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  • 1. Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Cooper, Angela
    McDonald, James
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Patients’ Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients’ in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients’ adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients’ immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients’ in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 2. Aaltonen, Olli
    et al.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peltola, Maija S.
    Savela, Janne
    Tamminen, Henna
    Lehtola, Heidi
    Brain responses reveal hardwired detection of native-language rule violations2008In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 444, no 1, p. 56-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a neural correlate of the preattentive detection of any change in the acoustic characteristics of sounds. Here we provide evidence that violations of a purely phonological constraint in a listener's native language can also elicit the brain's automatic change-detection response. The MMN differed between Finnish and Estonian listeners, conditions being equal except for the native language of the listeners. We used two experimental conditions: synthetic vowels in isolation and the same vowels embedded in a pseudo-word context. MMN responses to isolated vowels were similar for Finns and Estonians, while the same vowels in a pseudoword context elicited different MMN patterns depending on the listener's mother tongue.

  • 3. Aarne, Päivikki
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Parent-rated socio-emotional development in children with language impairment in comparison with typically developed children2014In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 279-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with language impairment (LI) and children with typical development (TD) were assessed by their respective parents using The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (Swedish version SECDI) and Greenspan Socio Emotional Growth Chart (GSEGC). The aim was to investigate socio-emotional and language development in children with LI and TD with respect to possible differential patterns and relations between the groups. The results highlight a clear association between language and socio-emotional development. Children with LI were rated similar to young language-matched children with TD, but significantly lower relative to age-matched TD children, particularly concerning symbolic stages of development: the use of linguistic symbols as well as related areas such as symbol play and symbolic mental ability. The results are discussed in light of presumable background factors and possible consequences for children or sub-groups of children with LI.

  • 4.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term cognitive outcome of childhood traumatic brain injury2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge of cognitive outcome extending beyond 5 years after childhood traumatic brain injury, CTBI. The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate cognitive outcome at 6-14 years after CTBI, and to evaluate if advancements in the neurosurgical care, starting 1992, did influence long-term outcome and early epidemiology. An additional aim was to study the relationship between early brain injury parameters and early functional outcome. Study 1 evaluated cognitive progress during 14 years after CTBI, over three neuropsychological assessments in 8 patients with serious CTBI. Study 2 used patient records to investigate early epidemiology, received rehabilitation and medical follow up in two clinical cohorts, n=82 and n=46, treated neurosurgically for CTBI before and after 1992. An exploratory cluster analysis was applied to analyse the relation between early brain injury severity parameters and early functional outcome. In Study 3, participants in the two cohorts, n=18 and n=23, treated neurosurgically for CTBI before and after 1992, were subject to an extensive neuropsychological assessment, 13 and 6 years after injury, respectively. Assessment results of the two cohorts were compared with each other and with controls. Data were analysed with multivariate analyses of variance. Results and discussion. There were significant long-term cognitive deficits of similar magnitude and character in the two cohorts with CTBI, treated before and after the advancements in neurosurgical care. At 6-14 years after injury, long-term deficits in verbal intellectual and executive functions were found, and were discussed in terms of their late maturation and a decreased executive control over verbal memory-functions after CTBI. Visuospatial functions had a slightly better long-term recovery. The amount of rehabilitation received was equally low in both cohorts. The length of time spent in intensive care and the duration of care in the respirator may have a stronger relationship to early outcome than does a single measure of level of consciousness at admission. Main conclusions are that cognitive deficits are apparent at long-term follow up, 6-13 years after neurosurgically treated CTBI, even after advancements in the neurosurgical care in Sweden. Measures of verbal IQ, verbal memory and executive functions were especially low while visuospatial intellectual functions appear to have a better long-term recovery.

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  • 5. Aaro Jonsson, Catherine C.
    et al.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid M.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Variability in quality of life 13 years after traumatic brain injury in childhood2014In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 317-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of describing variability in the long-term outcome of quality of life after neurosurgically treated pediatric traumatic brain injury, mostly self-reports of 21 individuals with mild or moderate/severe injury were gathered using Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory in telephone interviews 13 years aftyer injury. A majority of the participants reported brain injury-related problems. The median outcome on Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory was mild to moderate limitations. The variation within the moderate/severe group varied between relatively good outcome and moderate/severe limitations. Concentration, irritability, fatigue, and transportation were reported as the most problematic areas, whereas self-care was reported as well functioning. Societal participation appeared to be the best functional domain in this Swedish study. Examples of individual reports of the life-situation at various outcome levels were provided. Variability in outcome is large within severity groups, and research may gain by addressing both outcomes of the individuals and groups. Objective questions of outcome should be accompanied by questions of actual functioning in everyday life. To ensure long-term support for quality of life for those with remaining dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury, healthcare systems should implement systematic routines for referral to rehabilitation and support.

  • 6. Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Catroppa, Cathy
    Godfrey, Celia
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anderson, Vicki
    Cognitive Recovery and Development after Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood: A Person-Oriented, Longitudinal Study2013In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cognitive recovery and subsequent development is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we used cluster analysis to explore acute stage individual profiles of injury age and cognition in 118 children with traumatic brain injury. Repeated measures of cognitive function were conducted at 30 months, indicating recovery, and 10 years post-injury, indicating development. Nine clusters were identified. Recovery was evident in three clusters, two of them with low functioning profiles. Developmental gains occurred for three clusters and an acute profile of higher freedom from distractibility (FFD) and lower processing speed (PS) was related to positive differences. One cluster, average low functioning and especially low verbal comprehension, demonstrated a slower development than peers. This suggests that developmental change after TBI in childhood takes place on a continuum, with both chance of long-term catching up, and risk of poor development. An acute profile of higher FFD and lower PS seemed to reflect injury consequences and were followed by developmental gains. These results challenge previous findings, and warrant further investigation.

