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  • 1. Abernethy, K. E.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hilly, Z.
    Schwarz, A.
    Two steps forward, two steps back: The role of innovation in transforming towards community-based marine resource management in Solomon Islands2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 28, 309-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many coastal nations, community-based arrangements for marine resource management (CBRM) are promoted by government, advocated for by non-government actors, and are seen by both as one of the most promising options to achieve sustainable use and secure inshore fisheries and aquatic resources. Although there is an abundant literature on what makes CBRM effective, is it less clear how CBRM is introduced or develops as an idea in a community, and the process of how the idea leads to the adoption of a new resource management approach with supporting institutions. Here we aim to address this gap by applying an explicit process-based approach drawing on innovation history methodology by mapping and analysing the initiation and emergence of CBRM in five fishing-dependent communities in Solomon Islands. We use insights from the literatures on diffusion of innovation and transformability to define phases of the process and help guide the inductive analysis of qualitative data. We show the CBRM institutionalisation processes were non-linear, required specific strategies to move from one phase to the next, and key elements facilitated or hindered movement. Building active support for CBRM within communities depended on the types of events that happened at the beginning of the process and actions taken to sustain this. Matching CBRM to known resource management ideas or other social problems in the community, developing legitimate institutions and decision-making processes, strong continual interactions between key actors and the rest of the community (not necessarily NGO actors), and community members witnessing benefits of CBRM, all contributed to the emergence and diffusion of CBRM in the communities, and helped to overcome barriers to transformative change.

  • 2. Abunge, Caroline
    et al.
    Coulthard, Sarah
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Connecting Marine Ecosystem Services to Human Well-being: Insights from Participatory Well-being Assessment in Kenya2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 42, no 8, 1010-1021 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linkage between ecosystems and human well-being is a focus of the conceptualization of ecosystem services as promoted by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, the actual nature of connections between ecosystems and the well-being of individuals remains complex and poorly understood. We conducted a series of qualitative focus groups with five different stakeholder groups connected to a small-scale Kenyan coastal fishery to understand (1) how well-being is understood within the community, and what is important for well-being, (2) how people's well-being has been affected by changes over the recent past, and (3) people's hopes and aspirations for their future fishery. Our results show that people conceive well-being in a diversity of ways, but that these can clearly map onto the MA framework. In particular, our research unpacks the freedoms and choices element of the framework and argues for greater recognition of these aspects of well-being in fisheries management in Kenya through, for example, more participatory governance processes.

  • 3. Adler, Carolina E.
    et al.
    Aldunce, Paulina
    Indvik, Katherine
    Alegria, Denis
    Borquez, Roxana
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience2016In: Research Handbook on Climate Governance / [ed] Karin Bäckstrand, Eva Lövbrand, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, 491-502 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite receiving relatively little traction in climate change discussions among scholars and policymakers in the early 1990s, the term ‘climate resilience’ is now moving rapidly into prominent policy arenas and academic fora. However, how useful is the term in enabling normative aspirations to reduce net losses to climate change impacts? In this chapter, we first take stock of this seemingly rapid rise in the use of the term by presenting an overview of the progress and ongoing discussions on ‘climate resilience.’ This chapter illustrates these trends based on evidence of the terms’ growth and evolution over the years in two realms: within academia and in public policy. In both cases, we find an increasing trend in the way ‘climate resilience’ is conceptualized and used in academia and in public policy, yet these trends present different challenges and consequences for each case. Taking a problem-oriented approach, we conclude that despite the term’s popularity and growth, a critical review of its measurable effectiveness and pragmatic utility is still needed. Evaluating the terms utility in application is particularly important in light of recent conceptualizations of the climate resilience imperative as ‘transformation’ in a changing climate. We recommend some possible avenues for further research to address this deficit.

  • 4.
    Agné, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dellmuth, Lisa Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tallberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Does stakeholder involvement foster democratic legitimacy in international organizations? An empirical assessment of a normative theory2015In: The Review of International Organizations, ISSN 1559-7431, E-ISSN 1559-744X, Vol. 10, no 4, 465-488 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The involvement of non-state organizations in global governance is widely seen as an important step toward global democracy. Proponents of "stakeholder democracy" argue that stakeholder organizations, such as civil society groups and other non-state actors, may represent people significantly affected by global decisions better than elected governments. In this article we identify a particularly promising sociological variant of this argument, test it against new evidence from a large-scale survey among stakeholder organizations with varying levels of involvement in international organizations (IOs), and find that the suggested stakeholder mechanism for producing democratic legitimacy in global governance does not work. Stakeholder involvement is unproductive for democratic legitimacy in IOs as perceived by stakeholders themselves. We suggest alternative explanations of this finding and argue that empirical analysis is useful for adjudicating normative arguments on the viability of stakeholder democracy in global governance.

  • 5.
    Ahlström, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Institutional structures and actor collaborations for the governance of global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles: investigating polycentric order2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increased interest from the global change and resilience community, there is limited knowledge about the features and outcomes of polycentric governance. Moreover, there are few examples from the literature explaining transitions from lower to higher degrees of polycentric order. This seriously limits the explanatory power and application potential of the theory. The present study addresses this gap by investigating the global governance of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) cycles. Those biophysical flows are two of the identified Earth-system processes in the “planetary boundaries” framework. This study explores governance challenges associated to these processes by analysing present institutional structures and actor collaborations. This is done by studying the network structures among all relevant multilateral agreements, EU (-level) Directives, and agreements on trade, combined with a more in-depth analysis of one global partnership initiative as a means to assess a possible emerging structure of polycentric order. The present study provides insights into how the current governance regimes in place for regulating the issues related to N and P flows look like, as well as issues and synergies of having a global partnership in place. The study suggests a global structure of polycentricity, which has the possibility to evolve into a better “match” with the dynamics of those biophysical flows through a larger governance context. 

  • 6.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 7.
    Alexander, Steven M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Maryland, USA; University of Waterloo, Canada.
    Andrachuk, Mark
    Armitage, Derek
    Navigating governance networks for community-based conservation2016In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 14, no 3, 155-164 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance networks can facilitate coordinated action and shared opportunities for learning among conservation scientists, policy makers, and communities. However, governance networks that link local, regional, and international actors just as often reflect social relationships and arrangements that can undermine conservation efforts, particularly those concerning community-level priorities. Here, we identify three waypoints or navigational guides to help researchers and practitioners explore these networks, and to inspire them to consider in a more systematic manner the social rules and relationships that influence conservation outcomes. These waypoints encourage those engaged in community-based conservation (CBC) to: (1) think about the networks in which they are embedded and the constellation of actors that influence conservation practice; (2) examine the values and interests of diverse actors in governance, and the implications of different perspectives for conservation; and (3) consider how the structure and dynamics of networks can reveal helpful insights for conservation efforts. The three waypoints we highlight synthesize an interdisciplinary literature on governance networks and provide key insights for conservation actors navigating the challenges of CBC at multiple scales and levels.

