andrea Prutsch, Torsten Grothmann, Sabine McCallum, Inke Schauser, Rob Swart, London: Routledge, 2014, p. 78-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16. Berenguer, Erika
    et al.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. International Institute for Sustainability, Brazil .
    Barlow, Jos
    Developing Cost-Effective Field Assessments of Carbon Stocks in Human-Modified Tropical Forests2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, article id e0133139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the tropics, there is a growing financial investment in activities that aim to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, such as REDD+. However, most tropical countries lack on-the-ground capacity to conduct reliable and replicable assessments of forest carbon stocks, undermining their ability to secure long-term carbon finance for forest conservation programs. Clear guidance on how to reduce the monetary and time costs of field assessments of forest carbon can help tropical countries to overcome this capacity gap. Here we provide such guidance for cost-effective one-off field assessments of forest carbon stocks. We sampled a total of eight components from four different carbon pools (i.e. aboveground, dead wood, litter and soil) in 224 study plots distributed across two regions of eastern Amazon. For each component we estimated survey costs, contribution to total forest carbon stocks and sensitivity to disturbance. Sampling costs varied thirty-one-fold between the most expensive component, soil, and the least, leaf litter. Large live stems (≥10 cm DBH), which represented only 15% of the overall sampling costs, was by far the most important component to be assessed, as it stores the largest amount of carbon and is highly sensitive to disturbance. If large stems are not taxonomically identified, costs can be reduced by a further 51%, while incurring an error in aboveground carbon estimates of only 5% in primary forests, but 31% in secondary forests. For rapid assessments, necessary to help prioritize locations for carbon- conservation activities, sampling of stems ≥20cm DBH without taxonomic identification can predict with confidence (R2 = 0.85) whether an area is relatively carbon-rich or carbon-poor—an approach that is 74% cheaper than sampling and identifying all the stems ≥10cm DBH. We use these results to evaluate the reliability of forest carbon stock estimates provided by the IPCC and FAO when applied to human-modified forests, and to highlight areas where cost savings in carbon stock assessments could be most easily made.

  • 17.
    Berndes, Göran
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Björklund, Inger Poveda
    Borg, Christer
    Granit, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Olsson, Gustaf
    Lund University.
    Charting a Sustainable Path for Renewable Energy Development2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18. Bharwani, Sukaina
    et al.
    Rastall, Michael
    Smith, Ben
    Salamanca, Albert
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nugroho, Agus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nguyen, Ha
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Visualizing connections: Mapping the landscape of adaptation research and practice through weADAPT2015Report (Other academic)
  • 19. Bisaro, Alexander
    et al.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    Davis, Marion
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Supporting NAP development with the PROVIA Guidance: A user companion2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This brochure explains how the PROVIA Guidance on Assessing Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change can be used to better understand key concepts and available methods and tools throughout the National Adaptation Plan process.

  • 20.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Lyxkonsumera för miljöns skull2015In: Expressen, ISSN 1103-923X, no 28 marsArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21. Brown, S.
    et al.
    Nicholls, R.J.
    Hanson, S.
    Brundrit, G.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Linköping University.
    Shifting perspectives on coastal impacts and adaptation2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 752-755Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Bruzell, Susanna
    et al.
    Benzie, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Climate-related risks and opportunities for agriculture and forestry businesses2015In: Mistra-SWECIA annual report 2014, Mistra-SWECIA , 2015, p. 6-7Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Eriksson, E. Anders
    Dreborg, Karl Henrik
    Johansson, Bengt
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Systematic exploration of scenario spaces2016In: Foresight, ISSN 1463-6689, E-ISSN 1465-9832, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Scenarios have become a vital methodological approach in business as well as in public policy. When scenarios are used to guide analysis and decision-making, the aim is typically robustness and in this context we argue that two main problems at scenario set level is conservatism, i.e. all scenarios are close to a perceived business-as-usual trajectory and lack of balance in the sense of arbitrarily mixing some conservative and some extreme scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to address these shortcomings by proposing a methodology for generating sets of scenarios which are in a mathematical sense maximally diverse. Design/methodology/approach - In this paper, we develop a systematic methodology, Scenario Diversity Analysis (SDA), which addresses the problems of broad span vs conservatism and imbalance. From a given set of variables with associated states, SDA generates scenario sets where the scenarios are in a quantifiable sense maximally different and therefore best span the whole set of feasible scenarios. Findings - The usefulness of the methodology is exemplified by applying it to sets of storylines of the emissions scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. This ex-post analysis shows that the storylines were not maximally diverse and given the challenges ahead with regard to emissions reduction and adaptation planning, we argue that it is important to strive for diversity when developing scenario sets for climate change research. Originality/value - The proposed methodology adds significant novel features to the field of systematic scenario generation, especially with regard to scenario diversity. The methodology also enables the combination of systematics with the distinct future logics of good intuitive logics scenarios.

