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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Acquiring L2 Syllable Margins: Studies on the simplification of onsets and codas in interlanguage phonology2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with developmental, universal, grammatical, and functional factors involved in the acquisition of L2 syllable structure. More specifically, using speech data from Spanish and Chinese learners of Swedish, the thesis examines the production and development of syllable onsets and codas—that is, syllable margins. In doing so, the present work draws on various theoretical considerations and empirical findings from research on L1 and L2 acquisition, phonology and phonetics, language variation and language typology. The thesis includes three empirical studies, all of which are based on longitudinal conver­sational data. Study I deals with the acquisition of word-initial /sC(C)/ onsets by one native Spanish speaker, whereas Study II and Study III focus on the acquisi­tion of word-final codas by three native Chinese speakers. Study I and Study II both showed that onset and coda length and phonetic environment are influen­tial factors in the production of syllable structure, while sonority may not be as reliable a predictor of production difficulty. Next, both Study I and Study III provide evidence of a U-shaped rather than linear development of pronunciation accuracy. This pattern is interpreted as an effect of initial increase in fluency, with more focus on content and less on form. In addition, Study III showed that L2 proficiency is related to the epenthesis-deletion differential. An increasing ratio of epenthesis-to-deletion is the first-order indicator of increasing L2 profi­ciency during early stages of acquisition, but increased target-like production becomes the first-order indicator of development at later stages. Finally, Study III showed that learners are aware of potential ambiguity resulting from simpli­fication in different grammatical/functional categories. Codas that are essential for the retention of semantic information are preserved through higher accuracy rates and higher relative levels of epenthesis errors.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelike L2 ultimate attainment of morphosyntactic and phonetic intuition2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 187-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result that has sometimes been taken as evidence against the critical period hypothesis (CPH). However, in the few studies that have employed a wide range of linguistic tests and tasks, adult learners have not exhibited nativelike L2 proficiency across the board of measures, which, according to some, suggests that the hypothesis still holds. The present study investigated the relationship between AO and UA and the incidence of nativelikeness when measures of phonetic and grammatical intuition are combined. An additional aim was to investigate whether children and adults develop the L2 through fundamentally different brain mechanisms-namely, whether children acquire the language (more) implicitly as an interdependent whole, whereas adults learn it (more) explicitly as independent parts of a whole.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Andraspråksinlärning2009Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna grundbok belyser fenomenet, ämnet och forskningsfältet andraspråksinlärning. Med utgångspunkt i 1960-talets brytning med behavioristisk inlärningspsykologi och kontrastiv språkanalys diskuteras de mest centrala frågeställningarna inom den därefter följande moderna, mentalistiskt orienterade andraspråksforskningen.

    I bokens tio kapitel presenteras de huvudsakliga empiriska upptäckterna och teorierna om andraspråkets utveckling och variation, dess kognition, processning och universella egenskaper, liksom inflödets, interaktionens och undervisningens roll, effekter av sociala och individuella skillnader samt modersmålets inverkan. Många exempel ges från studier av svenska som andraspråk. Boken avslutas med en termordlista med förklaringar till centrala begrepp inom fältet.

