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  • 1. Ade, Florian
    et al.
    Freier, Ronny
    Odendahl, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Incumbency effects in government and opposition: Evidence from Germany2014In: European Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0176-2680, E-ISSN 1873-5703, Vol. 36, p. 117-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do district incumbents in an election have an advantage, and if so, do these advantages depend on which party is in government? We estimate the incumbency effect for the direct district candidates in German federal and state elections using a regression discontinuity design (RDD). When studying the heterogeneity in these effects, we find that incumbents from both large parties, the center-right CDU and the center-left SPD, have an advantage only if the SPD is in government. This effect is robust and shows even in state elections that are unrelated to federal elections.

  • 2.
    Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    Wage incentives and wage rigidity: A representative view from within2007In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 347-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent literature has used surveys of those who set wages to learn about the nature of wage incentives and the sources of wage rigidity. Methodologically, we overcome many of the objections that have been raised against this work. Substantively, we find that: (i) the reasons for real wage rigidity differ significantly between large and small firms, and between the high- and low-end of the labor market; (ii) efficiency wage mechanisms reinforce rigidities due to worker bargaining power; (iii) money illusion is a widespread phenomenon across all segments of the labor market; (iv) unions reinforce nominal wage rigidities due to external pay comparisons; (v) there appears to be gender differences in pay bargaining and work morale.

  • 3. Aguiar-Conraria, Luis
    et al.
    Brinca, Pedro
    Gudjonsson, Haukur Vidar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Soares, Maria Joana
    Business cycle synchronization across US states2017In: The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, ISSN 1935-1690, E-ISSN 1935-1690, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 20150158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use wavelet analysis to conclude that individual U.S. states' business cycles are very well synchronized. We also find evidence of a strong and significant correlation between business cycle dissimilitudes and the distance between each pair of states, consistent to gravity type mechanisms where distance affects trade. Trade, in turn, increases business cycle synchronization, while a higher degree of industry specialization is associated with a higher dissimilitude of the state cycle with the aggregate economy. Finally, there is evidence that business cycle dissimilitudes have been decreasing with time, consistent with the previous findings coupled with the idea that information and communications technology make distances smaller.

  • 4. Ahlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Kaijser, Magnus
    Adami, Johanna
    Lundgren, Maria
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    School Performance After Preterm Birth2015In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An increased risk of poor school performance for children born preterm has been shown in many studies, but whether this increase is attributable to preterm birth per se or to other factors associated with preterm birth has not been resolved. Methods: We used data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, the Longitudinal Integration Database for Sickness Insurance and Labor Market Study, the Swedish Multigeneration Register, and the National School Register to link records comprising the Swedish birth cohorts from 1974 through 1991. Linear regression was used to assess the association between gestational duration and school performance, both with and without controlling for parental and socioeconomic factors. In a restricted analysis, we compared siblings only with each other. Results: Preterm birth was strongly and negatively correlated with school performance. The distribution of school grades for children born at 31-33 weeks was on average 3.85 (95% confidence interval = -4.36 to -3.35) centiles lower than for children born at 40 weeks. For births at 22-24 weeks, the corresponding figure was -23.15 (-30.32 to -15.97). When taking confounders into account, the association remained. When restricting the analysis to siblings, however, the association between school performance and preterm birth after week 30 vanished completely, whereas it remained, less pronounced, for preterm birth before 30 weeks of gestation. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the association between school performance and preterm birth after 30 gestational weeks is attributable to factors other than preterm birth per se.

  • 5.
    Akin, Serdar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Do Riksbanken produce unbiased forecast of the inflation rate?: and can it be improved?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is to evaluate if forecast produced by the Central Bank of Sweden (Riksbanken) for the 12 month change in the consumer price index is unbiased? Results shows that for shorter horizons (h < 12) the mean forecast error is unbiased but for longer horizons its negatively biased when inference is done by Maximum entropy bootstrap technique. Can the unbiasedness be improved by strict ap- pliance to econometric methodology? Forecasting with a linear univariate model (seasonal ARIMA) and a multivariate model Vector Error Correction model (VECM) shows that when controlling for the presence of structural breaks VECM outperforms both prediction produced Riksbanken and ARIMA. However Riksbanken had the best precision in their forecast, estimated as MSFE