  • 24.
    Carson, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Acting locally to mitigate globally: climate action in the Anthropocene2015In: Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, ISSN 2190-6483, E-ISSN 2190-6491, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 58-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that individual- or local-scale actions can combine to have global effects and relevance is of course not limited to the natural sciences. Slogans such as “think globally, act locally” have been used for many years in an effort to encourage individuals and locally anchored movements to see their place—and their actions—as part of a broader effort. What the message embedded in the term Anthropocene highlights, however, is the fact that a multitude of individuals acting locally influences global conditions whether or not we “think” globally. Nowhere is this more true than with climate change. In the Arctic, the consequences of climate change are more visible, yet the links between action and consequences appear more distant, and this illustrates a key challenge. Local action has often been pursued in the shadow of the global negotiations, yet many of the most important breakthroughs currently being made are arguably being accomplished at the local and regional levels. This is in fact the silver lining in that dark cloud surrounding the Anthropocene. It points to the critical importance of local level action on climate change, both from a governance perspective and for improving underlying the socio-technical conditions that influence what is possible in global efforts.

  • 25.
    Daniel, Rajesh
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Policy briefings : SUMERNET research projects : phase 2 (2010-2013)2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26. de Oliveira-Junior, José Max Barbosa de
    et al.
    Shimano, Yulie
    Gardner, Toby Alan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hughes, Robert M.
    de Marco Junior, Paulo
    Juen, Leandro
    Neotropical dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) as indicators of ecological condition of small streams in the eastern Amazon2015In: Austral ecology (Print), ISSN 1442-9985, E-ISSN 1442-9993, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 733-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensitive and cost-effective indicators of aquatic ecosystem condition in Amazon streams are necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on those systems in a viable and ecologically meaningful manner. We conducted the present study in the municipality of Paragominas, state of Pará, northern Brazil, where we sampled adult dragonflies in 50 100-m-long wadeable stream sites in 2011. We collected 1769 specimens represented by 11 families, 41 genera and 97 species. The suborder Zygoptera contributed 961 individuals and Anisoptera 808. Among the 97 recorded species, nine were classified as useful indicators of ecological condition, with four species being associated with more degraded streams (three Anisoptera, one Zygoptera) and five with more preserved streams (all were Zygoptera). Anisoptera (dragonflies) tend to provide more useful indicators of more degraded environments because they have more efficient homeostatic mechanisms and are more mobile, enabling them to tolerate a wider range of environmental conditions. By contrast, Zygoptera (damselflies) tend to provide a more useful role as indicators of more preserved environments and high levels of environmental heterogeneity because of their smaller body sizes and home ranges and greater ecophysiological restrictions. We conclude from our assessment of this low-order Amazonian stream system that (i) the occurrence of specific odonate species is strongly associated with the configuration of riparian vegetation, (ii) agricultural activities appear to be the main factor determining changes in the composition of odonate assemblages and (iii) these insects can act as useful indicators of the ecological consequences of riparian habitat loss and disturbance. Because generalist species invade moderately degraded areas, those areas may have high species richness but host few species of Zygoptera. Therefore, preserving dense riparian vegetation is necessary to maintain aquatic ecological condition, and that condition can be rehabilitated by planting new trees. Both require enforcing existing environmental regulations, various types of incentives and educating local communities.