    Boken vänder sig främst till universitetsstuderande på grundnivå i ämnen som tvåspråkighet, svenska och nordiska språk samt till blivande och verksamma lärare i svenska som andraspråk och modersmålssvenska.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH)2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 146-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Development and recoverability of L2 codas: A longitudinal study of Chinese/Swedish interphonology2003In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 313-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the development and recoverability of word-final codas in Chinese-Swedish interlanguage. The relation between consonant deletion and vowel epenthesis is investigated from both a developmental perspective and a grammatical-functional one. Longitudinal, conversational data from three Chinese beginner learners of Swedish were analyzed. First, it is shown that for these learners the acquisition of Swedish codas was U-shaped rather than linear such that they exhibited relatively high accuracy rates at early stages, lower accuracy rates at later stages, and again high accuracy rates at more advanced stages. It is also demonstrated that the epenthesis-deletion differential is closely related to second language proficiency in that the proportion of epenthesis to deletion errors increases over time. Furthermore, the data show that word-final codas that are relatively important for the retention of semantically relevant information generate lower overall frequencies of simplification and greater epenthesis-deletion proportions than codas containing information that is relatively recoverable from other segments or features in the context.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Development and recoverability of L2 codas: A longitudinal study of Chinese/Swedish interphonology.2001Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Developmental sequences2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 173-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fonologiska aspekter på andraspråksinlärning och svenska som andraspråk2004In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inger Lindberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, p. 79-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Natural phonology and second language acquisi­tion: problems and consequences1996In: EUROSLA 6: a selection of papers / [ed] Eric Kellerman, Bert Weltens, Theo Bongaerts, Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij , 1996, p. 9-22Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Phonological acquisition2012In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] C. A. Chapelle, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Review of David Birdsong (ed.): Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999.1999In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 571-575Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Some observations of child-adult differences in second language pronunciation.1994In: Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism, Vol. 9, p. 1-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Universal constraints on L2 coda production: the case of Chinese/Swedish interphonology2003In: La fonologia dell'interlingua: principi e metodi di analisi / [ed] Lidia Costamagna, Stefania Giannini, Milano: FrancoAngeli , 2003, p. 131-162Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    U-shaped learning and overgeneralization2013In: Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 663-665Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vowel ‘epenthesis’ in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers: puzzle or evidence for natural phonology?1997In: New Sounds 97.: Proceedings of the Third Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Speech (University of Klagenfurt, 8-11 September 1997). / [ed] J. Leather & A. James, Klagenfurt: University of Klagenfurt , 1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vowel epenthesis of /sC(C)/ onsets in Spanish/Swedish inter­phonology: A longitudinal case study1999In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 473-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that vowel epenthesis of initial /sC(C)/ clusters in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers is conditioned by several variable constraints, such as preceding environment, onset length, and sonority relations among onset members. This case study was designed to investigate whether the patterns obtained from elicited speech also hold for conversational data. A longitudinal corpus of spontaneous/natural speech from 1 adult L1 Spanish learner of L2 Swedish was used. The study confirmed most of the results from previous research, for example, that the frequency of epenthesis varies with preceding phonetic environment. However, the study suggested that a lowering effect of preceding vowels must be present, not just the enhancing effect of preceding consonants suggested by Carlisle (1997).

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Andraspråksinlärning och förstaspråksutveckling i en andraspråkskontext2012In: Flerspråkighet – en forskningsöversikt / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Monica Axelsson, Inger Lindberg, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2012, p. 153-246Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of L2 acquisition and degree of nativelikeness – listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny.2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 249-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of nativelikeness in adult second language acquisition is a controversial issue in SLA research. Although some researchers claim that any learner, regardless of age of acquisition, can attain nativelike levels of second language (L2) proficiency, others hold that attainment of nativelike proficiency is, in principle, impossible. The discussion has traditionally been framed within the paradigm of a critical period for language acquisition and guided by the question of whether SLA is constrained by the maturation of the brain. The work presented in this article can be positioned among those studies that have focused exclusively on the apparent counterexamples to the critical period. We report on a large-scale study of Spanish/Swedish bilinguals (n = 195) with differing ages of onset of acquisition (<1–47 years), all of whom identify themselves as potentially nativelike in their L2. Listening sessions with native-speaker judges showed that only a small minority of those bilinguals who had started their L2 acquisition after age 12, but a majority of those with an age of onset below this age, were actually perceived as native speakers of Swedish. However, when a subset (n = 41) of those participants who did pass for native speakers was scrutinized in linguistic detail with a battery of 10 highly complex, cognitively demanding tasks and detailed measurements of linguistic performance, representation, and processing, none of the late learners performed within the native-speaker range; in fact, the results revealed also that only a few of the early learners exhibited actual nativelike competence and behavior on all measures of L2 proficiency that were employed. Our primary interpretation of the results is that nativelike ultimate attainment of a second language is, in principle, never attained by adult learners and, furthermore, is much less common among child learners than has previously been assumed.