  • 7.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Horneman, Göran
    Department of Psychology, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Institute for the Health of Women and Children, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg.
    Neuropsychological progress during 14 yearsafter severe traumatic brain injury in childhoodand adolescence2004In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 921-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the impact of time since injury on  neuropsychological and psychosocial outcome after serious TBI in childhood or adolescence. Methods: The subjects were eight patients with serious TBI sustained at a mean age of 14 years who had been assessed neuropsychological at one, seven and 14 years after TBI. A retrospective longitudinal design was chosen to describe the development in six neuropsychological domains on basis of the assessments. Psychosocial data were gathered from clinical knowledge and a semi-structured interview at 14 years after TBI. Results: Performance of verbal IQ shows a declining trend over the three assessments, that the performance of attention and working memory is low and that verbal learning is the cognitive domain, which exhibits the largest impairments. The main psychosocial result is that three of the eight subjects go from a school situation with no adjustments to adult life with an early retirement. Conclusions: Time since insult is an important factor when assessing outcome after TBI in childhood and adolescence and that assessment of final outcome should not be done before adulthood.

  • 8.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leis Ljungmark, Mia
    Institution for clinical sciences, Dept. of pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Institution for clinical sciences, Dept. of pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury2009In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 23, no 13-14, p. 1008-1016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the cognitive long term outcome of two cohorts of patients neurosurgically treated for childhood traumatic brain injury (CTBI), either in 1987-1991 according to an older concept, or 1997-2001 with a stronger emphasis on volume targeted interventions. Research design and methods: Participants in the two cohorts were subject to an extensive neuropsychological assessment, 13.2 and 6.1 years post injury, respectively. In a between group design, assessment results of the two cohorts, n 18 and n 23, were compared to each other and to controls. Data were analyzed with multivariate analyses of variance. Results: Long-term cognitive deficits for both groups of similar magnitude and character were observed in both groups. Abilities were especially low regarding executive and memory function and verbal IQ. The cognitive results are discussed in terms of  vulnerability of verbal functions and decreased executive control over memory-functions. Conclusions: There is a definite need for long term follow up of cognitive deficits after neurosurgically treated CTBI, also with the newer neurosurgical concept. Verbal learning and the executive control over memory functions should be addressed with interventions aimed at restoration, coping and compensation.

  • 9. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Town, Joel
    On Paolo Migione's "What Does Brief Mean?"2014In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 62, no 5, p. NP18-NP22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Town, Joel
    Johansson, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Lahti, Melissa
    Kisely, Steve
    Sustained Reduction in Health Care Service Usage after Adjunctive Treatment of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy in Patients with Bipolar Disorder2019In: Psychodynamic Psychiatry, ISSN 2162-2590, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in long-term health care costs and symptom severity after adjunctive intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with bipolar disorder undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 4.6 one-hour sessions of ISTDP to 29 patients with bipolar disorders. Health care service costs were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Hospital cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, and all cost reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Self-reported psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and cost-effective in select patients with bipolar disorders, and that gains may be sustained in long-term followup. Future research directions are discussed.

  • 11. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Town, Joel
    Ogrodniczuk, John
    Joffres, Michel
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Trial Therapy Effectiveness and Role of Unlocking the Unconscious2017In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 205, no 6, p. 453-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of trial therapy interviews using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy with 500 mixed sample, tertiary center patients. Furthermore, we investigated whether the effect of trial therapy was larger for patients who had a major unlocking of the unconscious during the interview compared with those who did not. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), measured at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. Significant outcome effects were observed for both the BSI and the IIP with small to moderate preeffect/posteffect sizes, Cohen's d = 0.52 and 0.23, respectively. Treatment effects were greater in patientswho had a major unlocking of the unconscious comparedwith thosewho did not. The trial therapy interview appears to be beneficial, and its effects may relate to certain therapeutic processes. Further controlled research is warranted.

  • 12. Abdelnour, Carla
    et al.
    Ferreira, Daniel
    van de Beek, Marleen
    Cedres, Nira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Oppedal, Ketil
    Cavallin, Lena
    Blanc, Frédéric
    Bousiges, Olivier
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Pilotto, Andrea
    Padovani, Alessandro
    Boada, Mercè
    Pagonabarraga, Javier
    Kulisevsky, Jaime
    Aarsland, Dag
    Lemstra, Afina W.
    Westman, Eric
    Parsing heterogeneity within dementia with Lewy bodies using clustering of biological, clinical, and demographic data2022In: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 1758-9193, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) includes various core clinical features that result in different phenotypes. In addition, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular pathologies are common in DLB. All this increases the heterogeneity within DLB and hampers clinical diagnosis. We addressed this heterogeneity by investigating subgroups of patients with similar biological, clinical, and demographic features.

    Methods: We studied 107 extensively phenotyped DLB patients from the European DLB consortium. Factorial analysis of mixed data (FAMD) was used to identify dimensions in the data, based on sex, age, years of education, disease duration, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of AD biomarkers, core features of DLB, and regional brain atrophy. Subsequently, hierarchical clustering analysis was used to subgroup individuals based on the FAMD dimensions.

    Results: We identified 3 dimensions using FAMD that explained 38% of the variance. Subsequent hierarchical clustering identified 4 clusters. Cluster 1 was characterized by amyloid-beta and cerebrovascular pathologies, medial temporal atrophy, and cognitive fluctuations. Cluster 2 had posterior atrophy and showed the lowest frequency of visual hallucinations and cognitive fluctuations and the worst cognitive performance. Cluster 3 had the highest frequency of tau pathology, showed posterior atrophy, and had a low frequency of parkinsonism. Cluster 4 had virtually normal AD biomarkers, the least regional brain atrophy and cerebrovascular pathology, and the highest MMSE scores.

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates that there are subgroups of DLB patients with different biological, clinical, and demographic characteristics. These findings may have implications in the diagnosis and prognosis of DLB, as well as in the treatment response in clinical trials.