  • 8. Allen, Craig R.
    et al.
    Angeler, David G.
    Cumming, Graeme S.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Twidwell, Dirac
    Uden, Daniel R.
    Quantifying spatial resilience2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, no 3, 625-635 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Anthropogenic stressors affect the ecosystems upon which humanity relies. In some cases when resilience is exceeded, relatively small linear changes in stressors can cause relatively abrupt and nonlinear changes in ecosystems. 2. Ecological regime shifts occur when resilience is exceeded and ecosystems enter a new local equilibrium that differs in its structure and function from the previous state. Ecological resilience, the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain, is an important framework for understanding and managing ecological systems subject to collapse and reorganization. 3. Recently, interest in the influence of spatial characteristics of landscapes on resilience has increased. Understanding how spatial structure and variation in relevant variables in landscapes affects resilience to disturbance will assist with resilience quantification, and with local and regional management. 4. Synthesis and applications. We review the history and current status of spatial resilience in the research literature, expand upon existing literature to develop a more operational definition of spatial resilience, introduce additional elements of a spatial analytical approach to understanding resilience, present a framework for resilience operationalization and provide an overview of critical knowledge and technology gaps that should be addressed for the advancement of spatial resilience theory and its applications to management and conservation.

  • 9. Anderies, J. M.
    et al.
    Carpenter, S. R.
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries2013In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 8, no 4, 044048- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a minimal model of land use and carbon cycle dynamics and use it to explore the relationship between non-linear dynamics and planetary boundaries. Only the most basic interactions between land cover and terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine carbon stocks are considered in the model. Our goal is not to predict global carbon dynamics as it occurs in the actual Earth System. Rather, we construct a conceptually reasonable heuristic model of a feedback system between different carbon stocks that captures the qualitative features of the actual Earth System and use it to explore the topology of the boundaries of what can be called a 'safe operating space' for humans. The model analysis illustrates the existence of dynamic, non-linear tipping points in carbon cycle dynamics and the potential complexity of planetary boundaries. Finally, we use the model to illustrate some challenges associated with navigating planetary boundaries.

  • 10. Anderies, John M.
    et al.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Walker, Brian
    Östrom, Elinor
    Aligning Key Concepts for Global Change Policy: Robustness, Resilience, and Sustainability2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 2, 8- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization, the process by which local social-ecological systems (SESs) are becoming linked in a global network, presents policy scientists and practitioners with unique and difficult challenges. Although local SESs can be extremely complex, when they become more tightly linked in the global system, complexity increases very rapidly as multi-scale and multi-level processes become more important. Here, we argue that addressing these multi-scale and multi-level challenges requires a collection of theories and models. We suggest that the conceptual domains of sustainability, resilience, and robustness provide a sufficiently rich collection of theories and models, but overlapping definitions and confusion about how these conceptual domains articulate with one another reduces their utility. We attempt to eliminate this confusion and illustrate how sustainability, resilience, and robustness can be used in tandem to address the multi-scale and multi-level challenges associated with global change.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, 606-614 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 43, no 4, 445-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding how built urban form influences biodiversity2014In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 13, no 2, 221-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to contribute to a more complete understanding of how urban form influences biodiversity by investigating the effects of green area distribution and that of built form. We investigated breeding bird diversity in three types of housing development with approximately the same amount of tree cover. No significant differences in terms of bird communities were found between housing types in any of the survey periods. However, detached housing, especially with interspersed trees, had more neotropical insectivores and higher overall diversity of insectivores. Based on our results and theory we suggest a complementary approach to managing biodiversity in urban landscapes - instead of maximising the value and quality of individual patches efforts could go into enhancing over-all landscape quality at the neighbourhood scale by splitting up part of the green infrastructure. The relatively small differences in bird communities also suggest that different stakeholder groups may be engaged in management.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enqvist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stewardship in Urban Landscapes2017In: The Science and Practice of Landscape Stewardship / [ed] Claudia Bieling, Tobias Plieninger, Cambridge University Press, 2017, 219-221 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Species Richness and Assemblages in Landscapes of Different Farming Intensity - Time to Revise Conservation Strategies?2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, e109816- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide conservation goals to protect biodiversity emphasize the need to rethink which objectives are most suitable for different landscapes. Comparing two different Swedish farming landscapes, we used survey data on birds and vascular plants to test whether landscapes with large, intensively managed farms had lower richness and diversity of the two taxa than landscapes with less intensively managed small farms, and if they differed in species composition. Landscapes with large intensively managed farms did not have lower richness than smaller low intensively managed farms. The landscape types were also similar in that they had few red listed species, normally targeted in conservation. Differences in species composition demonstrate that by having both types of agricultural landscapes regional diversity is increased, which is seldom captured in the objectives for agro-environmental policies. Thus we argue that focus on species richness or red listed species would miss the actual diversity found in the two landscape types. Biodiversity conservation, especially in production landscapes, would therefore benefit from a hierarchy of local to regional objectives with explicit targets in terms of which aspects of biodiversity to focus on.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Kremer, Peleg
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Haase, Dagmar
    Tuvendal, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wurster, Daniel
    Scale and context dependence of ecosystem service providing units2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 12, 157-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services (ES) have been broadly adopted as a conceptual framing for addressing human nature interactions and to illustrate the ways in which humans depend on ecosystems for sustained life and well-being. Additionally, ES are being increasingly included in urban planning and management as a way to create multi-functional landscapes able to meet the needs of expanding urban populations. However, while ES are generated and utilized within landscapes we still have limited understanding of the relationship between ES and spatial structure and dynamics. Here, we offer an expanded conceptualization of these relationships through the concept of service providing units (SPUs) as a way to plan and manage the structures and preconditions that are needed for, and in different ways influence, provisioning of ES. The SPU approach has two parts: the first deals with internal dimensions of the SPUs themselves, i.e, spatial and temporal scale and organizational level, and the second outlines how context and presence of external structures (e.g, built infrastructure or larger ecosystems) affect the performance of SPUs. In doing so, SPUs enable a more nuanced and comprehensive approach to managing and designing multi-functional landscapes and achieving multiple ES goals.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, 102-112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    McPhearson, Timon
    Kremer, Peleg
    Cultural ecosystem services as a gateway for improving urban sustainability2015In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 12, 165-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life in cities depends, among other things, on ecosystem services (ES) generated locally within the cities by multifunctional blue and green infrastructure. Successfully protecting green infrastructure in locations also attractive for urban development requires deliberate processes of planning and policy formulation as well as broad public support. We propose that cultural ecosystem services (CES) may serve as a useful gateway for addressing and managing nature in cities. CES can help embed multifunctional ecosystems and the services they generate in urban landscapes and in the minds of urbanites and planners, and thus serve an important role in addressing urban sustainability. In the city, CES may be more directly experienced, their benefits more readily appreciated, and the environment-to-benefit linkages more easily and intuitively understood by the beneficiaries relative to many material ES. Thus, we suggest that a focus on CES supply can be a good starting point for increasing the awareness among urban residents also of the importance of ES. Furthermore, CES are often generated interdependently with other critical ES and engaging people in the stewardship of CES could provide increased awareness of the benefits of a larger group of urban non-cultural ES.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping supply and demand of ecosystem services in the Helge Å catchment area, Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on ecosystem services has accelerated the last few years, but there is a knowledge gap on how to integrate the concept into management in a way that is mindful of the complex, dynamic and non-linear dimensions of ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are often approached from a supply side, and more often than not services are approached individually without attempt to capture the trade-offs and synergies between services. The overall aim of this master’s thesis is to contribute to the operationalization of the ecosystem services concept, within a social-ecological systems framework. This is done through a case study of the Helge Å catchment in Southern Sweden, in which I use publically available data to map the supply and demand of a selection of locally relevant provisioning, regulating, and, to some extent, cultural ecosystem services. The thesis analyses some of the challenges of, as well as opportunities for, making tangible sense of this complex social-ecological concept in a way that can inform decision making on ecosystem services for sustainable development. The results show that mapping both supply and demand adds important dimensions to ecosystem service assessment that has value within management contexts. Especially important are the added social dimensions of ecosystem service provision, and the incorporation of societal demand as a factor in mapping. There are some obvious challenges still associated with this type of mapping, foremost associated with mapping of cultural ecosystem services and data availability, which have yet to be resolved through continued research efforts.