  • 6. Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Bronson, Mary Ann
    Skogman Thoursie, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vroman, Susan
    The career dynamics of high-skilled women and men: Evidence from Sweden2018In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 105, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use matched worker-firm register data from Sweden to examine the career dynamics of high-skill women and men. Specifically, we track wages for up to 20 years among women and men born in the years 1960-70 who completed a university degree in business or economics. These women and men have similar wages and earnings at the start of their careers, but their career paths diverge substantially as they age. These men and women also have substantial differences in wage paths associated with becoming a parent. We look at whether firm effects account for the differences we observe between women's and men's wage profiles. We document differences between the firms where men work and those where women work. However, a wage decomposition suggests that these differences in firm characteristics play only a small role in explaining the gender log wage gap among these workers. We then examine whether gender differences in firm-to-firm mobility help explain the patterns in wages that we see. Men and women both exhibit greater mobility early in their careers, but there is little gender difference in this firmto-firm mobility. We find that the main driver of the gender difference in log wage profiles is that men experience higher wage gains than women do both as switchers and as stayers.

  • 7. Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Skogman Thoursie, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vroman, Susan
    Parental Leave and the Glass Ceiling in Sweden2015In: Research in Labor Economics, ISSN 0147-9121, Vol. 41, p. 89-115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Albrecht, Konstanze
    et al.
    von Essen, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Parys, Juliane
    Szech, Nora
    Updating, self-confidence, and discrimination2013In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 60, p. 144-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this laboratory experiment, we show that people incorporate irrelevant group information when evaluating others. Individuals from groups that perform badly on average receive low evaluations, even when it is known that the individuals themselves perform well. This group-bias occurs both in a gendered setup, where women form the worse performing group, and in a non-gendered setup. The type of discrimination that we identify is neither taste-based nor statistical; it is rather due to conservatism in updating beliefs, and is even more pronounced among women. Furthermore, self-confident men overvalue male performers. When our data is used to simulate a job promotion ladder, we observe that women are driven out quickly.

  • 9.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Birenstam, Helene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Eklund, Johanna
    The interbank market risk premium, central bank interventions, and measures of market liquidity2014In: Journal of International Money and Finance, ISSN 0261-5606, E-ISSN 1873-0639, Vol. 48, p. 202-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the interbank market risk premium soared during the financial crisis, it created a wedge between interest rates actually paid by private agents and the rapidly falling policy rates. Many central banks attempted to improve the situation by supplying liquidity to the domestic interbank market. This paper studies the Swedish interbank market risk premium using a unique data set on traded volume between banks and between banks and the Riksbank. We find that the main determinants of the Swedish interbank premium are international variables, such as US and EURO area risk premia. International exchange rate volatility and the EURO/USD deviations from CIP also matters, while standard measures of domestic market liquidity and domestic credit risk have insignificant effects. Nonlinear smooth transition (STR) models show that U.S. financial variables are more important in times of a rising U.S. risk premium. Our measure of actual turnover in the interbank market is associated with a significant reduction of the interbank market risk premium, as are credit provisions by the central bank.

  • 10.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Carlsson, Mikael
    Production Function Residuals, VAR Technology Shocks, and Hours Worked: Evidence From Industry Data2007In: Economics LettersArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Monetary policy and Swedish Unemployment Fluctuations2008In: Economics - The Open-Access Open-Assessment E-JournalArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Kjellberg, David
    Can Endogenous Monetary Policy Explain the Deviations from UIP?2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The co-movements of nominal exchange rates and short-term interest rates as the economy is hit by shocks is a potential source of ex post deviations from uncovered interest rate parity. This paper investigates whether an established model of endogenous monetary policy in an open economy is capable of explaning the exchange rate risk premium puzzle. Time series on interest differentials and exchange rate changes are generated from the Svensson (2000) model. Uncovered interest rate parity is tested on the simulated data and the b-coefficients are investigated. For most realistic choices of parameter values, the b-coefficients are positive but much smaller than the unity value expected from UIP. It is however also possible to obtain large, negative b-coefficients if the central bank is engaged in interest rate smoothing.