  • 13. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Abu Talib, Mansor
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Harvey, Richard
    Yaacob, Siti Nor
    Ismail, Zanariah
    Problem-solving skills and perceived stress among undergraduate students: The moderating role of hardiness2018In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1321-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hardiness, and perceived stress and to test the moderating role of hardiness in the relationship between problem-solving skills and perceived stress among 500 undergraduates from Malaysian public universities. The analyses showed that undergraduates with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and approach-avoidance style were more likely to report perceived stress. Hardiness moderated the relationships between problem-solving skills and perceived stress. These findings reinforce the importance of moderating role of hardiness as an influencing factor that explains how problem-solving skills affect perceived stress among undergraduates.

  • 14. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Coping Style as a Moderator of Perfectionism and Suicidal Ideation Among Undergraduate Students2017In: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0894-9085, E-ISSN 1573-6563, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a serious and growing public health problem and remains an unnecessary cause of death globally. In Iran, the highest prevalence of acute and chronic suicidal ideation is among young people aged 16-24. This study investigates the relationship between coping style, two types of perfectionism, and suicidal ideation among undergraduates, and examines coping style as a moderator of the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was employed to recruit 547 undergraduate students aged 19-24 years from the Islamic Azad University of Karaj. Structural Equation Modelling indicated that suicidal ideation was negatively associated with adaptive perfectionism and task-focused coping but positively associated with emotion-focused coping, avoidance coping, and maladaptive perfectionism. Coping style (including the three styles of task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance coping) was found to moderate the relationship between perfectionism and suicidal ideation. The study advances understanding of the importance of coping style in this context and explains how perfectionism affects suicidal ideation.

  • 15. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Khanbani, Mehdi
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Emotional intelligence moderates perceived stress and suicidal ideation among depressed adolescent inpatients2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 102, p. 223-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because it remains one of the third leading causes of death among adolescents around the world, suicide is a major public health concern. This study was designed in response to this concern by examining the relationships among perceived stress, emotional intelligence, and suicidal ideation and to test the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation. A sample of depressed adolescents (n = 202) was recruited from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran, and then asked to complete measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, perceived stress, and emotional intelligence. Structural Equation Modeling showed that depressed adolescent in-patients with high levels of perceived stress and low levels of emotional intelligence were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multi-group analysis indicated that depressed in-patients high in both perceived stress and emotional intelligence had less suicidal ideation than others. The findings support the notion that perceived stress acts as a vulnerability factor that increase suicidal ideation among depressed inpatients. Suicidal history moderated the relationship between emotional intelligence and suicidal ideation. These findings also highlight the importance of emotional intelligence as a buffer in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation.

  • 16. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Vaez, Elham
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among High-School Students: the Moderating Role of Academic Hardiness2018In: Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 632-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence suggests that test anxiety is increasing among students; however, relatively little is known regarding the related factors of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the relationships between two forms of perfectionism, academic hardiness, and test anxiety, and (2) examine the moderating role of academic hardiness on the association between two types of perfectionism and test anxiety. This study included 520 students ranging from 15 to 21 years of age from eight high schools in Tehran, Iran completed the self-administered questionnaires. The results of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) revealed that students with high levels of personal standards perfectionism and high levels of academic hardiness were less likely to experience test anxiety, while students with high levels of evaluative concerns perfectionism were more likely to experience test anxiety. A multi-group analysis revealed that academic hardiness moderated the relationship between evaluative concerns perfectionism and test anxiety. These findings enhance existing literature by revealing moderating processes that explain how perfectionism effects test anxiety.

  • 17. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Hosseinian, Simin
    Beh-Pajooh, Ahmad
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Self-Concealment Mediates the Relationship Between Perfectionism and Attitudes Toward Seeking Psychological Help Among Adolescents2017In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 1019-1036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest barriers in treating adolescents with mental health problems is their refusing to seek psychological help. This study was designed to examine the relationships between two forms of perfectionism, self-concealment and attitudes toward seeking psychological help and to test the mediating role of self-concealment in the relationship between perfectionism and attitudes toward seeking psychological help among Malaysian high school students. The participants were 475 Malaysian high school students from four high schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Structural equation modelling results indicated that high school students with high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism, high levels of self-concealment, and low levels of self-oriented perfectionism reported negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Bootstrapping analysis showed that self-concealment emerged as a significant, full mediator in the link between socially prescribed perfectionism and attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Moderated mediation analysis also examined whether the results generalized across men and women. The results revealed that male students with socially prescribed perfectionism are more likely to engage in self-concealment, which in turn, leads to negative attitudes toward seeking psychological help more than their female counterparts. The results suggested that students high in socially prescribed perfectionism were more likely to engage in self-concealment and be less inclined to seek psychological help.

  • 18. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Hosseinian, Simin
    Zamanshoar, Elham
    Beh-Pajooh, Ahmad
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    The Moderating Effect of Hardiness on the Relationships between Problem-Solving Skills and Perceived Stress with Suicidal Ideation in Nursing Students2018In: Studia psychologica (Bratislava), ISSN 0039-3320, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 30-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence indicates an elevated risk of suicidal ideation for undergraduate nursing students. This research was designed to enhance the understanding of suicidal ideation in nursing students by investigating the relationships between problem-solving skills, perceived stress, hardiness, and suicidal ideation, with the possibility of hardiness acting as a moderator in the relationships between problem-solving skills appraisal and perceived stress with suicidal ideation. A multi-stage cluster random sample of Malaysian nursing undergraduate students (N = 204) completed self-report questionnaires. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that poor problem-solving skills, greater levels of perceived stress, and low levels of hardiness predicted greater levels of suicidal ideation. Also, hardiness emerged as a moderator in the links between problem-solving skills appraisal and perceived stress with suicidal ideation. The findings incrementally improve our understanding about the importance of hardiness as a moderator in explaining how problem-solving skills and perceived stress affect suicidal ideation. The results of this study are obtained from Malaysian nursing students and possible generalization to other populations should be verified by further studies.