  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Barndomen - en kritisk period för språkutveckling?2010In: Barn utvecklar sitt språk: (2:a reviderade upplagan) / [ed] Louise Bjar och Caroline Liberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 2, p. 29-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Barndomen – en kritisk period för språkutveck­ling?2003In: Barn utvecklar sitt språk / [ed] Louise Bjar, Caroline Liberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2003, 1. uppl., p. 29-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, KennethStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    High-Level L2 Acquisition, Learning, and Use: Special Issue2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Inlärningsålder och uppfattad inföddhet i andraspråket – lyssnarexperiment med avancerade L2-talare av svenska2006In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 9-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mognadsbegränsningar och den kritiska perioden för andraspråks­inlärning2004In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inger Lindberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, p. 221-258Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 481-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a number of recent studies suggest that nativelike adult second language (L2) learners possess a high degree of language learning aptitude, the positive effects of which may have compensated for the negative effects of a critical period in these learners. According to the same studies, child learners seem to attain a nativelike command of the L2 regardless of high or low aptitude, which has led researchers to conclude that this factor plays no role in early acquisition. The present study investigates the L2 proficiency and language aptitude of 42 near-native L2 speakers of Swedish (i.e., individuals whom actual mother-tongue speakers of Swedish believe are native speakers). The results confirm previous research suggesting that a high degree of language aptitude is required if adult learners are to reach a L2 proficiency that is indistinguishable from that of native speakers. However, in contrast to previous studies, the present results also identify small yet significant aptitude effects in child SLA. Our findings lead us to the conclusions that the rare nativelike adult learners sometimes observed would all turn out to be exceptionally talented language learners with an unusual ability to compensate for maturational effects and, consequently, that their nativelikeness per se does not constitute a reason to reject the critical period hypothesis.

  • 25.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Stölten, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Effects of age on voice onset time: The production of voiceless stops by near-native L2 speakers2008In: Processes and Outcomes: Explaining Achievement in Language Learning, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Aktürk, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Periphery Effects in Phonological Integration: Turkish suffixation of Swedish proper nouns by advanced bilinguals2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates how certain word-final Swedish rimes are integrated phonologically into Turkish by means of suffixation. Specific Swedish rimes have been selected for their unusual characteristics from the perspective of Turkish phonology such as vowel and consonant quantity as well as coda phonotactics. The data have been collected in an experiment, which involved the oral translation of a Swedish text including potential borrowings such as proper names and place names. The participants were advanced bilingual speakers of the standard varieties of Turkish and Swedish living in Stockholm. Two phonological properties of Turkish are relevant for this essay. Firstly, every word-final rime must have a vocalic, palatal and labial classification in order to be licensed for suffixation. Secondly, Turkish has a large and diverse periphery in its phonological lexicon due to faithful or partially faithful adaptation of a plethora of historical loanwords. The focus of the investigation is if the new borrowings are integrated into the core or into the periphery of the Turkish phonological lexicon or alternatively how faithful their integration is to the Swedish originals. In terms of resolving j-final coda cluster problems, the popular strategies are found to be palatalization, deletion and metathesis. The main body of data displays low faithfulness to the Swedish originals as well as an underutilization of the Turkish periphery. The participants are found to use the periphery of their phonological lexicon to a high degree for established words in Turkish but only to a limited extent when adapting new borrowings from Swedish into Turkish. This finding is explained by the fact that the structural and sociolinguistic conditions are not conducive to periphery maintenance in the present context in contrast to the historical context during the inflow of Arabic and Persian loanwords.

  • 27.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Det flerspråkiga Konstantinopel2010In: Dragomanen, ISSN 1402-358X, Vol. 13, p. 28-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel ger en översikt över den språkliga mångfalden i Konstantinopel mellan åren 330 och 1930 samt belyser de faktorer som har påverkat flerspråkigheten i staden.

  • 28.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the integration of /l/ in Turkish in borrowings from Arabic and Swedish2010In: Turkic languages, ISSN 1431-4983, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 153-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the phonological integration of the front coda /l/ after a back vowel in the final rime of words borrowed from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish. This original donor structure is interesting because it in conflict with the core rules of Turkish phonology. Several sub-disciplines of linguistics have dealt with the role of different phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the phonological integration of lexical borrowings but there is no consensus on their respective weights in borrowing and on how their interaction is to be conceptualised. The Arabic data in the study are based on historical loanwords while the Swedish data have been obtained through an experiment. The focus of the article is the choice between adoption and adaptation as integration strategies and how different factors interact in producing the attested integration patterns. The results show that adoption is predominantly preferred to adaptation in both cases due to the dominant status of the donor languages in the contexts of borrowing. Hence, it is argued that sociolinguistic factors play the main role in these two particular cases.