  • 13.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Post, Erik
    Cointegration and the Stabilizing Role of Exchange RatesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Post, Erik
    Exchange Rates and Asymmetric Shocks in Small Open Economies2008In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 527-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

    Abstract

     

     

    We study the stabilizing properties of exchange rates in five small open

    economies during to periods of floating exchange rates and inflation targeting. In

    the cases of Sweden and Canada, the nominal exchange rates behave in a stabilizing

    manner. Most exchange rate movements emanate from the exchange rate itself

    and are hence not responses to fundamental shocks. However, these non-fundamental

    shocks have only negligible effects on output and inflation. Our findings indicate that

    exchange rates display some stabilizing properties but can mainly be characterized as

    disconnected from the rest of the economy.

  • 15.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sellin, Peter
    Exchange Rates and Long-Term BondsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sellin, Peter
    Exchange Rates and Long-Term Bonds2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 974-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is tentative evidence to suggest that the well-documented empirical failure of uncovered interest parity (UIP) is confined to short-term interest rates. However, tests of UIP for long-term bonds are thwarted by various data problems. These data problems can be avoided by focusing on short investments in long-term bonds. This paper concerns the relationship between changes in the US dollar-Deutsche Mark exchange rate and returns to short investments in US and German long-term government bonds. The hypothesis that expected returns to investments in bonds denominated in the two currencies are equal is not rejected, and the estimated slope coefficients are positive. For corresponding short-term interest rates, the typical finding of negative and large Fama coefficients is confirmed. We conclude that it is the maturity of the asset, rather than the investment horizon, that matters for the results.

  • 17.
    Alexius, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sellin, Peter
    Exchange Rates and Long-term BondsIn: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

    Tentative evidence suggests that the empirical failure of uncovered

    interest parity (UIP) is con

     

    fi

    ned to short-term interest rates. Tests of

    UIP for long-term interest rates are however hampered by various data

    problems. By focusing on short investments in long-term bonds, these

    data problems can be avoided. We study the relationship between the

    US dollar - Deutsch Mark exchange rate and German and American

    bond rates. The hypothesis that expected returns to investments in

    bonds denominated in the two currencies are equal cannot be rejected.

    This result is not simply due to low power as the

     

    β−coeffi

    cients are

    close to unity. For the corresponding short-term interest rates, the

    typical

     

    finding of a large and significantly negative β−coeffi

    cient is

    con

    firmed.

  • 18.
    Almerud, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the empirical relevance of cointegration between stock market returns and labor income on optimal portfolio choiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate the empirical relevance of cointegration between labor income and (cumulative) equity returns on the optimal choice between equity and risk-free bonds for finitely lived households facing an exogenously given economic environment. Benzoni et al. (2007) showed that such cointegration implies that households should save only in risk-free bonds when young, and increase the share of equity in the portfolio as they grow older. Since this result is a reversal of conventional wisdom, I investigate if the empirical cointegration relationship is strong enough to be relevant when households make investment decisions. Using an economic environment estimated on US data between 1929-2016, I find that cointegration exists, but that it is not strong enough to result in an increasing equity share with age.

  • 19.
    Almerud, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Optimal public policy in a multi-sector model with asymmetric shocksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an economy with sticky prices and multiple large sectors that face asymmetric shocks, it is not possible to reach the first-best outcome with only monetary policy as a tool. However, with the introduction of state-dependent fiscal policy, the first best can be achieved. I show that in such an economy, the central bank should aim for zero aggregate inflation, while the fiscal authority changes taxes and wage subsidies to change effective relative prices between the sectors. Furthermore I show that if the fiscal authority has an implementation lag of one period when conducting fiscal policy, so that it decides the policy for t+1 in period t, it is no longer possible to reach to first-best solution. It is however still beneficial to conduct fiscal policy.

  • 20.
    Almerud, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Public Policy, Household Finance and the Macroeconomy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis contains four separate essays, spanning questions of the interaction between public policy, household finance and the macroeconomy. How does public policy affect macroeconomic outcomes, and the choices and welfare of households, and what are households’ optimal financial responses to changes in macroeconomic environments? Furthermore, the thesis includes a development of a method, which is helpful to answer questions like the ones stated above. 

    The first essay, Optimal Public Policy in a Multi-Sector Economy with Asymmetric Shocks, shows how fiscal policy can complement monetary policy. It is shown that fiscal policy can be used to improve macroeconomic outcomes and make the economy more efficient. Since fiscal policy, in general, includes more instruments than monetary policy, it is possible to neutralize several frictions in the economy simultaneously. This is shown in a general equilibrium model with dynastic households, where firms face monopolistic competition, sticky prices, productivity shocks and cost-push shocks. 

