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  • 1.
    Ainiala, Terhi
    et al.
    Helsinki University.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Henkilönnimet viittomakielessä (Arv. teos: Henkilöviittomien synty ja kehitys suomalaisessa viittomakieliyhteisössä/ Päivi Rainò - Helsinki 2004)2005In: Virittäjä, ISSN 0042-6806-109, Vol. 109, no 141–144Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Fonologisk utveckling i det svenska teckenspråket hos hörande andraspråksinlärare: Identifiering av aspekter, tecken och en- och tvåhandstecken2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the phonological development of hearing L2 learners has been investigated with regard to their ability to identify a sign's aspect structure, both partially and as a whole, and one- vs. two-handed signs. The results were compared to a control group of deaf first language speakers of Swedish sign language. There has previously been a limited number of studies focusing on the identification of signs. For this reason, a task that required no previous knowledge of Swedish Sign Language or linguistics was created for this study. The study is based on data from a quantitative and longitudinal investigation. In the identification of aspects, it is shown that place of articulation was the easiest to identify for both groups, followed by articulator, and lastly articulation, which was the most difficult to identify correctly. The L2 group performed better and could identify a higher number of correct lexical signs than the L1 group. However, both groups scored low results. A possible reason for this is that the test template is not explicit enough about articulation as a aspect. When identifying one- and two-handed signs, it is shown that one-handed signs are easier to identify than two-handed signs, across both groups. This corroborates previous research that shows that two-handed signs are phonologically and cognitively more complex than one-handed signs. Further research with a larger number of participants is encouraged in order to investigate other potentially influencing factors.

  • 3.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Barns tidiga teckenspråksutveckling: med illustrationer av Lena Johansmide2012Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lite om det svenska teckenspråket2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    On Motivated Signs in the Swedish Sign Language.1978In: Studia Linguistica, ISSN 0039-3193, E-ISSN 1467-9582, Vol. XXXII, no I-II, p. 9-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Signed Swedish1979Book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråket - inte bara händernas språk2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråkets erkännande: Vad hände egentligen den 14 maj 1981?2001In: DövtidningenArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråksutveckling hos döva och hörselskadade barn med ytterligare funktionsnedsättning2012Other (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Tecknad svenska: [Signed Swedish]1977Book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Är teckenspråket internationellt?2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Bergman, Brita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckentranskription2015Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bergman, Brita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University.
    Noun and Verbal Classifiers in Swedish Sign Language.2003In: Perspectives on Classifier Constructions in Sign Language. , Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003, p. 35-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics. University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Morphological complexity influences Verb–Object order in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Computational Linguistics for Linguistic Complexity: Proceedings of the Workshop / [ed] Dominique Brunato, Felice Dell'Orletta, Giulia Venturi, Thomas François, Philippe Blache, International Committee on Computational Linguistics (ICCL) , 2016, p. 137-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational linguistic approaches to sign languages could benefit from investigating how complexity influences structure. We investigate whether morphological complexity has an effect on the order of Verb (V) and Object (O) in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), on the basis of elicited data from five Deaf signers. We find a significant difference in the distribution of the orderings OV vs. VO, based on an analysis of morphological weight. While morphologically heavy verbs exhibit a general preference for OV, humanness seems to affect the ordering in the opposite direction, with [+human] Objects pushing towards a preference for VO.