  • 20. Andringa, Tjeerd C.
    et al.
    Van den Bosch, Kirsten A.
    Wijermans, Nanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cognition from life: the two modes of cognition that underlie moral behavior2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, 362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world where pressing needs occur less frequently. We have used the Rule of Conservative Changes - stating that new functions can only scaffold on evolutionary older, yet highly stable functions - to predict that the interplay of these two modes define a number of core functions in psychology associated with moral behavior. We explore this prediction with five examples reflecting different theoretical approaches to human cognition and action selection. We conclude the paper with the observation that science is currently dominated by the coping mode and that the benefits of the co-creation mode may be necessary to generate realistic prospects for a modern synthesis in the sciences of the mind.

  • 21. André, Karin
    et al.
    Baird, Julia
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Vulturius, Gregor
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Analysis of Swedish Forest Owners' Information and Knowledge-Sharing Networks for Decision-Making: Insights for Climate Change Communication and Adaptation2017In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 59, no 6, 885-897 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity. By applying the concept of ego-network analysis, the empirical data was generated by a quantitative survey distributed to 3000 private forest owners' in Sweden in 2014 with a response rate of 31%. The results show that there is a positive correlation, even though it is generally weak, between forest owner climate perceptions and (i) network features, i.e. network size and heterogeneity, and (ii) presence of certain alter groups (i.e. network members or actors). Results indicate that forest owners' social networks currently serve only a minimal function of sharing knowledge of climate change and adaptation. Moreover, considering the fairly infrequent contact between respondents and alter groups, the timing of knowledge sharing is important. In conclusion we suggest those actors that forest owners' most frequently communicate with, especially forestry experts providing advisory services (e.g. forest owner associations, companies, and authorities) have a clear role to communicate both the risks of climate change and opportunities for adaptation. Peers are valuable in connecting information about climate risks and adaptation to the actual forest property.

  • 22. Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Barichievy, Chris
    Eason, Tarsha
    Garmestani, Ahjond S.
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Granholm, Dean
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Knutson, Melinda
    Nash, Kirsty L.
    Nelson, R. John
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Spanbauer, Trisha L.
    Stow, Craig A.
    Sundstrom, Shana M.
    Management applications of discontinuity theory2016In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 53, no 3, 688-698 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Human impacts on the environment are multifaceted and can occur across distinct spatiotemporal scales. Ecological responses to environmental change are therefore difficult to predict, and entail large degrees of uncertainty. Such uncertainty requires robust tools for management to sustain ecosystem goods and services and maintain resilient ecosystems. 2. We propose an approach based on discontinuity theory that accounts for patterns and processes at distinct spatial and temporal scales, an inherent property of ecological systems. Discontinuity theory has not been applied in natural resource management and could therefore improve ecosystem management because it explicitly accounts for ecological complexity. 3. Synthesis and applications. We highlight the application of discontinuity approaches for meeting management goals. Specifically, discontinuity approaches have significant potential to measure and thus understand the resilience of ecosystems, to objectively identify critical scales of space and time in ecological systems at which human impact might be most severe, to provide warning indicators of regime change, to help predict and understand biological invasions and extinctions and to focus monitoring efforts. Discontinuity theory can complement current approaches, providing a broader paradigm for ecological management and conservation.

  • 23. Anthony, Kenneth R. N.
    et al.
    Marshall, Paul A.
    Abdulla, Ameer
    Beeden, Roger
    Bergh, Chris
    Black, Ryan
    Eakin, C. Mark
    Game, Edward T.
    Gooch, Margaret
    Graham, Nicholas A. J.
    Green, Alison
    Heron, Scott F.
    van Hooidonk, Ruben
    Knowland, Cheryl
    Mangubhai, Sangeeta
    Marshall, Nadine
    Maynard, Jeffrey A.
    McGinnity, Peter
    McLeod, Elizabeth
    Mumby, Peter. J.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Obura, David
    Oliver, Jamie
    Possingham, Hugh P.
    Pressey, Robert L.
    Rowlands, Gwilym P.
    Tamelander, Jerker
    Wachenfeld, David
    Wear, Stephanie
    Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change2015In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 21, no 1, 48-61 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on actions that support resilience at finer spatial scales, and that are tightly linked to ecosystem goods and services.