  • 27. Dearing, John A.
    et al.
    Wang, Rong
    Zhang, Ke
    Dyke, James G.
    Haberl, Helmut
    Hossain, Md Sarwar
    Langdon, Peter G.
    Lenton, Timothy M.
    Raworth, Kate
    Brown, Sally
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Cole, Megan J.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Dawson, Terence P.
    Doncaster, C. Patrick
    Eigenbrod, Felix
    Floerke, Martina
    Jeffers, Elizabeth
    Mackay, Anson W.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Poppy, Guy M.
    Safe and just operating spaces for regional social-ecological systems2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, p. 227-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humanity faces a major global challenge in achieving wellbeing for all, while simultaneously ensuring that the biophysical processes and ecosystem services that underpin wellbeing are exploited within scientifically informed boundaries of sustainability. We propose a framework for defining the safe and just operating space for humanity that integrates social wellbeing into the original planetary boundaries concept (Rockstrom et al., 2009a,b) for application at regional scales. We argue that such a framework can: (1) increase the policy impact of the boundaries concept as most governance takes place at the regional rather than planetary scale; (2) contribute to the understanding and dissemination of complexity thinking throughout governance and policy-making; (3) act as a powerful metaphor and communication tool for regional equity and sustainability. We demonstrate the approach in two rural Chinese localities where we define the safe and just operating space that lies between an environmental ceiling and a social foundation from analysis of time series drawn from monitored and palaeoecological data, and from social survey statistics respectively. Agricultural intensification has led to poverty reduction, though not eradicated it, but at the expense of environmental degradation. Currently, the environmental ceiling is exceeded for degraded water quality at both localities even though the least well-met social standards are for available piped water and sanitation. The conjunction of these social needs and environmental constraints around the issue of water access and quality illustrates the broader value of the safe and just operating space approach for sustainable development.

  • 28. Deeming, Hugh
    et al.
    Fordham, Maureen
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Resilience and Adaptation to Hydrometeorological Hazards2015In: Hydrometeorological Hazards: Interfacing Science and Policy / [ed] Philippe P. Quevauviller, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015, p. 291-316Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the related concepts of resilience and adaptation. The discussion in the chapter emanates from the on-going EU FP7 emBRACE project which used five case studies across Europe to investigate the role, structure and processes of ‘ community resilience’ in the face of flooding, alpine hazards (avalanche and flash flood), heatwave and earthquake. A sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) is employed as the mechanism by which the complex mix of components and processes of relevance to community resilience is elucidated to hydrometeorological hazards. The chapter introduces a number of lenses through which it can be seen that resilient people, communities and systems require a much wider and more complex frame in which to understand how resilience is produced, reproduced, maintained or lost, than can be provided within even quite advanced socio-technical risk-management systems.