  • 15.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Redundans i teckentranskriptionssystemet1998Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Willing, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sign language dictionary as a digital tool in L2 teaching: Score evaluation of sentences for CEFR levels A1-B22019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Willing, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sign language dictionary as a digital tool in Sign language interpreting education: Score evaluation of sentences for CEFR levels A1-B22019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Ryttervik, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Tecken inom idrott2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bäckström, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jonsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gunnarsson, Magnus
    Svenskt teckenspråkslexikon2010Other (Other academic)
  • 20. Bono, Mayumi
    et al.
    Efthimiou, EleniFotinea, Stavroula-EvitaHanke, ThomasHochgesang, JulieKristoffersen, JetteMesch, JohannaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.Osugi, Yutaka
    8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bäckström, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Polysyntetiska tecken i svenska teckenspråksdialoger: De vanligast förekommande handformerna i polysyntetiska tecken2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka handformer som är vanligast förekommande i polysyntetiska tecken i svenskt teckenspråk. Studien, som är den första i sitt slag, fokuserar på polysyntetiska tecken som betecknar rörelsesituationerna befintlighet, förflyttning, stationär rörelse och stillastående. Polysyntetiska tecken har tre manuella aspekter precis som fasta tecken (lexikala tecken). Medan de fasta tecknens manuella aspekter bär ingen egen betydelse, så är dessa aspekter betydelsebärande hos polysyntetiska tecken. Den betydelsebärande delen handform kallas för klassifikator, och har underkategorierna icke-agentiv och agentiv klassifikator. I studien har förekomster av handformer delats upp i tre kategorier enligt vilken den typ av korrelat som klassifikatorerna har: Direkt korrelat, indirekt korrelat och utan korrelat. Materialet som har använts till studien är fyrtioen annoterade texter på svenskt teckenspråk från Svensk teckenspråkskorpus. Totalt hittades 242 förekomster av polysyntetiska tecken som kategoriserades utifrån klassifikatorer. Icke-agentiva klassifikatorer är vanligast, 191 förekomster, där de tre vanligast förekommande handformerna är dubbelkroken, sprethanden och pekfingret. De vanligast förekommande rörelsesituationerna med icke-agentiva klassifikatorer är egenförflyttning och befintlighet. För agentiva klassifikatorer hittades 51 förekomster, där de tre vanligast förekommande handformerna är A-handen, S-handen och knutna handen. Här är rörelsesituationen objektförflyttning den mest frekvent förekommande. Resultatet kan förhoppningsvis påverka synen på vilka handformer som främst bör ingå i undervisningen för nybörjare i teckenspråk.

  • 22.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Grammatisk finithet i trumaí2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt har tempusböjning och person-/numeruskongruens på verb varit de starkaste kriterierna för finithet. Det har dock visat sig vara svårapplicerade kriterier för många språk och finithet på satsnivå – huruvida en sats är självständig eller ej – har blivit en viktig fråga för definitionen.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att beskriva och analysera finithetsfenomenet utifrån språket trumaí.

    Det tycks finnas flera fenomen som är tecken på en finithetsdistinktion i trumaí, framför allt -n/-e-klitikan som markerar 3Abs på verbet vid absolutivargumentets frånvaro, samt FT-partiklarna som har en tempusfunktion. För imperativ verkar det vara så att imperativpartiklarna har en intern distribution baserad på person och animathet hos absolutivargumentet, vilket kan tolkas som att det finns en argumentkongruens frikopplad från den semantiska inkorporeringen av andraperson som subjekt. Gällande finithet på satsnivå finns det i trumaí både finita och infinita satser som kan fungera som bisatser. I strukturer där verbet beter sig prototypiskt är satsen finit, medan andra strukturers verb tycks ha rört sig mot att bete sig nominellt, varpå satsen fungerar annorlunda och är infinit.

  • 23.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Här är 4 procent av invånarna döva2013In: Dövas tidning, ISSN 1402-1978, Vol. 4, p. 13-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Härmed tecknar jag dig ...2017In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 7, p. 52-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Object marking in the signed modality: Verbal and nominal strategies in Swedish Sign Language and other sign languages2017In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 279-287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Persontecken avslöjar vilka vi är2017In: Dövas tidning, ISSN 1402-1978, Vol. 3, p. 7-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Pfau, Roland, Markus Steinbach & Annika Herrmann (eds.), A matter of complexity: Subordination in sign languages2016In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 311-317Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Types and trends of name signs in the Swedish Sign Language community2017In: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 30, p. 7-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the domain of name signs (i.e., signs used as personal names) in the Swedish Sign Language (SSL) community. The data are based on responses from an online questionnaire, in which Deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing participants answered questions about the nature of their name signs. The collected questionnaire data comprise 737 name signs, distributed across five main types and 24 subtypes of name signs, following the categorization of previous work on SSL. Signs are grouped according to sociolinguistic variables such as age, gender, and identity (e.g., Deaf or hearing), as well as the relationship between name giver and named (e.g., family or friends). The results show that name signs are assigned at different ages between the groups, such that children of Deaf parents are named earlier than other groups, and that Deaf and hard of hearing individuals are normally named during their school years. It is found that the distribution of name sign types is significantly different between females and males, with females more often having signs denoting physical appearance, whereas males have signs related to personality/behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that the distribution of sign types has changed over time, with appearance signs losing ground to personality/behavior signs – most clearly for Deaf females. Finally, there is a marginally significant difference in the distribution of sign types based on whether or not the name giver was Deaf. The study is the first to investigate name signs and naming customs in the SSL community statistically – synchronically and diachronically – and one of the few to do so for any sign language.