  • 24.
    Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Ledin, Anna
    Munthe, John
    IVL, Svenska miljöinstitutet .
    Nilsson, Annika E.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nordin, Annika
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Smith, Henrik
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Vahter, Marie
    Inrätta ett miljöpolitiskt råd direkt under statsministern2014In: Dagens nyheter, no 16/10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25. Azar, Christian
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Nilsson, Annika E.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Miljöpolitikens spelplan: rapport från Miljöforskningsberedningen2014Book (Other academic)
  • 26. Bai, Xuemei
    et al.
    Surveyer, Alyson
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gatzweiler, Franz W.
    Guneralp, Burak
    Parnell, Susan
    Prieur-Richard, Anne-Helene
    Shrivastava, Paul
    Siri, Jose Gabriel
    Stafford-Smith, Mark
    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick
    Webb, Robert
    Defining and advancing a systems approach for sustainable cities2016In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 23, 69-78 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development of cities is increasingly recognized as crucial to meeting collectively agreed sustainability goals at local, regional and global scales, and more broadly to securing human well-being worldwide. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include a goal on cities (Goal 11), with most other goals and targets have urban applications and multi scalar implications for their implementation. Further, the interdependencies - including synergies and trade-offs among the various SDGs are greater in cities, presenting both challenges and opportunities. A systems approach is urgently needed in urban research and policy analysis, but such an approach rarely features in current analysis or urban decision-making for various reasons. This paper explores four questions: why a systems approach is necessary, what defines such an approach, why has this rarely been adopted in practice, and what can be done to promote its use. We argue that a systems approach can reveal unrecognized opportunities to maximize co-benefits and synergies, guide management of inevitable trade-offs, and therefore inform prioritisation and successful solutions. We present four key issues for the effective implementation of the SDGs and the New Urban Agenda, which emerged from UN Habitat III Conference, namely: (a) a radical redesign of the multilateral institutional setup on urban issues; (b) promoting regenerative culture, behaviour, and design; (c) exploring ways to finance a systems approach; and (d) a new and enhanced role for science in sustainable development. The latter issue could be addressed through Future Earth's Urban Knowledge-Action Network, which aims at co-designing and co-producing cutting-edge and actionable knowledge for sustainable cities bringing together researchers and urban decision-makers and practitioners.

  • 27. Bai, Xuemei
    et al.
    van der Leeuw, Sander
    O'Brien, Karen
    Berkhout, Frans
    Biermann, Frank
    Brondizio, Eduardo S.
    Cudennec, Christophe
    Dearing, John
    Duraiappah, Anantha
    Glaser, Marion
    Revkin, Andrew
    Steffen, Will
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Syvitski, James
    Plausible and desirable futures in the Anthropocene: A new research agenda2016In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 39, 351-362 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the concept of the Anthropocene reflects the past and present nature, scale and magnitude of human impacts on the Earth System, its true significance lies in how it can be used to guide attitudes, choices, policies and actions that influence the future. Yet, to date much of the research on the Anthropocene has focused on interpreting past and present changes, while saying little about the future. Likewise, many futures studies have been insufficiently rooted in an understanding of past changes, in particular the long-term co-evolution of bio-physical and human systems. The Anthropocene perspective is one that encapsulates a world of intertwined drivers, complex dynamic structures, emergent phenomena and unintended consequences, manifest across different scales and within interlinked biophysical constraints and social conditions. In this paper we discuss the changing role of science and the theoretical, methodological and analytical challenges in considering futures of the Anthropocene. We present three broad groups of research questions on: (1) societal goals for the future; (2) major trends and dynamics that might favor or hinder them; (3) and factors that might propel or impede transformations towards desirable futures. Tackling these questions requires the development of novel approaches integrating natural and social sciences as well as the humanities beyond what is current today. We present three examples, one from each group of questions, illustrating how science might contribute to the identification of desirable and plausible futures and pave the way for transformations towards them. We argue that it is time for debates on the sustainability of the Anthropocene to focus on opportunities for realizing desirable and plausible futures.

  • 28. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Kubik, Wendee
    Pickering, Gary
    Vasseur, Liette
    Ecosystem Perceptions in Flood Prone Areas: A Typology and Its Relationship to Preferences for Governance2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 5, 191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shift appears to be occurring in thinking about flooding, from a resistance-based approach to one of resilience. Accordingly, how stakeholders in flood-prone regions perceive the system and its governance are salient questions. This study queried stakeholders' internal representations of ecosystems (resistance- or resilience-based), preferences for governance actors and mechanisms for flooding, and the relationship between them in five different regions of the world. The influence of personal experience on these variables was also assessed. Most respondents aligned themselves with a resilience-based approach in relation to system connectedness and response to disturbance; however, respondents were almost evenly split between resistance- and resilience-based approaches when considering system management. Responses generally were considered to hold for other disturbances as well. There was no clear relationship between internal representations and preferences for governance actors or mechanisms. Respondents generally favoured actor combinations that included governments and mechanism combinations that included regulations and policies. Those who had personal experience with flooding tended to align themselves with a resilience-based internal representation of system management, but personal experience showed no clear relationship with governance preferences. The findings support an evolutionary perspective of flood management where emerging paradigms enhance preceding ones, and prompt a critical discussion about the universality of resilience as a framing construct.

  • 29. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Valenti, Josh
    Exploring agricultural advice networks, beneficial management practices and water quality on the landscape: A geospatial social-ecological systems analysis2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 51, 236-243 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural practices have been linked to detrimental effects on ecosystems, with water quality of particular concern. Research has been devoted to understanding uptake of beneficial, or best, management practices (BMPs) in agriculture; however, sources of advice and subsequent effects on the landscape have not been elucidated. This study set out to understand (1) what sources of information agricultural producers rely on when making land-management decisions; (2) the characteristics of their advice networks; and (3) how the advice network linked spatially to water quality on the landscape. A watershed in Alberta was used as a case study and respondents identified that regional advisors were relied upon most often for advice and these advisors had the most influence on the adoption of BMPs. Results indicate that respondents with connections to regional actors implemented more BMPs that those without. Regional government actors had a greater effect than regional non-governmental actors. Local actors played a lesser role in advice networks related to BMP adoption. A 3D geovisualization was used to explore linkages among advisors, BMPs, and water quality. This technique may be useful for other scenarios and can contribute to policy development and enhanced practices.