    The second essay, On the Design of Mortgage Default Legislation, asks how different types of mortgage contracts interact with different types of mortgage default policies regarding the probability of a default on home-owner’s mortgage. The different types of mortgage contracts analyzed are fixed rate annuity mortgages, adjustable rate amortized mortgages and adjustable rate non-amortized mortgages. The mortgage default policies span from non-recourse (where the mortgage lender takes all the default risk) to full recourse (where the borrower takes all the default risk). It is shown that a “borrower friendly” non-recourse policy is, as the one implemented in many parts of the United States, not necessarily borrower friendly due to its effect on the risk premium. This is investigated in a model with finitely lived households and an endogenous risk premium. 

    The third essay, On The Empirical Relevance of Cointegration Between Stock Market Returns and Labor Income on Optimal Portfolio Choice, investigates how finitely lived households optimally choose a portfolio consisting of risk-free bonds and risky equity, and how this choice is affected by the long-run correlation between risky (cumulative) equity returns and stochastic labor income. More specifically, I investigate if the empirical cointegration (long-run correlation) between the two variables is strong enough to affect the optimal portfolio choice.  It is shown that it is not. Cointegration exists between the two variables, but the speed-of-adjustment back to the cointegration equilibrium is to slow to have a significant effect on the households’ optimal portfolios. 

    The fourth essay, Solving Dynamic Programming Problems Using Stochastic Grids and Nearest-Neighbor Interpolation, describes a new computational method, which is used in the second and third essays. The method is developed to solve models with finitely lived households who face a complex economic environment. Post-state decision rules for the households are used together with simulated stochastic grids over the exogenous variables. By simulating the grids it is possible to reduce the number of grid points that the model is solved for, thereby making it significantly faster to solve models with many exogenous state variables. It is shown that it is possible to solve non-linear life-cycle models including at least eight state variables relatively quickly on a standard desktop computer.

  • 21.
    Almerud, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vestman, Roine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Österling, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the Design of Mortgage Default LegislationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterize the condition under which mortgage defaults occur and the welfare consequences of recourse versus non-recourse under different types of mortgage contracts. We build a model where household endogenously chooses to default on their mortgage and where bank endogenously set the risk premium tailored to the kind of mortgage contract and the current exemption level. We find that even moderate recourse, i.e. some garnishment of wages and assets upon default, provides a potent means for discouraging defaults. Furthermore, we find that households prefer strong recourse to weak recourse, as it implies a reduction of the risk premium. Under non-recourse, households prefer ARMs over IOs and FRMs, while under moderate recourse they prefer IOs over ARMs and FRMs. Our analysis suggests that the moral hazard effects on labor supply under strong recourse do not outweigh the benefits of the reduction in the risk premium. In no regime do households prefer FRMs over ARMs.

  • 22.
    Almerud, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Österling, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Solving dynamic programming problems using stochastic grids and nearest-neighbor interpolationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose two modications to the method of endogenous grid points that greatly decreases the computational time for life cycle models with many exogenous state variables. First, we use simulated stochastic grids on the exogenous state variables. Second, when we interpolate to nd the continuation value of the model, we split the interpolation step into two: We use nearest-neighbor interpolation over the exogenous state variables, and multilinear interpolation over the endogenous state variables. We evaluate the numerical accuracy and computational eciency of the algorithm by solving a standard consumption/savings life-cycle model with an arbitrary number of exogenous state variables. The model with eight exogenous state variables is solved in around eight minutes on a standard desktop computer. We then demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithm by solving a model which includes a more realistic income process estimated by Guvenen et al. (2015).