  • 29.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Distribution and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 143-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate frequency and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) using the SSL Corpus. The duration of signs is correlated with frequency, with high-frequency items having shorter duration than low-frequency items. Similarly, function words (e.g. pronouns) have shorter duration than content words (e.g. nouns). In compounds, forms annotated as reduced display shorter duration. Fingerspelling duration correlates with word length of corresponding Swedish words, and frequency and word length play a role in the lexicalization of fingerspellings. The sign distribution in the SSL Corpus shows a great deal of cross-linguistic similarity with other sign languages in terms of which signs appear as high-frequency items, and which categories of signs are distributed across text types (e.g. conversation vs. narrative). We find a correlation between an increase in age and longer mean sign duration, but see no significant difference in sign duration between genders.

  • 30.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jantunen, Tommi
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Kimmelman, Vadim
    Oomen, Marloes
    de Lint, Vanja
    Transitivity prominence within and across modalities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of transitivity as a scalar phenomenon is well known (e.g., Hopper & Thompson 1980; Tsunoda 1985; Haspelmath 2015). However, as with most areas of linguistic study, it has been almost exclusively studied with a focus on spoken languages. A rare exception to this is Kimmelman (2016), who investigates transitivity in Russian Sign Language (RSL) on the basis of corpus data. Kimmelman attempts to establish a transitivity prominence hierarchy of RSL verbs, and compares this ranking to the verb meanings found in the ValPal database (Hartmann, Haspelmath & Bradley 2013). He arrives at the conclusion that using the frequency of overt objects in corpus data is a successful measure of transitivity prominence, and that the prominence ranking of RSL verbs correlate with that found for spoken languages in Haspelmath (2015). In this paper, we expand on these intra- and cross-modal comparisons of transitivity prominence by introducing four other sign languages to the sample: Finnish Sign Language (FinSL), Swedish Sign Language (SSL), Sign Language to the Netherlands (NGT), and German Sign Language (DGS). FinSL and SSL are known to be historically related (cf. Bergman & Engberg-Pedersen 2010), while the other are not related, which allows us to look at both modality and relatedness effects in our sample. Of the 80 core verb meanings in the ValPal database, Kimmelman (2016) included the 25 most frequent verbs in his corpus. For our study, we have annotated all occurrences of these 25 verb meanings in a subset of the corpora of FinSL (2h 40min; 18,446 tokens), SSL (2h 5min; 16,724 tokens), NGT (≈80,000 tokens), and DGS (≈58,000 tokens). We annotate whether a verb occurs with an overt object as well as the type of object (direct, indirect, clausal, or a locative). Looking at the ValPal verb meanings with ≥5 sign tokens in all four new languages, we arrive at 12 verbs that are found in all five sign languages and the spoken languages (SpL) of the ValPal database – see Table 1. In Table 1, we see that there is a general agreement across languages – both signed and spoken – in how transitivity prominent a verb meaning is. Spearman’s rank correlation shows a significant (p<0.05) correlation between all possible pairs except SSL–SpL (p=0.091) and SSL– RSL (p=0.074), corroborating Kimmelman’s finding that there are patterns of transitivity prominence present across languages and modalities. It is interesting that SSL thus diverges from the other sign languages in this sample: this deserves further investigation. We also wanted to investigate the transitivity prominence as a property of individual languages. In order to do so, we took the individual languages of the ValPal database and measured each verb meaning in each language with regard to its transitivity prominence. This meant calculating how many of the verb forms associated with a specific verb meaning took a P argument. Note that this is quite different from calculating transitivity prominence based on corpus data: with corpora, we calculated the proportion of verbal tokens occurring with an overt object, and with the ValPal database, we calculated the proportion of transitive verb associated with a particular concept. We included the 12 verb meanings found across all languages (the five sign languages and 33 spoken languages). We then calculated mean distances across verb meanings and languages, and plotted this with multidimensional scaling in Figure 1. In the figure, we see that the five sign languages form a part of a cluster, suggesting either modality-based similarities, or similarities that come with the difference in data (corpus data rather than lexical data). On the other hand, sign languages as a group are not clearly opposed to spoken languages as a group, which implies that the corpus-based and lexical calculations of transitivity are comparable. Interestingly, FinSL and SSL are not more strongly associated than the other sign languages, which implies that their historical relatedness is not directly relevant to transitivity. In our presentation, we will present the results and the conclusions in more detail, as well as discuss the possibilities of using corpus data to establish valency patterns for languages in the signed modality.