  • 29. Dey, Soma
    et al.
    Resurrección, Bernadette P.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Doneys, Philippe
    Gender and environmental struggles: voices from Adivasi Garo community in Bangladesh2014In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 945-962Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Diaz-Chavez, Rocio
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Richard, Tom L.
    Chanakya, Hoysala
    Biomass Resources, Energy Access and Poverty Reduction2015In: Bioenergy & Sustainability: bridging the gap / [ed] Glaucia Mendes Souza et al., Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) , 2015, p. 711-728Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31. Dickin, Sarah
    et al.
    Dagerskog, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Jimenez, Alejandro
    Andersson, Kim
    Savadogo, Karim
    Understanding sustained use of ecological sanitation in rural Burkina Faso2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to safe sanitation services is fundamental for healthy and productive lives, but in rural Burkina Faso only around 7% of the population uses improved sanitation. Ecological sanitation (ecosan) systems that allow safe agricultural reuse of nutrients in human waste have been promoted in these areas, as a way to meet sanitation needs while contributing to food security. However, little is known about the success of these interventions in terms of both sustained use of the toilet and safe excreta reuse practices. We assessed the use of ecosan systems in 44 rural communities where such interventions had taken place. Structured interviews and observations conducted at 520 randomly selected concessions (residential properties), suggested a large-scale shift from open defecation to ecosan toilet use. However, only 58% of surveyed concessions reported ever emptying the ecosan toilet vault, which is required for optimal long-term functioning. Concessions that received ecosan training programmes with a greater emphasis on agricultural reuse were more strongly associated with toilet use and emptying than those that whose training focused more on sanitation access and health benefits. The findings suggest that the safe agricultural reuse of nutrients can provide a strong motivation for long-term adoption of improved sanitation among rural smallholders.

  • 32.
    Dile, Yihun T.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Texas A&M University, USA.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Mesoscale Hydrological Modeling Framework2016In: Advances in Meteorology, ISSN 1687-9309, E-ISSN 1687-9317, article id 5935430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme rainfall variability has been one of the major factors to famine and environmental degradation in Ethiopia. The potential for water harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin was assessed using two GIS-based Multicriteria Evaluation methods: (1) a Boolean approach to locate suitable areas for in situ and ex situ systems and (2) a weighted overlay analysis to classify suitable areas into different water harvesting suitability levels. The sensitivity of the results was analyzed to the influence given to different constraining factors. A large part of the basin was suitable for water harvesting: the Boolean analysis showed that 36% of the basin was suitable for in situ and ex situ systems, while the weighted overlay analysis showed that 6-24% of the basin was highly suitable. Rainfall has the highest influence on suitability for water harvesting. Implementing water harvesting in nonagricultural land use types may further increase the benefit. Assessing water harvesting suitability at the larger catchment scale lays the foundation for modeling of water harvesting at mesoscale, which enables analysis of the potential and implications of upscaling of water harvesting practices for building resilience against climatic shocks. A complete water harvesting suitability study requires socioeconomic analysis and stakeholder consultation.

  • 33.
    Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Srinivasan, Raghavan
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Assessing the Implications of Water Harvesting Intensification on Upstream-downstream Social-ecological systems: a Case Study in the Lake Tana BasinManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Srinivasan, Raghavan
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Investigation of the curve number method for surface runoff estimation in tropical regions: a case study in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, EthiopiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Meso-scale Hydrological Modeling Framework2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Dile, Yihun Taddele
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Srinivasan, Raghavan
    Evaluation of CFSR climate data for hydrologic prediction in data-scarce watersheds: an application in the Blue Nile River Basin2014In: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 1226-1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data scarcity has been a huge problem in modeling the water resources of the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Satellite data and different statistical methods have been used to improve the quality of conventional meteorological data. This study assesses the applicability of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) climate data in modeling the hydrology of the region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was set up to compare the performance of CFSR weather with that of conventional weather in simulating observed streamflow at four river gauging stations in the Lake Tana basin — the upper part of the Upper Blue Nile basin. The conventional weather simulation performed satisfactorily (e.g., NSE ≥ 0.5) for three gauging stations, while the CFSR weather simulation performed satisfactorily for two. The simulations with CFSR and conventional weather yielded minor differences in the water balance components in all but one watershed, where the CFSR weather simulation gave much higher average annual rainfall, resulting in higher water balance components. Both weather simulations gave similar annual crop yields in the four administrative zones. Overall the simulation with the conventional weather performed better than the CFSR weather. However, in data-scarce regions such as remote parts of the Upper Blue Nile basin, CFSR weather could be a valuable option for hydrological predictions where conventional gauges are not available.