  • 19. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    LeBouthillier, Daniel M.
    Najafi, Mahmoud
    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.
    Hosseinian, Simin
    Shahidi, Shahriar
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Kalhori, Atefeh
    Sadeghi, Hassan
    Jalili, Marzieh
    Effect of exercise augmentation of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of suicidal ideation and depression2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 219, p. 58-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicidal ideation and depression are prevalent and costly conditions that reduce quality of life. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for suicidal ideation and depression among depressed individuals.

    Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 54 mildly to moderately depressed patients (54% female, mean age=48.25) were assigned to a combined CBT and exercise group or to a CBT only group. Both groups received one weekly session of therapy for 12 weeks, while the combined group also completed exercise three times weekly over the same period. Self-reported suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living were measured at the beginning and the end of treatment.

    Results: Multilevel modelling revealed greater improvements in suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living in the combined CBT and exercise group, compared to the CBT only group.

    Limitations: No follow-up data were collected, so the long-term effects (i.e., maintenance of gains) is unclear.

    Conclusions: The findings revealed that exercise adjunct to CBT effectively decreases both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in mildly to moderately depressed individuals.

  • 20. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Björklund, Christina
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Exhaustion and Impaired Work Performance in the Workplace: Associations With Presenteeism and Absenteeism2019In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 438-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

    Methods: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

    Results: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

    Conclusions: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

  • 21. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Jensen, Irene
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    What is Number of Days in Number of Times?: Associations Between, and Responsiveness of, Two Sickness Presenteeism Measures2020In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 62, no 5, p. e180-e185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the associations between sickness presenteeism (SP) reported as number of days with SP reported as number of times and to evaluate their responsiveness.

    Methods: The study population (n = 454) consisted of employed individuals, at risk of long-term sickness absence. Correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between the two SP measures and external constructs such as work performance, general health, and registered sick leave. Both SP constructs were measured several times to examine responsiveness.

    Results: The SP measures are moderately correlated. They moderately correlated with work performance and health status measures. SP reported as number of times seems to be more sensitive than number of days in detecting changes after rehabilitation.

    Conclusions: Numerical or categorical constructs are valid sources of data on SP. However, categorized SP seems to be more responsive.

  • 22. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg Selma
    et al.
    Johannesen, Ása
    Debes, Fróði
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Weihe, Pál
    Working environment and fatigue among fishers in the north Atlantic: a field study2023In: International Maritime Health, ISSN 1641-9251, E-ISSN 2081-3252, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study investigates how Faroese deep-sea fishers’ exposure to work-related stressors affects their sleep, sleepiness, and levels of fatigue. Being constantly exposed to the unpredictable and harsh North Atlantic Ocean, having long work hours and split sleep for up to 40 days consecutively, they will arguably suffer from fatigue.

    Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty seven fishers participated in this study, and data was gathered throughout 202 days at sea. Subjective data was collected at the start and end of trips via questionnaires, sleep and sleepiness diaries and supplemented by objective sleep data through actigraphs. Ship movements were logged with a gyroscope connected to a laptop. A noise metre measured each work station and resting area, and noise exposure profiles were calculated based on each participant’s activity and location. Linear mixed-effect models investigated the effects of work exposure variables on sleep efficiency, and cumulative link mixed models measured effects on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and physical fatigue scale.

    Results: Time of day followed by ship movement were the exposure variables with the highest impact on the outcome variables of sleep efficiency, sleepiness and physical fatigue. The number of days at sea revealed correlations to outcome variables either by itself or interacting with the sleep periods per day. Crew size, shift system or noise did not impact outcome variables when in the model with other variables. Larger catches improved sleep efficiency but did not affect sleepiness and physical fatigue ratings.

    Conclusions: The findings indicate a chronically fatigued fisher population, and recommends urgent attention being paid to improving the structure of vessels and installing stabilators for greater stability at sea; work schedules being evaluated for protection of health; and work environments being designed that fulfill human physiological requirements in order to ensure the wellbeing and safety of those at sea.

  • 23. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg Selma
    et al.
    Weihe, Pál
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Debes, Fróði
    Impact of work exposure on cognitive performance in Faroese deep-sea fishers: a field study2022In: International Maritime Health, ISSN 1641-9251, E-ISSN 2081-3252, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 150-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examines the impact of work-related exposure on the cognitive performance of Faroese deep-sea fishers. Faroese fishing crews work long hours in demanding and noisy environments amidst highly uncertain and challenging weather conditions. These factors, together with compromised patterns of rest and sleep, are known to increase fatigue. Our aim was to study if changes could be measured in fishers’ cognitive performance at the end of the trip when compared with the baseline measure at the beginning.

    Materials and methods: Data was collected over 15 months (May 2017 to July 2018) from 157 fishers on 18 fishing trips which involved 202 investigative days on board. Questionnaires and six computerised cognitive tests: Simple Reaction Time, Numeric Working Memory, Corsi Blocks, Rapid Visual Information Processing, Digit Vigilance, and Card Sorting Test were used for data collection at the beginning and end of the trip. Differences between the outcomes on the two test points were analysed with one-way ANOVA comparing the performances at the beginning and end of the voyage, and two-way ANOVA to examine the interactive effect of chronotype and test occasions on the outcomes. Mixed models were used to test for the effects of predictor variables.

    Results: Significant declines in cognitive performance were observed from the beginning to the end of the trip, with decreases in visuospatial memory and reaction times, and increases in cognitive lapses. Furthermore, slowing in response times was observed in the second half of the Digit Vigilance test when comparing the halves.