  • 31.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Commentary on Kita, van Gijn & van der Hulst (1998)2014In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Articulatory plurality is a property of lexical plurals in sign language2016In: Lingvisticæ investigationes, ISSN 0378-4169, E-ISSN 1569-9927, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 391-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign languages make use of paired articulators (the two hands), hence manual signs may be either one- or two-handed. Although two-handedness has previously been regarded a purely formal feature, studies have argued morphologically two-handed forms are associated with some types of inflectional plurality. Moreover, recent studies across sign languages have demonstrated that even lexically two-handed signs share certain semantic properties. In this study, we investigate lexically plural concepts in ten different sign languages, distributed across five sign language families, and demonstrate that such concepts are preferentially represented with two-handed forms, across all the languages in our sample. We argue that this is because the signed modality with its paired articulators enables the languages to iconically represent conceptually plural meanings.

  • 33.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Segmenting the Swedish Sign Language corpus: On the possibilities of using visual cues as a basis for syntactic segmentation2014In: Workshop Proceedings: 6th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Beyond the Manual Channel / [ed] Onno Crasborn, Eleni Efthimiou, Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2014, p. 7-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the possibility of conducting syntactic segmentation of the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) on the basisof the visual cues from both manual and nonmanual signals. The SSLC currently features segmentation on the lexical level only, whichis why the need for a linguistically valid segmentation on e.g. the clausal level would be very useful for corpus-based studies on thegrammatical structure of Swedish Sign Language (SSL). An experiment was carried out letting seven Deaf signers of SSL each segmenttwo short texts (one narrative and one dialogue) using ELAN, based on the visual cues they perceived as boundaries. This was latercompared to the linguistic analysis done by a language expert (also a Deaf signer of SSL), who segmented the same texts into whatwas considered syntactic clausal units. Furthermore, these segmentation procedures were compared to the segmentation done for theSwedish translations also found in the SSLC. The results show that though the visual and syntactic segmentations overlap in manycases, especially when a number of cues coincide, the visual segmentation is not consistent enough to be used as a means of segmentingsyntactic units in the SSLC.

  • 34.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sandler, Wendy
    Aronoff, Mark
    Sign Language Linguistics2014In: Oxford Bibliographies, Oxford University Press, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Towards an Annotation of Syntactic Structure in the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2016In: Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining / [ed] Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2016, p. 19-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes on-going work on extending the annotation of the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) with a level of syntactic structure. The basic annotation of SSLC in ELAN consists of six tiers: four for sign glosses (two tiers for each signer; one for each of a signer’s hands), and two for written Swedish translations (one for each signer). In an additional step by Östling et al. (2015), all ¨ glosses of the corpus have been further annotated for parts of speech. Building on the previous steps, we are now developing annotation of clause structure for the corpus, based on meaning and form. We define a clause as a unit in which a predicate asserts something about one or more elements (the arguments). The predicate can be a (possibly serial) verbal or nominal. In addition to predicates and their arguments, criteria for delineating clauses include non-manual features such as body posture, head movement and eye gaze. The goal of this work is to arrive at two additional annotation tier types in the SSLC: one in which the sign language texts are segmented into clauses, and the other in which the individual signs are annotated for their argument types.

  • 36.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Iconic Locations in Swedish Sign Language: Mapping Form to Meaning with Lexical Databases2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, NoDaLiDa / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 221-225, article id 026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a method for mapping the phonological feature location of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) signs to the meanings in the Swedish semantic dictionary SALDO. By doing so, we observe clear differences in the distribution of meanings associated with different locations on the body. The prominence of certain locations for specific meanings clearly point to iconic mappings between form and meaning in the lexicon of SSL, which pinpoints modalityspecific properties of the visual modality.

  • 37.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Visualizing Lects in a Sign Language Corpus: Mining Lexical Variation Data in Lects of Swedish Sign Language2016In: Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining / [ed] Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2016, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the possibilities for mining lexical variation data across (potential) lects in Swedish Sign Language (SSL). The data come from the SSL Corpus (SSLC), a continuously expanding corpus of SSL, its latest release containing 43 307 annotated sign tokens, distributed over 42 signers and 75 time-aligned video and annotation files. After extracting the raw data from the SSLC annotation files, we created a database for investigating lexical distribution/variation across three possible lects, by merging the raw data with an external metadata file, containing information about the age, gender, and regional background of each of the 42 signers in the corpus. We go on to present a first version of an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that can be used as a tool for investigating lexical variation across different lects, and demonstrate a few interesting finds. This tool makes it easier for researchers and non-researchers alike to have the corpus frequencies for individual signs visualized in an instant, and the tool can easily be updated with future expansions of the SSLC.