  • 29.
    Allardt Ljunggren, Barbro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Åland som språksamhälle: Språk och språkliga attityder på Åland ur ett ungdomsperspektiv2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis deals with Åland, i.e. the Åland Islands, as a language environment. Its main focus is on the language attitudes of adolescents. The status, role and use of Swedish, Finnish and English are topical. Its main part consists of an empirical study, which is based on an extensive questionnaire answered by students in grade 9 of primary school and in the second grade of the (theoretical) secondary school in Åland.

    The thesis includes a description of Åland as a language environment. The legal framework making Åland an autonomous region in Finland with Swedish as the only official language is presented. Language policies in Åland are compared with those of Sweden and Finland (outside of Åland). Special treatment is given to the school as a linguistic environment and recent language related debate in Åland.

    The central questions in the questionnaire relate to language choice, media habits, subjective estimations of the respondents’ own language competence and language attitudes in a broad sense.

    Six hypotheses based on a model of secure and insecure majorities and minorities as well as the Interactive Acculturation Model are postulated and treated.

    The results of the empirical study reveal very strong feelings of affinity towards Åland. Attitudes towards English and English-speakers are in general positive. The results reveal somewhat ambivalent attitudes towards Finnish and Finland. Many variables show a tendency among the respondents to favour Sweden ahead of Finland and negative attitudes towards Finnish but there are also other conflicting results. The respondents who have parents who speak Finnish to them display more positive attitudes towards Finnish and Finland. These differences between the groups are statistically significant. However, the group with a Finnish language background also displays its strongest feelings of affinity towards Åland.

  • 30.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Attityder till språk2007In: Sociolingvistik, Liber,Stockholm , 2007, p. 357-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Det romska språket och romsk språkvård i Sverige 2007.: I samarbete med Dimitri Florin, Baki Hasan och Referensgruppen för romani chib vid Språkrådet vid Institutet för språk och folkminnen.2008Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language variation and varieties in contemporary multilingual Stockholm: an explorative pilot study of young peoples’ perceptions2011In: Young urban Swedish.: Variation and change in multilingual settings / [ed] Källström, Roger & Inger Lindberg, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2011, 1, p. 1-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Rinkeby Swedish in the mind of the beholder. Studying listener perceptions of language variation in multilingual Stockholm.2010In: Multilingual Urban Scandinavia. New Linguistic Practices. / [ed] Quist, P. & Svendsen, B. A., Clevedon: Multilingual Matters , 2010, p. 170-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Studying high-level (L1-L2) development and use among young people in multilingual Stockholm: the role of perceptions of ambient sociolinguistic variation2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 291-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article makes a case for studying the perceptions that young people have of the ways of speaking of both themselves and others on the supposition that constructions of ambient sociolinguistic variation have an impact on the language development and use of individual language users. Such a study is particularly relevant in multilingual contexts in which differences with regard to social as well as ethnic and linguistic background may generate significantly different perceptions. In a speaker evaluation study, Swedish speech stimuli from 12 young Stockholmers were evaluated by 343 listeners from different backgrounds. The results show that young people may divide and relate to the linguistic space of Stockholm in very different ways and that they vary in their degree of accuracy regarding linguistic self-perception.

  • 35.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Svenskan i dagens flerspråkiga storstadsmiljöer:: en explorativ studie av unga stockholmares perceptioner av variation och varieteter2008In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 7-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Boyd, Sally
    et al.
    Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Challenging the homogeneity assumption in language variation analysis: Findings from a study of multilingual urban spaces2010In: Language and Space. An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation. : Volume 1: Theories and Methods. / [ed] Auer, Peter & Schmidt, Jürgen Erich, Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter , 2010, 1, p. 686-706Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Effects of age of L2 acquisition on L1 event conceptualization patterns2009In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 305-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint encoding and temporal perspectivation in goal-oriented motion events. In view of previous findings on age effects in attrition, it is hypothesized that deviations from Spanish monolingual patterns of conceptualization would be limited basically to subjects whose AO is below 12 years of age. The analyses show that subjects with AO > 12 converge with Spanish monolingual controls on both endpoint encoding and temporal perspectivation strategies, whereas deviations from the controls' performance are found exclusively in subjects with AO < 12. It is suggested, in view of these findings, that subjects with early AO are more dependent on advantageous socio-psychological circumstances such as L1 contact and use in order to fully acquire/maintain Spanish event conceptualization patterns, while L1 maintenance in subjects with late AO is less dependent on these factors. It is concluded that patterns of event conceptualization are affected by age in the same way as formal language skills.