    Conclusions: Declines in performance were observed from the start to the end of the trip. Furthermore, fishers performed significantly worse in the second half of some parted tests, and evening types seem less influenced by irregular work hours. These findings call for improving the safety of the vessels and their crew.

  • 24. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg
    et al.
    Weihe, Pál
    Debes, Fróði
    van Leeuwen, Wessel MA.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Sleep, Sleepiness, and Fatigue on Board Faroese Fishing Vessels2022In: Nature and Science of Sleep, ISSN 1179-1608, Vol. 14, p. 347-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Faroese fishers have four times more accidents than workers on land. The aim was to understand fishers’ fatigue better and how their work and sleep patterns influenced their sleepiness levels and cognitive performance.

    Materials and Methods: A total of 157 Faroese fishers wore wrist-worn actigraphs at sea and one week on land and filled in sleep and sleepiness diaries during the trip. Furthermore, a 3-minute simple reaction time (SRT) test was completed at the beginning and end of the trip. The ship’s movement and noise were also logged. The actiwatch results were analysed with mixed methods repeated measures. The sleepiness registrations and performance on the SRT-test were analysed with paired t-test. The ship movements (Pitch and roll) were divided into approximately three same-sized groups (lowest 1/3, medium 1/3, and highest 1/3) and compared against the Karolinska Sleepiness Scores (KSS ranging from 1– 9) ≥ 7 and physical tiredness (ranging from 1– 9) scores ≥ 7. Chi-square tests were used to determine the significance of these differences. Mean sleepiness scores at sea, and the proportion of sleepiness scores ≥ 7 were calculated, as well as sleepiness scores as a function of the time of day.

    Results: While at sea, fishers had more split sleep, slept less, and had lower sleep efficiency than onshore. Sleepiness was higher at the end of the trip, and cognitive decline was found. The number of major lapses was higher at the end of the trip, but with no significant difference between the median reaction times.

    Conclusion: The crew on-board the freezer longliner, who worked 8– 8 shifts, slept the most, had the longest continuous sleep periods, the highest sleep efficiency, the lowest sleepiness levels, and the highest noise exposure during their time off.

  • 25.
    Abrahamsson, Linus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Abrahmsén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    De tre grundläggande behoven kompetensbruk, autonomi och samhörighet inom Self-determination theory och dess förmåga att predicera motivation i arbete på distans.: En kvantitativ studie på motivation under Work From Home på den svenska arbetsmarknaden och under Covid-19 pandemin.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftade att undersöka den prediktiva förmågan hos de grundläggande behoven i Self-determination theory för motivation, i en kontext av Work From Home (WFH) och Covid-19 pandemin. Fokuset var att genomföra en multipel regressionsanalys över de tre behoven kompetensbruk, autonomi och samhörighet för beroende variabel motivation. Tolkning av resultatet görs med andra länder, kulturer och organisationskulturer i åtanke. Urvalet bestod av 31 deltagare, efter bortfall på 8 personer, som omfattar arbetande inom kontorsverksamheter. Resultatet visade att endast autonomi var signifikant på fem procent nivån. Efter kontroll av mätverktygets tillförlitlighet enligt Cronbachs alfa visar sig både autonomi och kompetensbruk vara signifikanta. Ett visst överlapp identifierades mellan konstrukt vilket ökar nyttan av att undersöka den subjektiva upplevelsen i framtida forskning. Studien i samstämmighet med tidigare forskning landade i att SDT kan predicera motivation, dock gestaltas inte de psykologiska grundbehoven i samma termer på distans. Slutsatsen dras att behoven kompetensbruk och autonomi är av särskild vikt under WFH.

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    AbrahamssonLinus_AbrahmsenJohan_Kandidat_PAO_VT22
  • 26.
    Abu Qouta, Nedal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Auditiv mismatch negativity (MMN): under hög och låg visuell belastning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Auditiv mismatch negativity (MMN) är en neurologisk hjärnrespons som visar hur känslig hjärnan är för auditiva förändringar. Perceptuell load teorin argumenterar att krävande visuella sökuppgifter eliminerar auditiva distraktorer från att bearbetas i arbetsminnet. Syftet är att observera event-related potential (ERP) händelser för att se om avvikande ljud exkluderas under hög visuell belastning. Ett korsmodalt uppmärksamhetstest utfördes där deltagarna (N = 26) fick utföra en visuell sökuppgift med två svårighetsgrader samtidigt som de skulle ignorera tonfrekvenser som spelades upp i bakgrunden. Resultatet visade auditiv MMN-respons under både låg och hög visuell belastning. Det fanns ingen tydlig skillnad på MMN mellan låg och hög belastning. Hörselcortex registrerade en avvikande ton i oddball och att samma ton fanns i kontroll-upplägget. Argument för att distraktorer bearbetas under kontrollerad uppmärksamhet. Ytterligare studier med större stickprov och olika ljudfrekvenser, naturliga och icke naturliga, krävs för att se hur ljuden påverkar bearbetningsprocessen.

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    fulltext
  • 27. Abubakar, Amin
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Social connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement: moderating role of ethnic minority status on resilience processes of Roma youth2016In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 361-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of connectedness on school engagement and life satisfaction among Roma (n = 121) and Bulgarian (n = 143) mainstream adolescents (mean age 15.89, SD = 1.18). A set of measures on family, peer, school and neighbourhood connectedness were administered alongside life satisfaction and school engagement scales. Multigroup path analysis indicated that while the relationship between connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement was largely the same across groups, the strength of such relationship differed among groups. A closer inspection of the model indicated that when it comes to school engagement, there was a salient difference in the role of different forms of connectedness between Roma and mainstream adolescents. For Roma adolescents, familial connectedness was especially salient for school engagement. The practical and theoretical implications of our findings for strengths and adaptive processes among Roma adolescents in Bulgaria are discussed.