  • 23. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Edlund, Lena
    Joffe, Michael
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    An adaptive significance of morning sickness? Trivers-Willard and Hyperemesis Gravidarum2016In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 21, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nausea during pregnancy, with or without vomiting, is a common early indication of pregnancy in humans. The severe form, Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG), can be fatal. The aetiology of HG is unknown. We propose that HG may be a proximate mechanism for the Trivers-Willard (T-W) evolutionary hypothesis that mothers in poor condition should favor daughters. Using Swedish linked registry data, 1987-2005, we analyze all pregnancies that resulted in an HG admission and/or a live birth, 1.65 million pregnancies in all. Consistent with the T-W hypothesis, we find that: (i) HG is associated with poor maternal condition as proxied by low education; (ii) HG in the first two months of pregnancy is associated with a 7% point increase in live girl births; and (iii) HG affected pregnancies have a 34-percent average rate of inferred pregnancy loss, higher among less educated women.

  • 24. Almond, Douglas
    et al.
    Edlund, Lena
    Palme, Mårten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Chernobyl's subclinical legacy: prenatal exposure to radioactive fallout and school outcomes in sweden2009In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 1729-1772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use prenatal exposure to Chernobyl fallout in Sweden as a natural experiment inducing variation in cognitive ability. Students born in regions of Sweden with higher fallout performed worse in secondary school, in mathematics in particular. Damage is accentuated within families (i.e., siblings comparison) and among children born to parents with low education. In contrast, we detect no corresponding damage to health outcomes. To the extent that parents responded to the cognitive endowment, we infer that parental investments reinforced the initial Chernobyl damage. From a public health perspective, our findings suggest that cognitive ability is compromised at radiation doses currently considered harmless.

  • 25.
    Andersen, Torben
    et al.
    University of Aarhus.
    Bergman, Michael
    University of Copenhagen.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    Flodén, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Hartman, Laura
    Centre for Business and Policy Studies (SNS).
    Svaleryd, Helena
    Reseach Institute of Industrial Economics.
    Tobisson, Lars
    Åsbrink, Erik
    Svensk finanspolitik: Finanspolitiska rådets rapport 20102010Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Anderson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    All Guts, No Glory: Trading and Diversification among Online Investors2007In: European Financial Management, Vol. 13, p. 448-471Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Anderson, Anders
    et al.
    Dreber Almenberg, Anna
    Vestman, Roine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Swedish House of Finance, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk taking, behavioral biases and genes: Results from 149 active investors2015In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, ISSN 2214-6350, E-ISSN 2214-6369, Vol. 6, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence suggests that there is genetic basis for economic behaviors, including preferences for risk taking. We correlate variation in risk taking and behavioral biases with two genetic polymorphisms related to the uptake of dopamine and serotonin (7R+ DRD4 and s/s 5-HTTLPR), hypothesizing that they are positively (negatively) related to risk taking. We use a small but detailed sample of active investors where we combine survey data with DNA samples and data from Swedish tax records that give us objective information about actual economic choices. We find a positive (negative) relationship between the dopamine (serotonin) gene and life expectancy bias, but no other significant correlations between the two genes and behaviors, including risk taking and measures of equity holdings. We acknowledge that our tests suffer from low power originating from the small sample size, which warrants some caution when interpreting these results.

    JEL classificationG02; D122

  • 28.
    Anderson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Backman, Sandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Flygskatt. En empirisk studie av flygskattens genomsnittliga effekt inom Europeiska unionen.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Bunar, Nihad
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). Institutet för näringslivsforskning (IFN), Sverige.
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Öckert, Björn
    "Lottning bättre än närhet och kötid för att bryta segregering"2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 30 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Intensive coaching of new immigrants: an evaluation based on random program assignment2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 575-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether intensive counseling and coaching by Public Employment Service (PES) caseworkers improves the employment opportunities of new immigrants in Sweden. This is tested within the framework of introduction programs for new immigrants. A trial introduction program was implemented from October 2006 to June 2008. Within participating municipalities, new immigrants were randomly assigned into treatment (intensive coaching) or control (regular introduction programs). The results indicate that there are significant treatment effects on employment probabilities as well as on participation in intermediate PES training programs.

  • 31.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Kan introduktionsprogrammen förbättras? Utvärdering av ett randomiserat experiment – försöksverksamheten för vissa nyanlända invandrare (FNI)2009In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 6-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har jämfört övergången från arbetslöshet till osubventionerat och subventionerat arbete, utbildning och arbetsmarknadsutbildning för en grupp nyanlända invandrare som slumpmässigt valts ut för att delta i en försöksverksamhet. Försöket, som syftar till att förkorta tiden fram till inträde på arbetsmarknaden, bedrevs vid arbetsförmedlingar i Stockholms, Kronobergs och Skåne län. Gruppen jämfördes med en slumpmässigt utvald kontrollgrupp bestående av nyanlända som skrivits in vid samma arbetsförmedling under samma tidsperiod. Vi finner att sannolikheten att övergå till osubventionerat arbete, senast 15 månader efter inskrivning, i genomsnitt är omkring 4 procentenheter högre för deltagare i försöket.