  • 30. Baird, Julia M.
    et al.
    Summers, Robert
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Cisterns and safe drinking water in Canada2013In: Canadian water resources journal, ISSN 0701-1784, Vol. 38, no 2, 121-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to sources of safe drinking water is imperative to human health and of concern in both developing and developed countries. A myriad of responses have occurred to enhance drinking water safety in Canada over the decade since the Walkerton tragedy. Pressing questions remain about drinking water safety, especially in small systems and private water supplies that fall outside much of the recently implemented regulations. This paper explores the use of cisterns in Canada and their safety as a private means to supply potable drinking water. Knowledge of cistern use in Canada is probed, associated health risks are examined and the ways these risks are being managed are considered. Knowledge of cistern use in Canada at present is nominal. Management and policy considerations need to be advanced alongside further research to better understand and manage risks associated with this source of drinking water.

  • 31. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Collaborative governance for climate change adaptation in Canada: experimenting with adaptive co-management2016In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 16, no 3, 747-758 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for strategies to address 'super wicked problems' such as climate change is gaining urgency, and a collaborative governance approach, and adaptive co-management in particular, is increasingly recognized as one such strategy. However, the conditions for adaptive co-management to emerge and the resulting network structures and relational patterns remain unclear in the literature. To address these identified needs, this study examines social relationships from a network perspective while initiating a collaborative multiactor initiative aimed to develop into adaptive co-management for climate change adaptation, an action research project undertaken in the Niagara region of Canada. The project spanned 1 year, and a longitudinal analysis of participants' networks and level of participation in the process was performed. Evidence of support for climate change adaptation from the process included the development of deliberative and adaptive responses to opportunities presented to the group and the development of a strong subgroup of participants where decision-making was centered. However, the complexity of the challenge of addressing climate change, funding constraints, competing initiatives, and the lack of common views among participants may have contributed to the group, highlighting the finding that beneficial network structural features and relational patterns are necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of an adaptive co-management process. The context of climate change adaptation may require a different social network structure and processes than other contexts for adaptive co-management to occur, and there may be limitations to adaptive co-management for dealing with super wicked problems.

  • 32. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Heinmiller, Tim
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Kubik, Wendee
    Renzetti, Steven
    Vasseur, Liette
    Contemporary Water Governance: Navigating Crisis Response and Institutional Constraints through Pragmatism2016In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, no 6, 224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water has often been the source of crises and their frequency will intensify due to climate change impacts. The Niagara River Watershed provides an ideal case to study water crises as it is an international transboundary system (Canada-United States) and has both historical and current challenges associated with water quantity and quality, which resonates broadly in water basins throughout the world. The aim of this study was to understand how stakeholders perceive ecosystems and the relationship with preferences for governance approaches in the context of water governance. An online survey instrument was employed to assess perceptions of the system in terms of resilience (engineering, ecological, social-ecological, or epistemic), preferences for governance approaches (state, citizen, market, and hybrid forms), and the most pressing issues in the watershed. Responses showed that, despite demographic differences and adherence to different resilience perspectives, support was strongest for governance approaches that focused on state or state-citizen hybrid forms. The validity of the resilience typology as a grouping variable is discussed. The roles of institutional constraints, pragmatism in governance approach preferences, and the influence of multiple crises are explored in relation to the context of the study site, as well as to water governance scholarship more broadly.

  • 33. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Haug, Constanze
    Huitema, Dave
    Learning effects of interactive decision-making processes for climate change adaptation2014In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 27, 51-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is gaining attention in relation to governance processes for contemporary environmental challenges; however, scholarship at the nexus of learning and environmental governance lacks clarity and understanding about how to define and measure learning, and the linkages between learning, social interactions, and environment. In response, this study aimed to advance and operationalize a typology of learning in an environmental governance context, and examined if a participatory decision-making process (adaptive co-management) for climate change adaptation fostered learning. Three types of learning were identified: cognitive learning, related to the acquisition of new or the structuring of existing knowledge; normative learning, which concerns a shift in viewpoints, values or paradigms, and relational learning, referring to an improved understanding of others' mindsets, enhanced trust and ability to cooperate. A robust mixed methods approach with a focus on quantitative measures including concept map analysis, social network analysis, and self-reflective questions, was designed to gauge indicators for each learning type. A participatory decision-making process for climate change adaptation was initiated with stakeholders in the Niagara region, Canada. A pseudo-control group was used to minimize external contextual influences on results. Clear empirical evidence of cognitive and relational learning was gained; however, the results from normative learning measures were inconclusive. The learning typology and measurement method operationalized in this research advances previous treatments of learning in relation to participatory decision-making processes, and supports adaptive co-management as a governance strategy that fosters learning and adaptive capacity.

  • 34. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Moore, Michele-Lee
    Brandes, Oliver
    Introducing Resilience Practice to Watershed Groups: What Are the Learning Effects?2016In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 29, no 10, 1214-1229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience as an organizing framework for addressing dynamics of social-ecological systems has experienced strong uptake; however, its application is nascent. This research study aimed to address the gap between resilience thinking and practice by focusing on learning, a key aspect of resilience. Two Canadian watershed groups were led in 2-day workshops focused on resilience. Learning effects were measured using a survey administered both before and after the workshop, and a qualitative survey was administered 6 months later to understand longer term effects. Short-term learning effects were similar between the two case studies, with strong cognitive and relational learning and less normative learning. Longer term effects showed enduring cognitive and normative learning in both cases; however, relational learning persisted only in the watershed where a resilience practice approach to watershed planning had been incorporated. Future research directions include refinements to the learning measurement methodology and continuing to build resilience practice literature.

  • 35. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Morris, Samantha
    Mitchell, Simon
    Rathwell, Kaitlyn
    Enhancing source water protection and watershed management: Lessons from the case of the New Brunswick Water Classification Initiative2014In: Canadian water resources journal, ISSN 0701-1784, Vol. 39, no 1, 49-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Source water protection varies by locale, and approaches and experiences are accumulating in response to concerns about drinking water safety. Learning lessons and transferring them from experiences elsewhere is a well-established practice for addressing water governance challenges. In response to the need to enhance source water protection policies and initiatives and a growing interest in modes of governance in which government and non-government actors collaborate, this research investigated and derived lessons from the Water Classification Initiative in New Brunswick, Canada. The research specifically aimed to describe the development of the initiative, analyze structural relationships among actors involved in the initiative and describe the successes and challenges experienced. Investigation of the Water Classification Initiative illustrates how key aspects of source water protection identified in the literature (e. g. watershed as a focal scale, collaborative approaches, incorporation of science and local knowledge) can be incorporated into policy, how capacity may be built or constrained in the context of government-led collaborative approaches, and how social network analysis offers a powerful tool to understand interactions among those involved in a policy process. Learning from these insights offers an opportunity to advance the development of new approaches as well as to enhance existing source water protection policies.