  • 28. Abubakar, Amina
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Stefenel, Delia
    Uka, Fitim
    Zahaj, Skerdi
    Murimi, Paul
    van de Vijver, Fons
    Associations Between Social Connectedness and Academic Achievement Among Roma Youth in Eastern Europe2021In: Roma Minority Youth Across Cultural Contexts: Taking a Positive Approach to Research, Policy, and Practice / [ed] Radosveta Dimitrova; David Lackland Sam; Laura Ferrer Wreder, Oxford University Press, 2021, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the authors report on a study that examined relations between social connectedness, school engagement, and achievement in minority (Roma) and majority youth in Albania, Bulgaria, Kosovo, and Romania. Based on a social connectedness model, they investigated the interplay of two connectedness domains (i.e., school and family) and their relations to school engagement and achievement. Participants were 1,063 adolescents who completed the Social Connectedness Scale on school engagement and average academic achievement. The authors found that social connectedness, especially school connectedness, was associated with school engagement while parental education was associated with school achievement. Implications are discussed in terms of how these findings are relevant to greater insight into the promotion of connectedness and the academic success of minority and majority youth across the countries under investigation.

  • 29. Abubakar, Amina
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Tair, Ergyul
    Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults Across 23 Cultural Contexts2016In: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 28-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of configural and partial measurement weights invariance models, indicating similar patterns and strengths in factor loading for both adolescents and emerging adults across various countries. We found insufficient evidence for scalar invariance in both the adolescents’ and the emerging adults’ samples. A multi-level confirmatory factor analysis indicated configural invariance of the structure at country and individual level. Internal consistency, evaluated by alpha and omega coefficients per country, yielded acceptable results. The translated BMSLSS across different cultural contexts presents good psychometric characteristics similar to what has been reported in the original scale, though scalar invariance remains problematic. Our results indicate that the BMSLSS forms a brief measure of life satisfaction, which has accrued substantial evidence of construct validity, thus suitable for use in cross-cultural surveys with adolescents and emerging adults, although evaluation of degree of invariance must be carried out to ensure its suitability for mean comparisons.

  • 30. Aczel, Balazs
    et al.
    Szaszi, Barnabas
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    van den Akker, Olmo R.
    Albers, Casper J.
    van Assen, Marcel Alm
    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.
    Benjamin, Daniel
    Boehm, Udo
    Botvinik-Nezer, Rotem
    Bringmann, Laura F.
    Busch, Niko A.
    Caruyer, Emmanuel
    Cataldo, Andrea M.
    Cowan, Nelson
    Delios, Andrew
    van Dongen, Noah N. N.
    Donkin, Chris
    van Doorn, Johnny B.
    Dreber, Anna
    Dutilh, Gilles
    Egan, Gary F.
    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann
    Hoekstra, Rink
    Hoffmann, Sabine
    Holzmeister, Felix
    Huber, Juergen
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Jonas, Kai J.
    Kindel, Alexander T.
    Kirchler, Michael
    Kunkels, Yoram K.
    Lindsay, D. Stephen
    Mangin, Jean-Francois
    Matzke, Dora
    Munafò, Marcus R.
    Newell, Ben R.
    Nosek, Brian A.
    Poldrack, Russell A.
    van Ravenzwaaij, Don
    Rieskamp, Jörg
    Salganik, Matthew J.
    Sarafoglou, Alexandra
    Schonberg, Tom
    Schweinsberg, Martin
    Shanks, David
    Silberzahn, Raphael
    Simons, Daniel J.
    Spellman, Barbara A.
    St-Jean, Samuel
    Starns, Jeffrey J.
    Uhlmann, Eric Luis
    Wicherts, Jelte
    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan
    Consensus-based guidance for conducting and reporting multi-analyst studies2021In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 10, article id e72185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any large dataset can be analyzed in a number of ways, and it is possible that the use of different analysis strategies will lead to different results and conclusions. One way to assess whether the results obtained depend on the analysis strategy chosen is to employ multiple analysts and leave each of them free to follow their own approach. Here, we present consensus-based guidance for conducting and reporting such multi-analyst studies, and we discuss how broader adoption of the multi-analyst approach has the potential to strengthen the robustness of results and conclusions obtained from analyses of datasets in basic and applied research.

  • 31.
    Addo, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Luktfunktion hos vuxna med diagnos inom Autismspektrumet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that individuals with a diagnosis within the autism spectrum

    (ASD) experience a greater sensory sensitivity, but few studies have investigated the olfaction

    sensitivity. The aim of the present study is to gain a deeper understanding of the olfactory

    functions in adults with ASD.16 participants with ASD (14 controls) participated in the study

    where sniffin sticks were used to evaluate the differences between the groups. All participants

    answered a questionnaire about perceived olfaction sensitivity and the adult spectrum quotient;

    AQ. Olfactory discrimination and identification (with and without cue) did not differ

    between the groups, as for olfaction sensitivity, perceived pleasantness, intensity and edibility.

    When it came to self-assessed olfactory sensitivity, differences were found. However, this

    self-rated sensitivity did not appear in the standardized odor tests, where no significant differences

    between ASD and controls odor features were detected.

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    ASD
  • 32.
    Addo, Rebecka N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nord, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olfactory Functions in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, p. 530-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyperor hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive. In contrast, there was some evidence for no group differences on perceived edibility (BF01 = 2.69) and perceived intensity (BF01 = 2.80). These results do not provide conclusive evidence for or against differences between ASD and healthy controls on olfactory abilities. However, they suggest that there are no apparent group differences in subjective ratings of odors.