  • 32.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    TIPping the Scales towards Greater Employment Chances? Evaluation of a Trial Introduction Program (TIP) for Newly-Arrived Immigrants based on Random Program Assignment2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Trial Introduction Program (TIP) for newly-arrived immigrants to Sweden was set up in October 2006 in order to meet the main criticisms directed at existing introduction programs. Two primary innovations were introduced, flexible language instruction parallelwith other labor market activities at the Public Employment Service (PES) and intensive counselling and coaching by PES caseworkerswith considerably reduced caseloads. Within participating municipalities, newly-arrived immigrants were randomly assigned into TIP or the control group, i.e., regular introduction programs. Results indicate small but significant treatment effects on the probability of attaining regular employment and subsidized employment. In addition,TIP participants were considerably more likely to enter intermediate PES training programs. Hazard rates into PES training programs were also significantly higher for participants in TIP in comparison to participants in regular introduction programs.

  • 33.
    Andersson Joona, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    TIPping the Scales towards Greater Employment Chances? Evaluation of a Trial Introduction Program(TIP) for Newly Arrived Immigrants based on Random Program Assignment2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Trial Introduction Program (TIP) for newly-arrived immigrants to Sweden was implemented from October 2006 to June 2008 in order to meet the main criticisms directed at existing introduction programs. Two primary innovations were introduced, flexible language instruction parallel with other labor market activities at the Public Employment Service (PES) and intensive counseling and coaching by PES caseworkers with considerably reduced caseloads. Within participating municipalities, newly-arrived immigrants were randomly assigned into TIP (treatment) or regular introduction programs (control). Results indicate significant treatment effects on the probability of attaining regular employment as well as the probability of entering intermediate PES training programs. Hazard rates into PES training programs were also significantly higher for participants in TIP in comparison to participants in regular introduction programs.

  • 34. Antunes, Ana
    et al.
    Campainha, Sergio
    Castro, Ana
    Brinca, Pedro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Barroso, Ana
    Conde, Sara
    Neves, Sofia
    Machado, Jose Carlos
    Parente, Barbara
    STUDY OF THE MUTATIONAL STATE OF EGFR IN DIAGNOSTIC SAMPLES OF NSCLC - NEW APPROACH METHODS2011In: Journal of Thoracic Oncology, ISSN 1556-0864, E-ISSN 1556-1380, Vol. 6, no 6, p. S1495-S1496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Besancenot, Damien
    University of Paris.
    Huynh, Kim
    University of Paris.
    Skalli, Ali
    University of Paris.
    Children’s first names and immigrationbackground in France2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present evidence indicating that immigrants and especially those from the Maghreb/Middle-East give first names to their children that are different from those given by the French majority population. When it comes to natives with an immigrant background, these differences are very little pronounced. Being born and raised up in France as well as being exposed to the French society and culture through residence, citizenship and the educational system draws individuals with or without immigrant background into similar ways of expressing belongings when choosing firstnames for their children, indicating the very strong assimilating forces in the French society.

  • 36.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Besancenot, Damien
    Huynh, Kim
    Skalli, Ali
    Children’s First Names, Religiosity and Immigration Background in France2015In: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an index measuring the relative probability of names in different populations, our results indicate that immigrants and especially those from the Maghreb/Middle-East give first names to their children that are different from those given by the French majority population. Though we find a correlation between religiosity and our name index for European immigrants, the differences in naming practices cannot generally be attributed to religiosity as we find no correlation between our name index and the religious practices of immigrants from the Maghreb/Middle-East. These differences in the naming patterns are, as one would expect, related to general cultural references, language, citizenship and educational attainment.