  • 36. Balvanera, Patricia
    et al.
    Daw, Tim M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gardner, Toby A.
    Martin-Lopez, Berta
    Norström, Albert V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Speranza, Chinwe Ifejika
    Spierenburg, Marja
    Bennett, Elena M.
    Farfan, Michelle
    Hamann, Maike
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Kittinger, John N.
    Luthe, Tobias
    Maass, Manuel
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo
    Key features for more successful place-based sustainability research on social-ecological systems: a Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) perspective2017In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 22, no 1, 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging discipline of sustainability science is focused explicitly on the dynamic interactions between nature and society and is committed to research that spans multiple scales and can support transitions toward greater sustainability. Because a growing body of place-based social-ecological sustainability research (PBSESR) has emerged in recent decades, there is a growing need to understand better how to maximize the effectiveness of this work. The Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS) provides a unique opportunity for synthesizing insights gained from this research community on key features that may contribute to the relative success of PBSESR. We surveyed the leaders of PECS-affiliated projects using a combination of open, closed, and semistructured questions to identify which features of a research project are perceived to contribute to successful research design and implementation. We assessed six types of research features: problem orientation, research team, and contextual, conceptual, methodological, and evaluative features. We examined the desirable and undesirable aspects of each feature, the enabling factors and obstacles associated with project implementation, and asked respondents to assess the performance of their own projects in relation to these features. Responses were obtained from 25 projects working in 42 social-ecological study cases within 25 countries. Factors that contribute to the overall success of PBSESR included: explicitly addressing integrated social-ecological systems; a focus on solutionand transformation-oriented research; adaptation of studies to their local context; trusted, long-term, and frequent engagement with stakeholders and partners; and an early definition of the purpose and scope of research. Factors that hindered the success of PBSESR included: the complexities inherent to social-ecological systems, the imposition of particular epistemologies and methods on the wider research group, the need for long periods of time to initiate and conduct this kind of research, and power asymmetries both within the research team and among stakeholders. In the self-assessment exercise, performance relating to team and context-related features was ranked higher than performance relating to methodological, evaluation, and problem orientation features. We discuss how these insights are relevant for balancing place-based and global perspectives in sustainability science, fostering more rapid progress toward inter-and transdisciplinary integration, redefining and measuring the success of PBSESR, and facing the challenges of academic and research funding institutions. These results highlight the valuable opportunity that the PECS community provides in helping build a community of practice for PBSESR.

  • 37. Ban, Natalie C.
    et al.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, UK.
    Cox, Michael
    Meek, Chanda L.
    Schoon, Michael
    Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio
    Linking classroom learning and research to advance ideas about social-ecological resilience2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 3, 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand in higher education institutions for training in complex environmental problems. Such training requires a careful mix of conventional methods and innovative solutions, a task not always easy to accomplish. In this paper we review literature on this theme, highlight relevant advances in the pedagogical literature, and report on some examples resulting from our recent efforts to teach complex environmental issues. The examples range from full credit courses in sustainable development and research methods to project-based and in-class activity units. A consensus from the literature is that lectures are not sufficient to fully engage students in these issues. A conclusion from the review of examples is that problem-based and project-based, e.g., through case studies, experiential learning opportunities, or real-world applications, learning offers much promise. This could greatly be facilitated by online hubs through which teachers, students, and other members of the practitioner and academic community share experiences in teaching and research, the way that we have done here.

  • 38. Barbier, Matthieu
    et al.
    Watson, James R.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Oregon State University, USA.
    The Spatial Dynamics of Predators and the Benefits and Costs of Sharing Information2016In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 12, no 10, e1005147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predators of all kinds, be they lions hunting in the Serengeti or fishermen searching for their catch, display various collective strategies. A common strategy is to share information about the location of prey. However, depending on the spatial characteristics and mobility of predators and prey, information sharing can either improve or hinder individual success. Here, our goal is to investigate the interacting effects of space and information sharing on predation efficiency, represented by the expected rate at which prey are found and consumed. We derive a feeding functional response that accounts for both spatio-temporal heterogeneity and communication, and validate this mathematical analysis with a computational agent-based model. This agent-based model has an explicit yet minimal representation of space, as well as information sharing about the location of prey. The analytical model simplifies predator behavior into a few discrete states and one essential tradeoff, between the individual benefit of acquiring information and the cost of creating spatial and temporal correlation between predators. Despite the absence of an explicit spatial dimension in these equations, they quantitatively predict the predator consumption rates measured in the agent-based simulations across the explored parameter space. Together, the mathematical analysis and agent-based simulations identify the conditions for when there is a benefit to sharing information, and also when there is a cost.

  • 39. Barfuss, Wolfram
    et al.
    Donges, Jonathan F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Wiedermann, Marc
    Lucht, Wolfgang
    Sustainable use of renewable resources in a stylized social-ecological network model under heterogeneous resource distribution2017In: Earth System Dynamics, ISSN 2190-4979, E-ISSN 2190-4987, Vol. 8, no 2, 255-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human societies depend on the resources ecosystems provide. Particularly since the last century, human activities have transformed the relationship between nature and society at a global scale. We study this coevolutionary relationship by utilizing a stylized model of private resource use and social learning on an adaptive network. The latter process is based on two social key dynamics beyond economic paradigms: boundedly rational imitation of resource use strategies and homophily in the formation of social network ties. The private and logistically growing resources are harvested with either a sustainable (small) or non-sustainable (large) effort. We show that these social processes can have a profound influence on the environmental state, such as determining whether the private renewable resources collapse from overuse or not. Additionally, we demonstrate that heterogeneously distributed regional resource capacities shift the critical social parameters where this resource extraction system collapses. We make these points to argue that, in more advanced coevolutionary models of the planetary social-ecological system, such socio-cultural phenomena as well as regional resource heterogeneities should receive attention in addition to the processes represented in established Earth system and integrated assessment models.