  • 37.
    Dzebo, Adis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Stripple, Johannes
    Transnational adaptation governance: an emerging fourth era of adaptation2015In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 35, p. 423-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change adaptation, which has previously been seen as a national and local matter, is today systematically addressed by international institutions such as the UNFCCC, the FAO and the WTO. Research has focused on the overarching institutional architecture of global adaptation, particularly how it relates to development, political economy, efficiency and equity. In contrast to the transnational dimension of climate mitigation, the transnationalization of adaptation governance has received scant attention. By creating a dataset of adaptation projects, we examine transnational adaptation governance in terms of its scope, institutionalization and main functions. We find transnational adaptation governance to be firmly anchored within the UNFCCC, but a recent change towards adaptation governed by a transnational constituency can be identified. When non-state actors become integral to the project of governing adaptation, a ‘fourth era’ of adaption seems to be emerging. This new era is not replacing other forms of governing, but is emerging alongside and in a complementary fashion. In the ‘fourth era’, adaptation is increasingly governed globally and transnationally, and the attention is turned toward ‘softer’ forms of governance such as agenda setting, information sharing and capacity building.

  • 38. Eisenack, K.
    et al.
    Moser, S.C.
    Hoffman, E.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research and Department of Thematic Studies, Linköping University.
    Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 867-872Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Eisenack, Klaus
    et al.
    Moser, Susanne C.
    Hoffmann, Esther
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research and Department of Thematic Studies, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Reply to 'Opening up the black box of adaptation decision-making'2015In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 494-495Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Ekane, Nelson
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Mertz, C.K.
    Slovic, Paul
    Kjellén, Marianne
    Westlund, Hans
    Risk and benefit judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture: An exploratory investigation in Rwanda and Uganda2015In: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, ISSN 1080-7039, E-ISSN 1549-7860, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 639-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the use of psychometric techniques to improveunderstanding of psychological mechanisms underlying judgment ofexcreta as fertilizer in agriculture including other excreta-relatedactivities. Participants consisted of environmental health students,smallholder farmers, and traders in rural and urban Rwanda andUganda. Thefinding reveals an inverse relationship between risk andbenefit judgments. This relationship holds for the three groups ofparticipants with significant risk and benefit correlations ofp<.0001.Thisfinding is consistent with other studies in showing that affectplays a key role in risk perception, judgment, and decision-making.Building on thisfinding, we conclude that individuals with high riskand low benefit judgment for excreta-related practices would eschewthem or emphasize strict standards. Individuals with a high benefit andlow risk judgment would engage in excreta management practicesregardless of the actual risks involved. Thisfinding is relevant for riskcommunication and risk management as it indicates that individualsdo not rely only on risk management information they receiveconcerning excreta and related risks but also depend, to an extent, ontheir feelings about these substances when making judgments anddecisions regarding the purpose for using excreta as fertilizer and thelevel of exposure they can tolerate and manage.

  • 41.
    Ekane, Nelson
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Kjellén, Marianne
    Noel, Stacey
    Weitz, Nina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Multi-level sanitation governance2014Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Ekane, Nelson
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Kjellén, Marianne
    Noel, Stacey
    Weitz, Nina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Multi-level sanitation governance: understanding and overcoming challenges in the sanitation sector in sub-Saharan Africa2014In: Waterlines, ISSN 0262-8104, E-ISSN 1756-3488, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 242-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, England.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dalen, Love
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ermold, Matti
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Moor, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    van der Velde, Ype
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Wageningen University & Research Center, Netherlands.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id UNSP 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6 degrees C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  • 44.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cornell, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Daw, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Persson, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hermansson Török, Ellika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global sustainability & human prosperity: contribution to the Post-2015 agenda and the development of Sustainable Development Goals2014Report (Other academic)
  • 45. Eriksson, M. G.
    et al.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Kuylenstierna, Johan L.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Cross-sectoral approaches help build water resilience – reflections2014In: Aquatic Procedia, ISSN 2214-241X, Vol. 2, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future challenges for the planet includes e.g. population growth, climate change and urbanisation. The combined pressure from these and other processes on water, energy and ecosystem services call for cross-sectoral approaches to increase the resilience of society, with particular aim to reduce hydro-climatic hazards and secure water availability of sufficient quantity and quality. In the global strife to achieve this water resilience, we pinpoint four strategies of pivotal importance. These are: 1) to ensure sustainable utilisation of ecosystems and their services; 2) to ensure that interventions for increased resilience are tailor-made to local conditions; 3) to broaden livelihood opportunities in order to make income-generating activities less dependent on only one sector or resource; and 4) to facilitate interactions between rural and urban areas and processes. Although the challenges mentioned are largely human induced, the power to address these are also within human reach. It is only if we properly facilitate work building on the linkages between humans and the environment that we can enhance water resilience.