  • 33.
    Adelöf Herner, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Att aldrig kunna räcka till - Personalens upplevelser av krisbistånd på barnhemmet L.L.C.C.M i Rwanda2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hur personalen på barnhemmet L.L.C.C.M. påverkas emotionellt av att arbeta med psykiskt traumatiserade barn. Studien belyser forskning kring olika kristeorier och krisbistånd samt vilka risker som kan förekomma för en biståndsperson. Sex kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer har analyseras genom teoristyrd tematisk analys. Fyra respondenter är rwandier, och två är utländska volontärer.  Resultatet visar att personalen blir påverkad av barnens livsvillkor, men inte i så hög grad att den egna psykiska hälsan blir lidande. Religion, gemenskap eller fysisk aktivitet hjälper respondenterna att bearbeta sina egna reaktioner och motverkar att egna kriser skulle uppstå. En möjlig tolkning till detta resultat är att de har god kunskap om kriser samt en stark förankring i sitt eget liv.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Adler, Ingmarie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Finns det ett samband mellan olika föräldrastilar och individers framtida känsla av sammanhang?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) kan ses som en livshållning som är relaterad till människors förmåga att hantera problem som uppstår i livet. En individs KASAM utvecklas genom socialiseringsprocessen, där föräldrarnas samspel med barnet vanligtvis är central. Hur en förälder förhåller sig till ett barn kan därför ses om en viktig del i barnets utveckling där olika uppfostringsstilar kommer att påverka barnets utveckling gällande olika förmågor. En förälders förhållningssätt till ett barn kan beskrivas i form av olika uppfostringsstilar. Dessa antas relaterade till hur barnet utvecklar olika förmågor, däribland KASAM. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka sambanden mellan tre olika föräldrastilar (auktoritär, auktoritativ, tillåtande) och KASAM i vuxen ålder. Undersökningsdeltagarna (N=88) som kontaktades via öppna förskolor, besvarade en enkät om uppfostringsstilar och KASAM. Resultaten visar på ett svagt men signifikant samband mellan olika föräldrastilar och några av KASAM:s delkomponenter (hanterbarhet, r = .33, begriplighet, r = .22, r = -.27) ), men inget signifikant samband erhölls mellan föräldrastil och individens totala KASAM poäng. Mot bakgrund av att en individs KASAM visat sig avgörande för hälsa och ohälsa hos vuxna individer, visar resultatet av föreliggande studie att vidare forskning om hur olika föräldrastilar påverkar en individs KASAM är av relevans.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 35. Adler, Niclas
    et al.
    Glassér, Charlotte
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    A collaborative research effort to bridge boundaries and support deviant youths in contemporary welfare systems.2005In: European Management Review, ISSN 1740-4754, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 88-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the challenges of introducing new approaches to the care of deviant youths in contemporary welfare systems. The specific study of early intervention programs within the area of psychosocial disturbances will be used to explore the interplay between emerging research results and the introduction of new approaches in different functionally specialized welfare carrying organizations. This paper is based on a collaborative research effort between researchers from education, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, economics and business administration and key actors from schools, police, criminal care, social security administrations, municipal health care and municipal politicians and administrative managers. The paper demonstrates that successful introduction of new coping strategies necessitates significant efforts to support the bridging of boundaries, the challenging of legacies and the learning from evidence to change established structures.

  • 36.
    Adolfsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledin, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ”Terapi är något man måste göra hela tiden”: Hur psykoterapiklienter i KBT och PDT integrerar och använder sig av erfarenheter från terapin i sin vardag2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I psykoterapidebatten finns två läger, som hävdar gemensamma respektive specifika faktorers betydelse för utfallet i psykoterapi. I forskningen finns brist på studier som lyfter fram klientens subjektiva upplevelse av terapins nytta. Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur psykoterapiklienter integrerar och använder erfarenheter från terapin i sin vardag, samt vilka faktorer som har underlättat terapiprocessen. Tretton klienter som genomgått psykodynamisk terapi (PDT) eller kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT) intervjuades. Data analyserades tematiskt och sammanställdes som fyra idealtyper. Resultaten visade att gruppen PDT-klienters breda problemformuleringar utvecklades via förändrade tankemönster till konkreta användningsområden. KBT-klienternas avgränsade problemformulering utvecklades via bemästrande av avgränsat problem till generaliserad användning av strategier. Viktiga gemensamma inslag i terapiprocessen var insikt, förmåga att se sig själv utifrån och möjlighet eller vilja till konkret applicering av nya erfarenheter. Underlättande faktorer var klientens beredskap och aktiva deltagande, i kombination med förtroende för terapeuten och tro på terapimodellen. Användning som alternativt utfallsmått diskuteras, liksom resultatens implikationer för terapeutisk verksamhet och synen på utvärdering av psykoterapi.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 37.
    Adolphson, Maja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Högstedt, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prokrastinering i relation till konkret målformulering2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 38.
    Aejmelaeus-Lindström, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How scent impact memory and forgetting2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this experiment it was investigated how scent affect the memory. Encoding information in the same context as retrieving it has been suggested to be beneficial for memory, earlier research has mostly explored how environmental contextual cues affects the memory. In this research the contextual cue was created by a presentation of a scent. The participants were presented with two lists of words, during the encoding of the first list all the participants were presented with a scent, half of the group was directed to forget the first list straight after encoding and the other half to keep remembering the list. For the second list no one was presented with a scent. In the retrieval of both lists half of each group was reinstated with the scent they were presented with at encoding and the other half without the scent (control group). The data were analysed with univariate ANOVAs and significant effects were followed up with independent-samples t-test. The results were that participants that were reinstated with the scent were thought to remember more than the others, however there was only a significant difference in the forget condition with reinstatement, where they remembered less than in the other conditions.