  • 40.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of York, UK .
    Tharme, Rebecca E.
    Herrero, Mario
    Drivers and Challenges for Food Security2013In: Managing water and agroecosystems for food security / [ed] E. Boelee, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2013, Vol. 10, 7-28 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the global scale, humanity is increasingly facing rapid changes, and sometimes shocks, that are affecting the security of our food systems and the agroecosystems that are the ultimate sources of food. To plan and prepare for resilient food production and food security in a sustainable and efficient way, we are challenged to better understand the conditions and likely responses of these diverse agroecosystems under various drivers of change and scenarios of future trends. Among the many direct drivers and indirect pressures that exist or are emerging, the discussion in this chapter focuses on the main themes of drivers of demographic changes, globalization of economic and governance systems (including markets), and climate change. The current state of health of water and land resources, and of ecosystems and their services, are considered alongside these drivers, as these are critical determinants of the pathways with sufficient potential to move food-producing systems towards more sustainable production. Hence, addressing the opportunities, synergies and constraints of multiple drivers will be critical for policy advice to build resilient food systems in the future.

  • 41.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Resilience2014In: A Companion to Urban Anthropology / [ed] Donald M. Nonini, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2014, 428-446 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter uses a resilience lens, where resilience is defined as the capacity to absorb shocks, utilize them, reorganize, and continue to develop without losing fundamental functions (Folke 2006). This resilience lens can be used to analyze the role of urban gardens as memory carriers of ways to build food securityin cities (see Chapters 20 and 23, “Memory and Narrative” and “Food and Farming”).

    Comparing Western urban histories in a global frame of reference suggests that a marked conceptual and physical separation between urban and rural sectors emerged largely as a consequence of high modernist time–space compression during the 1900s (Harvey 1990). However, it is estimated that in contemporary cities of the global South, approximately 800 million people are still engaged in urban agriculture, producing approximately 15–20 percent of the world’s food. These numbers are diminishing due to similar processes that drove food production from Western cities. Do such changes in the urban environment influence the capacity of urban people to respond to food shortages in the future?It has been suggested that modernist urbanization severs perceived and experienced relations between people and nature as urban lifestyles are adopted and resilience as access to green areas is reduced. This alienation process has been termedthe “extinction-of-experience” (Miller 2005), an ongoing generational amnesia among city peoples about their relationships to, and dependence upon, diverse ecosystems, including agro-ecosystems. Such social amnesia has been argued to produce food insecurity among growing urban populations, simply because it erodes options of self-sufficiency (Barthel, Parker, and Ernstson 2013). Food security is broadly defined here as having physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs (FAO 1996). Following Pothukuchi and Kaufman (2000: 113), the food system is defined as “the chain of activities connecting food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities” (see Chapters 23 and 24, “Food and Farming” and “Pollution”). The focus of this essay is on food production, which makes this whole circuit possible. I highlight collectively managed urban gardens as potential “memory workers” to combat the ongoing generational amnesia among city dwellers about the intimate links between local agro-ecosystems and food security (Barthel, Parker, and Ernstson 2013).

  • 42.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, 156-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resil- ience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property sys- tems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. col- lectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social– ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building.

  • 43.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crumley, Carole
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Uppsala University, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Biocultural Refugia: Combating the Erosion of Diversity in Landscapesof Food Production2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 4, UNSP 71- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is urgent need to both reduce the rate of biodiversity loss caused by industrialized agriculture and feed morepeople. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of places that harbor traditional ecological knowledge, artifacts, and methodswhen preserving biodiversity and ecosystem services in landscapes of food production. We use three examples in Europe ofbiocultural refugia, defined as the physical places that not only shelter farm biodiversity, but also carry knowledge and experiencesabout practical management of how to produce food while stewarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. Memory carriersinclude genotypes, landscape features, oral, and artistic traditions and self-organized systems of rules, and as such reflect adiverse portfolio of practices on how to deal with unpredictable change. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionallydistinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through different smallholder practices developed in relation to localenvironmental fluctuations and carried within biocultural refugia for as long as millennia. Places that transmit traditionalecological knowledge and practices hold important lessons for policy makers since they may provide genetic and culturalreservoirs — refugia — for the wide array of species that have co-evolved with humans in Europe for more than 6000 thousandyrs. Biodiversity restoration projects in domesticated landscapes can employ the biophysical elements and cultural practicesembedded in biocultural refugia to create locally adapted small-scale mosaics of habitats that allow species to flourish and adaptto change. We conclude that such insights must be included in discussions of land-sparing vs. land-sharing when producingmore food while combating loss of biodiversity. We found the latter strategy rational in domesticated landscapes with a longhistory of agriculture

  • 44.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crumley, Carole
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bio-cultural refugia: Safeguarding diversity of practices for food security and biodiversity2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, 1142-1152 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security for a growing world population is high on the list of grand sustainability challenges, as is reducing the pace of biodiversity loss in landscapes of food production. Here we shed new insights on areas that harbor place specific social memories related to food security and stewardship of biodiversity. We call them bio-cultural refugia. Our goals are to illuminate how bio-cultural refugia store, revive and transmit memory of agricultural biodiversity and ecosystem services, and how such social memories are carried forward between people and across cohorts. We discuss the functions of such refugia for addressing the twin goals of food security and biodiversity conservation in landscapes of food production. The methodological approach is first of its kind in combining the discourses on food security, social memory and biodiversity management. We find that the rich biodiversity of many regionally distinct cultural landscapes has been maintained through a mosaic of management practices that have co-evolved in relation to local environmental fluctuations, and that such practices are carried forward by both biophysical and social features in bio-cultural refugia including; genotypes, artifacts, written accounts, as well as embodied rituals, art, oral traditions and self-organized systems of rules. Combined these structure a diverse portfolio of practices that result in genetic reservoirs—source areas—for the wide array of species, which in interplay produce vital ecosystem services, needed for future food security related to environmental uncertainties, volatile financial markets and large scale conflicts. In Europe, processes related to the large-scale industrialization of agriculture threaten such bio-cultural refugia. The paper highlights that the dual goals to reduce pressures from modern agriculture on biodiversity, while maintaining food security, entails more extensive collaboration with farmers oriented toward ecologically sound practices.