  • 38. Clark, Becky
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    A global perspective on disparity of gender anddisability for deaf female athletes2018In: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 64-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the significance of gender and disability issues has graduallyincreased in the global society during the past three decades,there are only few studies with regard to the deaf community andsport. This article examines the level of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearingwomen’s participation in sports and the factors for their continuedunderrepresentation. The WomenSport International’s Task Force onDeaf and Hard of Hearing Girls and Women in Sport conducted aworld-wide survey to determine and assess the needs of deaf andhard of hearing girls and women in sport. A snapshot of the resultsand issues and future aspirations are provided.

  • 39.
    Crasborn, Onno
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Kooij, Els van der
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Waters, Dafydd
    UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.
    Woll, Bencie
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, UCL.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Frequency distribution and spreading behavior of different types of mouth actions in three sign languages2008In: Sign Language and Linguistics, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 45–67-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a comparative study of mouth actions in three European sign languages: British Sign Language (BSL), Nederlandse Gebarentaal (Sign Language of the Netherlands, NGT), and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). We propose a typology for, and report the frequency distribution of, the different types of mouth actions observed. In accordance with previous studies, we find the three languages remarkably similar — both in the types of mouth actions they use, and in how these mouth actions are distributed. We then describe how mouth actions can extend over more than one manual sign. This spreading of mouth actions is the primary focus of this paper. Based on an analysis of comparable narrative material in the three languages, we demonstrate that the direction as well as the source and goal of spreading may be language-specific.

  • 40.
    Crasborn, Onno
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Waters, Dafydd
    University College London.
    Nonhebel, Annika
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Woll, Bencie
    University College London.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Sharing sign languague data online: Experiences from the ECHO project2007In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 537-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This article describes how new technological possibilities allow sign language researchers to share and publish video data and transcriptions online. Both linguistic and technological aspects of creating and publishing a sign language corpus are discussed, and standards are proposed for both metadata and transcription categories specific to sign language data. In addition, ethical aspects of publishing video data of signers online are considered, and suggestions are offered for future corpus projects and software tools.

  • 41. Crible, Ludivine
    et al.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Coherence relations across speech and sign language: A comparable corpus study of additive connectivesIn: Languages in Contrast: International Journal for Contrastive Linguistics, ISSN 1387-6759, E-ISSN 1569-9897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides the first contrastive analysis of one type of coherence relation (viz. addition) and its connectives across a sign language (French Belgian Sign Language) and a spoken language (French), both used in the same geographical area. The analysis examines the frequency and types of connectives that can express an additive relation, in order to contrast its “markedness” in the two languages, that is, whether addition is marked by dedicated connectives (e.g., English in addition) or by ambiguous, polyfunctional ones (e.g., English and). Furthermore, we investigate in detail the functions of the most frequent additive connective in each language (namely et ‘and’ and the sign SAME ‘and’, ‘like’), starting from the common observation that most connectives, especially high-frequency ones, are highly polyfunctional. This functional analysis intends to show which functions are compatible with the meaning of addition in spoken and signed discourse. Our results show that, despite a common core of shared discourse functions, the equivalence between et and SAME is only partial and relates to a difference in their semantics (monosemy vs. polysemy).

  • 42. Efthimiou, Eleni
    et al.
    Fotinea, Stavroula-EvitaHanke, ThomasHochgesang, JulieKristoffersen, JetteMesch, JohannaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This collection of papers stems from the Seventh Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages, held in May 2016 as a satellite to the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference in Portorož. While there has been occasional attention for sign languages at the main LREC conference, the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the fifth time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic, however not surprisingly, since during the past years, sign language corpora became a major trend in sign language research. This time, the focus was on corpus mining. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better understanding between researchers with completely different backgrounds.