  • 38.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language attrition2010In: Language, ISSN 0097-8507, E-ISSN 1535-0665, Vol. 88, no 4Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language attrition2013In: Language, Society & Communication / [ed] Zannie Bock & Gift Mheta, van Schaik , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language-specific patterns in event conceptualization: Insights from bilingualism2011In: Thinking and speaking in two languages / [ed] Aneta Pavlenko, Avon: Multilingual Matters, 2011, p. 108-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Maturational constraints and first language attrition2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 687-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the critical period and the interplay between maturation and nonmaturational factors in attrition. In view of findings from first language relearning/reactivation and theoretical-methodological advances in second language research on maturation, the article proposes a reinterpretation of maturational constraints in language attrition that, first, emphasizes the gradual decline of susceptibility to attrition and, second, puts forth the conditioning function that the maturational constraints have on nonmaturational factors.

  • 42.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Segmentation and temporal structuring of events in early Spanish-Swedish bilinguals2011In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 56-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine patterns of segmentation and temporal structuring of events in early bilinguals. The participant group consists of 25 L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish adult bilinguals residing in Sweden, with ages of L2 acquisition ranging from 1 to 11 years. There were 15 native speakers of Swedish and 15 native speakers of Spanish engaged as monolingual controls. The participants provided online-retellings in both languages of an excerpt from the film Modern Times. The bilinguals' L1 and L2 retellings were compared with those of the monolingual speakers of the respective languages. The results indicated that the bilinguals resorted to the same event segmentation strategies in both L1 and L2, opting for an intermediate degree of event resolution. This behavior fell in between the monolingual Spanish high degree of resolution and the monolingual Swedish low degree of resolution. As for temporal structuring patterns, the results showed that the bilinguals in their L2 converged with the Swedish monolingual controls, linking the events by means of anaphoric adverbials (i.e., 'x then y'). The bilinguals also converged with the Spanish-speaking controls in their L1 perspectivation patterns, as both groups left the temporal relation between the events to be inferred and focused on ongoingness (i.e., now x, now y). These findings are discussed in terms of convergence and co-existence of conceptual patterns (Pavlenko, 1999, 2008).

  • 43.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Does first language maintenance hamper nativelikeness in a second language? A study of ultimate attainment in early bilinguals2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 215-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly theoretical due to the lack of empirical evidence. This study sets out to address the role of L1 proficiency in L2 ultimate attainment by examining L1 and L2 proficiency in 30 early L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals. Language proficiency was assessed through grammaticality judgment tests and cloze tests, and additional data on language aptitude were collected through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (v.2.0; Meara, Milton, & Lorenzo-Dus, 2002). The results showed positive correlations between nativelike L1 and L2 behavior. Additionally, it was found that language aptitude was positively correlated with nativelike L1 and L2 performance. In view of these findings, it is suggested that (a) L1 maintenance does not hamper L2 nativelikeness and (b) language aptitude is an important factor for bilingual ultimate attainment.

  • 44.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The role of language aptitude in first language attrition: The case of prepubescent attriters2010In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 443-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While language aptitude has been investigated actively within second language research, there is a current dearth of research on the effects of aptitude in cases of attrition. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the role of language aptitude for L1 proficiency in speakers who experienced a break with their L1 setting prior to puberty. Twenty-five L1 SpanishL2 Swedish bilinguals residing in Sweden participated in the study, and 15 native speakers of Spanish living in Chile were recruited as controls. The L1 proficiency was measured by means of a grammaticality judgement test (GJT) and language aptitude data were obtained through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (Meara et al. <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B36">2003</xref>). Results showed a positive correlation between GJT performance and language aptitude. More specifically, the bilinguals with above-average aptitude were more likely to score within the native range on the GJT than those with below-average aptitude. It was also seen that among the participants with below-average aptitude, GJT scores were related to daily L1 use. In view of these findings, we suggest that language aptitude has a compensatory function in language attrition, helping the attriter to retain a high level of L1 proficiency despite reduced L1 contact.