  • 37.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bursell, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Between Meritocracy and Ethnic Discrimination: The Gender Difference2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a two stage correspondence test methodology, this study tests employer priors against job-applicants with Arabic names compared to job-applicants with Swedish names. In the first stage, employers are sent CVs of equal observable quality. Thereafter, in the second stage, the CVs with Arabic names are given an advantage of, on average, two more years of relevant work experience. This setup allows us to test the strength of unfavorable priors against job-applicants with Arabic names and to what degree these priors are revised, on average, when resumes are enhanced. Results indicate no significant differences in call-backs for female applicants when CVs with Arabic names are enhanced. The call-back gap for men however remains large and signifcant despite a positive adjustment of CVs with Arabic names. This implies that negative priors against male job applicants with Arabic names are not revised by an increase in observable merits.

  • 38.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bursell, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Stereotypes against Men and Women with Arabic NamesArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine differences in the intensity of employer stereotypes against men and women with Arabic names in Sweden by testing how much more work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on job applications. Employers are first sent CVs of equal merits in a field-experiment setup. Arabic-named CVs are thereafter enhanced with more relevant work experience than Swedish-named CVs. Results indicate a reverse gender gap in employer stereotypes as initial differences in call-backs disappear for female applicants when CVs for Arabic-named applications are enhanced, but remain strong and significant for male applicants. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed about the interaction of gender and ethnicity, we find that Arabic men face stronger discrimination in the labor market than Arabic women.

  • 39.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bursell, Moa
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Stereotypes of Men and Women with Arabic Names2016In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 385-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine differences in the intensity of employer stereotypes of men and women with Arabic names in Sweden by testing how much work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on job applications. Employers are first sent curriculum vitaes (CVs) of equal merit in a field experiment setup. Arabic-named CVs are thereafter enhanced with more relevant work experience than Swedish-named CVs. The results indicate a reverse gender gap in employer stereotypes because initial differences in the number of call-backs disappear for female applicants when Arabic-named CVs are enhanced but remain strong and significant for male applicants. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed about the interaction of gender and ethnicity, we find that Arabic men face stronger discrimination in the labor market than Arabic women.

  • 40.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Heyman, Fredrik
    Microdata Evidence on Rent Sharing2009In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 41, no 23, p. 2965-2976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of firm profits on wages for individual workers while focusing on the empirical complications associated with estimating the extent of rent-sharing. Controlling for worker and firm fixed-effects and using several instruments to deal with the endogeneity of profits, we report results indicating that Ordinary Least Square (OLS)-estimates strongly underestimate the effects of profits on wages. Moreover, the effect of profits on wages are estimated separately for firms with increasing and decreasing profits within a given time period. We find a positive and stable effect only in firms with increasing profits. This is in line with the idea that falling profits do not lead to wage cuts while increasing profits imply higher wages.

  • 41.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lundholm, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On Fragile Grounds: A Replication of 'Are Muslim Immigrants Different in Terms of Cultural Integration?'2011In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 1002-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a replication of "Are Muslim Immigrants Different in terms of Cultural Integration?" by Alberto Bisin, Eleonora Patacchini, Thierry Verdier and Yves Zenou, published in the Journal of the European Economic Association, 6, 445-456, 2008. Bisin et al. (2008) report that they have 5,963 observations in their study. Using their empirical setup, we can only identify 1,901 relevant observations in the original data. After removing missing values we are left with 818 observations. We cannot replicate any of their results and our estimations yield no support for their claims. (JEL: A14, C21, C87, J15)

  • 42.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lundholm, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On Fragile Grounds: A replication of "Are Muslim immigrants different in terms of cultural integration?" Technical documentation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a technical documentation of Arai et al.(2008) which replicates “Are Muslim Immigrants Different in terms of Cultural Integration?” by Alberto Bisin, Eleonora Patacchini, Thierry Verdier and Yves Zenou, published in Journal of European Economic Association,6, 445-456, 2008. Bisin et al.(2008) report that they have 5963 observations in their study. Using their empirical setup, we can only identify 1901 relevant observations in the original data. After removing missing values we are left with 818 observations. We cannot replicate any of their results and our estimations yield no support for their claims.

  • 43.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Karlsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lundholm, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On Fragile Grounds: A replication of "Are Muslim immigrantsdifferent in terms of cultural integration?"2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a replication of “Are Muslim Immigrants Different interms of Cultural Integration?” by Alberto Bisin, Eleonora Patacchini,Thierry Verdier and Yves Zenou, published in Journal of European Economic Association, 6, 445-456, 2008.Bisin et al.(2008) report that they have 5963 observations in their study. Using their empirical setup, we can only identify 1901 relevant observations in the original data. After removing missing values we are left with 818 observations. We cannot replicate any of their results and our estimations yield no support for their claims.