  • 43.
    Embacher, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Frågeordens användning i ett samtal på svenskt teckenspråk: Förekomster av frågeorden och deras form, position i satsen och funktioner2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att kartlägga frågeord, deras form, förekomster, positioner i olika satser samt funktioner i ett samtal på svenskt teckenspråk för att skapa en bild över hur ett samtal med frågeorden i yttranden ser ut. Frågeorden har huvudsakligen beskrivits som frågeordsfrågor, vilka använts som rapporterande frågor och retoriska frågor. Det finns väldigt lite skrivet som handlar om frågeordens form och deras övriga funktioner utöver att de kan vara informationssökande eller retoriska i samtal. I uppsatsen har material från en timmes inspelat tvåpartssamtal på svenskt teckenspråk analyserats och frågeord har identifierats, vilka jämförts med de som finns angivna i Svenskt teckenspråkslexikon. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att alla frågeord som förekommer i materialet har samma form som i Svenskt teckenspråkslexikon förutom frågeordet HUR, som är i stor majoritet och som har flera formvarianter. Varianten HUR-1 med stillastående rörelse framstår som den vanligaste i undersökningen, vilket skiljer sig från den form som finns i Svenskt teckenspråkslexikon. Vidare har analysen visat att frågeordens position i både överordnad och underordnad sats främst är initial. Avseende frågeordens funktioner i samtal indikerar undersökningen vidare att endast en femtedel av frågeorden i yttranden har en informationssökande funktion. Det är mera vanligt att frågeorden används i annat bland annat samtalsreglerande funktioner, retoriska frågor och påståenden i materialet. Studiens slutsatser är att frågeordet HUR är vanligast i materialet och särskilt används i samtalsreglerande funktioner. Dessutom står alla frågeord normalt på initial position, och frågeordsfrågor används ofta i andra syften än informationssökande i materialet. 

  • 44.
    Fallkvist, Anneli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bokstaveringar i svenskt teckenspråk: Bokstaverade lånord och deras ordklasstillhörighet i svenska2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokstaveringar i teckenspråk är lån från skrivna språk, vilka skapas genom användande av ett handalfabet, där varje bokstav representeras av en specifik handform. Det svenska handalfabetet skapades av Pär Aron Borg i början av 1800-talet och sedan dess har det varit möjligt att låna ord från det svenska skriftspråket. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka typer av lån, i form av bokstaveringar, som görs från skriven svenska till svenskt teckenspråk och från vilka ordklasser inom det svenska språket dessa lån härstammar. Det material som används i studien kommer från Svensk teckenspråkskorpus, vilket den 5 november 2012 innehöll totalt 1 975 förekomster och 304 olika typer av bokstaveringar. De bokstaveringar som analyseras inom ramen för denna uppsats är sådana som förekommer mer än två gånger i korpusmaterialet. Analysresultatet jämförs sedan med liknande forskning inom främst amerikanskt teckenspråk. Sammantaget visar resultaten från studien att de bokstaverade lånen härstammar från nästintill samtliga ordklasser inom det svenska språket, men att majoriteten, ca 63 % av samtliga bokstaveringar, härstammar från ordklassen substantiv inklusive underkategorin egennamn. Detta stämmer väl överens med forskning inom amerikanskt teckenspråk. Utöver substantiven har interjektionerna, som bland annat innehåller bokstaveringen JA@b, vars funktion främst tycks vara en uppbackningssignal, ha flest förekomster med ca 40 % av det sammantagna materialet.

  • 45.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Are discourse markers related to age and educational background? A comparative account between two sign languagesIn: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pilot investigation of two discourse markers, namely PALM-UP and SAME, in French Belgian Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language. The two discourse markers are studied from a cross-linguistic and a cross-generational perspective using two comparable samples of argumentative productions. The analysis shows that the two discourse markers are highly polyfunctional. Although they have language-specific functions, most of these functions are shared between the two languages. Furthermore, the use of the two discourse markers is idiosyncratic in both sign language datasets. In the small-scale pilot study described in this article, factors such as age or level of education do not seem to influence the usage of the two discourse markers in question.

  • 46.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Describing buoys from the perspective of discourse markers: a cross-genre study in French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB)2020In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 2, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a description of the distribution of buoys across genres and of their possible functions as discourse markers in French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB). We selected a sample of dialogic genres—argumentative, explanatory, narrative and metalinguistic—produced by different signers from the LSFB Corpus. In our dataset, buoys are unequally distributed across genres, and list and fragment buoys are the most frequent. Apart from a pointer and a point buoy, only some list buoys have discourse-marking functions, including enumeration, alternative and addition. On the basis of the distribution of all types of buoys, the narrative dialogic genre is the most different as compared to the other three genres. It is characterised by a lower frequency of list buoys and a higher frequency of fragment buoys. When focusing on discourse-marking buoys, the explanatory genre attracts the higher number of tokens, which we relate to the higher degree of preparation as compared to the other genres.