  • 46. Ferreira, J.
    et al.
    Aragão, L.E.O.C.
    Barlow, J.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Brazil’s environmental leadership at risk: Mining and dams threaten protected areas2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 346, no 6210, p. 706-707Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Fielding, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Davis, Marion
    Weitz, Nina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Sun, Miaojie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Agricultural investment and rural transformation: a case study of the Makeni bioenergy project in Sierra Leone2015Report (Other academic)
  • 48. Fischer, Joern
    et al.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Carpenter, Stephen
    Daw, Tim
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Hill, Rosemary
    Hughes, Terry P.
    Luthe, Tobias
    Maass, Manuel
    Meacham, Megan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Seppelt, Ralf
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Tenhunen, John
    Advancing sustainability through mainstreaming a social–ecological systems perspective2015In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 14, p. 144-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of social-ecological systems is useful for understanding the interlinked dynamics of environmental and societal change. The concept has helped facilitate: (1) increased recognition of the dependence of humanity on ecosystems; (2) improved collaboration across disciplines, and between science and society; (3) increased methodological pluralism leading to improved systems understanding; and (4) major policy frameworks considering social-ecological interactions. Despite these advances, the potential of a social-ecological systems perspective to improve sustainability outcomes has not been fully realized. Key priorities are to: (1) better understand and govern social-ecological interactions between regions; (2) pay greater attention to long-term drivers; (3) better understand the interactions among power relations, justice, and ecosystem stewardship; and (4) develop a stronger science-society interface.

  • 49. Fisher, Myles
    et al.
    Harding, Amanda
    Kemp-Bennedict, Eric
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    The Challenge Program on Water and Food: A New Paradigm for research in the CGIAR2014In: Water Scarcity, Livelihoods and Food Security: Research and Innovation for Development / [ed] Larry W. Harrington, Myles J. Fisher, Routledge, 2014, p. Ch. 1-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Fogde, Madeleine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Kvarnström, Elisabeth
    Pushing national implementation of sustainable sanitation one step further through enhanced multilevel capacity and knowledge exchange2014In: Sustainable Sanitation Practice Journal, ISSN 2308-5797, no 20, p. 16-21, article id 3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sida-financed Ecological Sanitation Research Program 2 was active between 2006 and 2011. One of its main vehicles to achieve its aim of promoting capacity development on sustainability issues of sanitation was to work through a network of eight knowledge nodes within highly respected host institutions world-wide. Some of the results achieved by the knowledge nodes include national policy influence in e.g. Bolivia and the Philippines, international policy influence through e.g. vital contributions to the EASAN Manila Declaration, signed by 13 ministers in 2010, spearheading knowledge dissemination on menstrual hygiene and faecal sludge management in Southern Africa, contribution to solid waste by-law formulation in a municipality in Southern Burkina Faso, and massive training of professionals in Nepal and Bolivia. Three year after closure most of the knowledge nodes continue with capacity development activities where sustainable sanitation is an important knowledge area within a broader portfolio.

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