  • 44.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nekby, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gender and Ethnic Discrimination, An Introduction2007In: Swedish Economic Policy ReviewArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Skogman Thoursie, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Giving Up Foreign Names: An Empirical Examination of Surname Change and Earnings2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we compare the earnings development for a group of immigrants that changes their names to Swedish-sounding or neutral names with immigrants who retain their names from the same region of birth. Our results indicate that name-changers are apparently similar to name-keepers and the earnings before the name change is essentially the same for both groups. However, an earnings gap after the name change is observed. The earnings gap corresponds to on average approximately 26 percent. Our understanding of the data and our results is that the groups are similar before the name change and that the earnings gap after the name change should be attributed to the name change. Our results should be viewed as evidence of unequal treatment of immigrants and natives in the Swedish labor market.

  • 46.
    Arai, Mahmood
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Thoursie, Peter Skogman
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Renouncing Personal Names: An Empirical Examination of Surname Change and Earning2009In: Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 127-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of surname change to Swedish‐sounding or neutral names on earnings for immigrants from Asian/African/Slavic countries. To estimate this effect, we exploit the variation resulting from different timing of name changes across individuals during the 1990s. The results imply that there is a substantial increase in annual earnings after a name change, no effects on earnings prior to a name change, and no positive general effects of a new name for other groups that renounced a foreign name. Based on these findings, we argue that these effects are due to name change as a response to discrimination.

  • 47. Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    Edlund, Lena
    Fallgren, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Forsberg, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Gustavii, Jonathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Herzing, Mathias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Häckner, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Jacobsson, Adam
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Jacobsson, Eva-Maria
    Källmén, Håkan
    Lindquist, Sinna
    Lundström, Anders
    Muren, Astri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjöberg, Eric
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Thuresson, Björn
    Tjörnhammar, Edward
    Wickström, Hans
    Effektiv miljötillsyn: slutrapport2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket) has financed the interdisciplinary research program “Efficient Environmental Inspections and Enforcement” (“Effektiv miljötillsyn”). The researchers are affiliated to Stockholm University, which is the responsible research institution, the Royal Institute of Technology (Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan), the Karolinska Institutet, and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut). The goal has been to develop new knowledge, thereby achieving more efficient environmental inspections and enforcement and obtaining new scientific perspectives on environmental inspections and enforcement.

    The report studies methods for inspections and the communication between the inspector and the representative of the inspected facility, how the institutional framework for the inspection process works, and demonstrates the possibilities of measuring the effects of inspections and enforcement. The researchers involved in the program are fully responsible for the content of this report.

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency will use the results as a base for its continuing efforts to improve inspection and enforcement guidance and to develop the following up and evaluation of inspections and enforcement and guidance.

  • 48.
    Astri, Muren
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wijkander, Hans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Department of Economics2014In: Faculty of Social Sciences Stockholm University 1964-2014 / [ed] Gudrun Dahl, Mats Danielson, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2014, p. 111-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Baldwin, Richard E.
    et al.
    Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Forslid, Rikard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Trade Liberalization with Heterogeneous Firms2010In: Review of Development Economics, ISSN 1363-6669, E-ISSN 1467-9361, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 161-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the various aspects of trade liberalization with heterogeneous firms using the Melitz (2003) model. We find a number of novel results and effects including a Stolper-Samuelson-like result and several results related to the volume of trade, which are empirically testable. We also analyze what might be called an anti-variety effect as the result of trade liberalization. We show that this effect is most pronounced for small countries. This resonates with the often voiced criticism from antiglobalists that globalization leads the world to become more homogeneous by eliminating local specialties. Nevertheless, we find that trade liberalization always leads to welfare gains in the model.

  • 50. Baldwin, Richard
    et al.
    Forslid, Rikard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The development and future of factory Asia2014In: Asia and global production networks: implications for trade, incomes and economic vulnerability / [ed] Benno Ferrarini, David Hummels, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, p. 338-367Chapter in book (Refereed)
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