  • 47.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Discourse markers, where are you? Investigating the relationship between their functions and their position in French Belgian Sign Language conversations2020In: Sign Language Studies, ISSN 0302-1475, E-ISSN 1533-6263, Vol. 20, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the position of two discourse markers, namely PALM-UP and SAME, and the existence of a possible functional paradigm in French Belgian Sign Language. The position is investigated at three different levels: the clause, the basic discourse unit and the turn. The positions in which PALM-UP can appear in the basic discourse unit and the turn are more varied than the positions in which SAME can be found. Most functions of the two discourse markers predominantly appear in a particular position, whereas other functions have a great deal of variation. Most subjective meanings (i.e., related to the signer) expressed by the two discourse markers appear in left peripheral positions, but intersubjective meanings (i.e., related to the addressee) are not restricted to right peripheral positions. The two discourse markers in this position will predominantly occur with a directed gaze towards the addressee, but those in the left periphery occur with either an addressed or a non-addressed eye gaze.

  • 48.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    What can discourse markers tell us about genres and vice versa? A corpus-driven study of French Belgian Sign Language (LSFB)2019In: Lidil, ISSN 1146-6480, E-ISSN 1960-6052, no 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the use of three discourse markers – namely list buoys, PALM-UP and SAME – across genres in French Belgian Sign Language. Our sample contains argumentative, explanatory, metalinguistic and narrative dialogues produced by six signers. We present a functional description of the three discourse markers and their distribution across genres. PALM-UP and SAME are highly polyfunctional, whereas list buoys express fewer functions in the dataset. In our sample, there are few differences in frequency of use of the three discourse markers and their functions across genres.

  • 49.
    Gabarró-López, Sílvia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    When the meaning of SAME is not restricted to likeness: A preliminary study from the perspective of discourse relational devices in two sign languages2019In: Discours - Revue de linguistique, psycholinguistique et informatique, ISSN 1963-1723, E-ISSN 1963-1723, no 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of a discourse relational device, namely same, in French Belgian Sign Language and Catalan Sign Language. Three aspects of same are examined including its distribution across genres, its functional description and its position in discourse. Two comparable samples were extracted from the reference corpora of these two sign languages. An annotation protocol and a segmentation model designed for the study of discourse relational devices in the spoken modality were used with the necessary adaptations to the signed modality. The results show a different distribution of same across genres in each sign language and several possible positions. Although same is polyfunctional in the two datasets, the most frequent function in the French Belgian Sign Language dataset (i.e., addition) is not found in the Catalan Sign Language dataset. This finding indicates that equivalent discourse relational devices in the signed modality also have language-specific functions as their counterparts in the spoken modality do.

  • 50.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Technologically framed participation: A glimpse from everyday school life of two mainstreamed pupils with cochlear implants in Sweden2015In: Educating Diverse Learners: Many Ways, One Goal / [ed] Penny Panagiopoulou, Mirto Markopoulou and Andreas Xeroudakis, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, deaf pupils were traditionally placed in segregated deaf schools. However, during the last decade, the number of children attending mainstream schools after receiving cochlear implants (CIs) has increased dramatically, resulting in lower attendance at deaf schools. Despite the significance of this trend, there exists little knowledge regarding the everyday lives of these pupils in mainstream settings. This paper examines how pupils with CIs interact with school staff and other pupils in classroom settings and how different technologies (e.g. hearing aids and microphones) are used there. Furthermore, it aims to identify opportunities and limitations regarding the pupils’ participation in communication and teaching. The paper builds upon data from an ethnographic study in which fieldwork was conducted in two mainstream Swedish classrooms, both of which including one pupil with CIs. Interaction in these classrooms was documented through participant observations, video recordings and field notes, and the analysis shows that audiologically-oriented and communicative-link technologies play major roles in everyday interaction by both facilitating and limiting the participation of pupils with CIs in different ways, and that it mostly is the school staff that determine how and when these shall be used. The results also indicate that the pupils are largely responsible for their own participation. Overall, the current paper provides a glimpse of one way to educate children with CIs in Sweden, namely, in mainstream schools, and the focus is on what really happens in the technologically framed interaction in these classrooms.

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