  • 45.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Parker, John
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Food and Green Space in Cities: A Resilience Lens on Gardens and Urban Environmental Movements2013In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the role played by urban gardens during historical collapses in urban food supply lines and identifies the social processes required to protect two crit- ical elements of urban food production during times of crisis—open green spaces and the collective memory of how to grow food. Advanced communication and transport technologies allow food sequestration from the farthest reaches of the planet, but have markedly increasing urban dependence on global food systems over the past 50 years. Simultaneously, such advances have eroded collective memory of food production, while suitable spaces for urban gardening have been lost. These factors combine to heighten the potential for food shortages when—as occurred in the 20th century— major economic, political or environmental crises sever supply lines to urban areas. This paper considers how to govern urban areas sustainably in order to ensure food security in times of crisis by: evincing the effectiveness of urban gardening during crises; showing how allotment gardens serve as conduits for transmitting collective social-ecological memories of food production; and, discussing roles and strategies of urban environmental movements for protecting urban green space. Urban gardening and urban social movements can build local ecological and social response capacity against major collapses in urban food supplies. Hence, they should be incorporated as central elements of sustainable urban development. Urban governance for resilience should be historically informed about major food crises and allow for redundant food production solutions as a response to uncertain futures.

  • 46.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Parker, John
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Urban gardens: pockets of social-ecological memory2014In: Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience, and Community Greening Part II / [ed] Keith G. Tidball and Marianne E. Krasny, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, 145-158 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that urban allotment gardens provide important ecosystem services. Their potential to act as sources of local resilience during times of crisis is less appreciated, despite the role they have played as areas of food security during times of crisis in history. Their ability to provide such relief, however, requires that the skills and knowledge needed for effective gardening can be transmitted over time and across social groups. In short, some portion of urban society must remember how to grow food. This chapter proposes that collectively managed gardens function as ‘pockets’ of social-ecological memory in urban landscapes by storing the knowledge and experience required to grow food. Allotment gardeners operate as ‘communities of practice’ with ecosystem stewardship reflecting long-term, dynamic interactions between community members and gardening sites. Social-ecological memories about food production and past crises are retained and transmitted through habits, traditions, informal institutions, artifacts and the physical structure of the gardens themselves. Allotment gardens thus serve as incubators of social-ecological knowledge with experiences that can be accessed and transferred to other land uses in times of crisis, contributing to urban resilience. Conversely, failure to protect these pockets of social-ecological memory could result in a collective ‘forgetting’ of important social-ecological knowledge and reduce social-ecological resilience.

  • 47.
    Barthtel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish Royal Academy of Science, Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Urban Gardens, Agricultures and Waters: Sources of Resilience for Long-Term Food Security in Cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, 224-234 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food security has always been a key resilience facet for people living in cities. This paper discusses lessons for food security from historic and prehistoric cities. The Chicago school of urban sociology established a modernist understanding of urbanism as an essentialist reality separate from its larger life-support system. However, different urban histories have given rise to a remarkable spatial diversity and temporal variation viewed at the global and long-term scales that are often overlooked in urban scholarship. Drawing on two case studies from widely different historical and cultural contexts - the Classic Maya civilization of the late first millennium AD and Byzantine Constantinople - this paper demonstrates urban farming as a pertinent feature of urban support systems over the long-term and global scales. We show how urban gardens, agriculture, and water management as well as the linked social-ecological memories of how to uphold such practices over time have contributed to long-term food security during eras of energy scarcity. We exemplify with the function of such local blue-green infrastructures during chocks to urban supply lines. We conclude that agricultural production is not "the antithesis of the city," but often an integrated urban activity that contribute to the resilience of cities.

  • 48. Beeden, R.
    et al.
    Maynard, J.
    Johnson, J.
    Dryden, J.
    Kininmonth, Stuart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Marshall, P.
    No-anchoring areas reduce coral damage in an effort to build resilience in Keppel Bay, southern Great Barrier Reef2014In: AUSTRALASIAN JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, ISSN 1448-6563, Vol. 21, no 3, 311-319 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The natural resilience of coral reefs and their ability to resist and recover from disturbance may be supported by managing user access, including regulating the anchoring of vessels. The process of targeting site-based local management actions and evaluating success is central to the adaptive management process. We describe an example of such a process from Keppel Bay in the southern Great Barrier Reef. No-anchoring areas were selected based on evidence of severe anchor damage relative to other sites. The four locations selected are areas of high visitation where interpretive signage and the effort to support reef resilience create additional benefits of community outreach. Surveys indicate reduced anchor damage inside all four no-anchoring areas from similar to 80 instances per 1000 m(2) in 2008 to fewer than ten in 2012. Anchor damage also declined between 2010 and 2012 at three of the four control reefs near the no-anchoring areas. This case study is unique and foundational in that this was the first time that supporting reef resilience was explicitly used as the motivation for local-scale management in the Great Barrier Reef. Follow-up engagement with community and stakeholder groups suggests the process has led to an increase in reef awareness and stewardship.

  • 49. Beilin, Ruth
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stenseke, Marie
    Pereira, Henrique Miguel
    Llausas, Albert
    Slätmo, Elin
    Cerqueira, Yvonne
    Navarro, Laetitia
    Rodrigues, Patricia
    Reichelt, Nicole
    Munro, Nicola
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Analysing how drivers of agricultural land abandonment affect biodiversity and cultural landscapes using case studies from Scandinavia, Iberia and Oceania2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, Vol. 36, 60-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural land abandonment (ALA) is widespread in many countries of the global north. It impacts rural communities, traditional landscapes, biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is an opportunity for ecosystem restoration or new landscape functions. We explored ALA in study areas in Australia, Portugal and Sweden. In each, we assessed plant species diversity, historical trajectories of land cover change; and the socioeconomic past, present and future in interviews with farmers. The ALA data was integrated and analysed by identifying the drivers of change. The relative importance of each driver and its scale of action was estimated, both in the past (1950-2010) and in the future (2010-2030). ALA has transformed rural landscapes in the study areas of Portugal and Sweden. It is at a much earlier stage with potential to increase in the Australian case. We identified a set of driving forces, classified into pressures, frictions and attractors that clarify why ALA, noting its temporal and spatial scale, occurs differently in each study area. The effect of the drivers is related to social and historical contexts. Pressures and attractors encouraging agricultural abandonment are strongest in Portugal and Sweden. Generally more (institutionalized) frictions are in place in these European sites, intended to prevent further change, based on the benefits assumed for biodiversity and aesthetics. In Australia, the stimulation of driving forces to promote a well-managed abandonment of some cleared areas could be highly beneficial for biodiversity, minimally disruptive for current dairy farming operations and would bring opportunities for alternative types of rural development.

  • 50. Beilin, Ruth
    et al.
    West, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Performing natures: adaptive management in the 'eternally unfolding present'2017In: Nature, temporality and environmental management: Scandinavian and Australian perspectives on peoples and landscapes / [ed] Lesley Head, Katarina Saltzman, Gunhild Setten, Marie Stenseke, London: Routledge, 2017, 186-203 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
1234567 1 - 50 of 650
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