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    How scent impact memory and forgetting
  • 39.
    Aejmelaeus-Lindström, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Understanding subjective measures of olfaction and cognition: A study on the occurrence of subjective olfactory and/or cognitive decline and their effect on future behavioral performance2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia is a growing burden for society, and it is of interest to discover it at an early stage. Both subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and subjective olfactory decline (SOD) has been associated with future cognitive decline and dementia. However, subjective measures have often been criticized and are still not fully understood. I aimed to examinate the frequency of SCD and SOD and whether they are likely to measure different things and what their longitudinal effects are. The baseline sample (N=784, 35-90 years, 51% female) were split into reported SCD, SOD, combined subjective olfactory and cognitive decline, and controls. Between-subjects and within-subjects statistical tests were conducted on a subset of participants (N=307, 45 to 90 years, 52% female) comparing SCD and SOD and their olfactory ability, cognitive performance, and demographics. In the baseline sample, a total of 21.1% reported a SOD whereas only 9.9% reported a SCD, only 2.7% reported both. SOD individuals had an emerged olfactory decline at follow up, their olfactory performance was associated with performance in several cognitive tests, this was not the case for the SCD individuals. The SOD and the SCD groups differ from each other, and they appear to be rather independent from each other. They might be complementary in understanding the aging brain.

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  • 40.
    af Ekenstam, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stressreaktioner i arbetet med traumatiserade människor - Handläggare på Migrationsverket och behandlare inom psykiatrin2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att i arbetet ta del av och överidentifiera sig med andras traumatiska lidande kan resultera i stressreaktionen compassion fatigue (CF), men i motsats kan stöd i arbetet med traumatiserade ge arbetstillfredsställelse, compassion satisfaction (CS). Utbrändhet är en arbetskontextuell stressreaktion som visat sig ha ett starkt samband med CF. Utifrån en kvantitativ enkätundersökning var syftet i denna studie att undersöka skillnader i CF, utbrändhet och CS och samvariationer begreppen emellan, för handläggare på Migrationsverket respektive behandlare inom psykiatrin. T-test visade att fler handläggare har utbrändhetssymptom och uppvisar lägre grad av CS jämfört med behandlare, och multipel regressionsanalys indikerade att CF till stor del predicerar utbrändhet för handläggare och behandlare. Andra faktorer såsom arbetsbelastning, stöd i arbetet, frekvensen av traumaberättelser i arbetet, samt personligt trauma efterfrågas i framtida forskning för djupare förståelse för stressreaktioner i arbetet med traumatiserade människor.

  • 41.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Department of Psychology.
    Antisocialitet ur ett neuropsykologiskt perspektiv: Ung med tung social problematik. Hur kan vi förstå, förutsäga och planera för framtida behandling?2002In: Ung med tung social problematik. Hur kan vi förstå, förutsäga och planera för framtida behandling?, Statens institutionsstyrelse , 2002, p. 49-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Department of Psychology.
    Monoaminerga mekanismer kopplade till personlighet och olika former av psykosocial störningsbild, såsom missbruk och andra beteendestörningar. In Hur kan man minska nyrekrytering? Rapport nr 172006Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Psychobiological patterns at adult age: relationships to personality and early behavior: Developmental Science and the Holistic Approach2000In: Developmental Science and the Holistic Approach, Erlbaum , 2000, p. 209-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Department of Psychology.
    Tidiga problembeteenden. Personlighetsaspekter, rökning, alkohol och kriminalitet.: Den svenska supen i det nya Europa. Nya villkor för alkoholprevention: en kunskapsöversikt2002In: Den svenska supen i det nya Europa. Nya villkor för alkoholprevention: en kunskapsöversikt, Statens Folkhälsoinstitut , 2002, p. 95-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Underlying vulnerability influencing outcome factors/behaviors in psychosocial disturbances: Multiproblem violent youth: a foundation for comparative research on needs, interventions and outcomes2002In: Multiproblem violent youth: a foundation for comparative research on needs, interventions and outcomes, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 2002, p. 138-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    af Klinteberg, B
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Department of Psychology.
    Alm, P. O.
    Oreland, L.
    Serotonin, personality and smoking [abstract]2000In: International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 35, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Department of Psychology.
    Lang, S.
    Freidenfelt, J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Alm, P.-O.
    Risk indicators and stress situations as related to pursuant disinhibitory psychosocial disturbances: Personality and extreme stress2004In: Personality and extreme stress, Gdansk Psychology Publishing , 2004, p. 83-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new scale to assess pro-bullying attitudes, the Pro-Bullying Attitude Scale (PAS) was evaluated in 259 voluntarily recruited male juvenile delinquents in Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Callous Dominance (CD) and Manipulativeness/ Impulsiveness (MI). The subjects were divided into three groups (low, intermediate, high) according to their scores on PAS and its two factors. Low and high group Ss were compared and results indicated higher delinquent and aggressive behavior among high group Ss as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC), as well as higher scores on the personality trait Novelty seeking and lower on Cooperativeness as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger et al., 1994). High PAS and CD groups displayed significantly higher scores on psychopathy traits as assessed by the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (Lynam, 1997) significantly related to registered violent crime. Probullying attitudes are discussed as a link between personality and psychopathy on the one hand and antisocial and violent behavior on the other. The PAS is also discussed in terms of usefulness in identifying high-risk individuals for violent behavior among incarcerated delinquents and in preventing violence and bullying tendencies in juvenile forensic institutions.

  • 48.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Department of Psychology.
    Rydelius, P.-A.
    Missbruk, kriminalitet och våld - Vad döljer sig bakom rubrikerna? Om vad forskningen visar2004Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Department of Psychology.
    von Knorring, L.
    Oreland, L.
    On the psychobiology of impulsivity: On the psychobiology of personality: Essays in honor of Marvin Zuckerman2004In: On the psychobiology of personality: Essays in honor of Marvin Zuckerman, Elsevier Science , 2004, p. 429-451Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Hur kan man minska nyrekrytering?: Monoaminerga mekanismer kopplade till personlighet och olika former av psykosocial störningsbild, såsom missbruk och andra beteendestörningar (s. 23-27)2006Report (Other academic)
1234567 1 - 50 of 6230
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