  • 45.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Linguistic relativity in SLA: Towards a new research programme2014In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 952-985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current article is to support the investigation of linguistic relativity in second language acquisition and sketch methodological and theoretical prerequisites toward developing the domain into a full research program. We identify and discuss three theoretical-methodological components that we believe are needed to succeed in this enterprise. First, we highlight the importance of using nonverbal methods to study linguistic relativity effects in second language (L2) speakers. The use of nonverbal tasks is necessary in order to avoid the circularity that arises when inferences about nonverbal behavior are made on the basis of verbal evidence alone. Second, we identify and delineate the likely cognitive mechanisms underpinning cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers by introducing the theoretical framework of associative learning. By doing so, we demonstrate that the extent and nature of cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers is essentially a function of variation in individual learners’ trajectories. Third, we offer an in-depth discussion of the factors (e.g., L2 proficiency and L2 use) that characterize those trajectories, anchoring them to the framework of associative learning, and reinterpreting their relative strength in predicting L2 speaker cognition.

  • 46.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    The Language and Thought of Motion in Second Language Speakers2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Díaz, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    The role of heritage language instruction for first language proficiency: a psycholinguistic perspective2012In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 593-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of weekly heritage language (HL) classes on first language (L1) proficiency in speakers who arrived in the second language (L2)-dominant setting before the onset of puberty. Two groups of L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish bilingual high school students living in Sweden participated in the study. One group currently attended HL classes once a week, whereas the other group was no longer doing so. The two groups did not differ with regard to the total number of years of HL class attendance, age of arrival in Sweden, length of residence or degree of L1 contact. Results from a grammaticality judgement test and a cloze test showed that the group that currently attended HL classes outperformed the non-attending group. Using a framework that emphasises heightened attrition susceptibility among speakers who lost contact with the L1-dominant setting before puberty, the study suggests that HL classes function as a factor that, all other things being equal, may counterweigh attrition susceptibility. Moreover, it is suggested that the effects of HL classes on L1 proficiency are short term rather than long term. That is to say, once attendance ceases the counterweighing effect is less visible.

  • 48.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Jarvis, Scott
    Dept. of Linguistics, Ohio University.
    L2 effects on L1 event conceptualization patterns2011In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The finding that speakers of aspect languages encode event endpoints to a lesser extent than do speakers of non-aspect languages has led to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization (e.g., von Stutterheim and Nüse, 2003). The present study concerns L1 event conceptualization in 40 L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish bilinguals (all near-native speakers of Swedish). Spanish and Swedish differ as regards grammatical aspect: Whereas Swedish lacks this grammatical category, Spanish conveys aspect through verbal morphology and periphrasis. The principal aim of the study was to explore the relationship between event conceptualization patterns and proficiency with aspectual contrasts. The participants were asked to provide oral L1 Spanish descriptions of video clips projecting motion events with different degrees of endpoint orientation (see von Stutterheim, 2003). In addition, they took a grammaticality judgment test concerning verb and gender agreement, verbal clitics and aspectual contrasts. Compared with baseline data from monolingual Spanish speakers, the results on endpoint encoding show that the bilinguals mention the endpoints of motion events to a higher degree than the Spanish control group does. Moreover, it was shown that the weaker the bilinguals’ discrimination of aspectual errors on the grammaticality judgement test, the more prone they were to encoding endpoints. This result consequently furthers the hypothesis about the interconnectedness between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization. It was suggested that this finding indicate that the bilinguals are influenced by the Swedish-like tendency to attend to the boundedness rather than the ongoingness of events.

  • 49.
    Bylund, Emanuel Spångberg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Ultimate attainment of event segmentation and temporal structuring patterns in speakers of L2 Swedish2011In: Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 1697-0381, Vol. 8, p. 29-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates ultimate attainment of patterns of segmentation and temporal structuring of events in L2 speakers. The participant group consists of 35 L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish adult bilinguals living in Sweden, with ages of L2 acquisition ranging from 1 to 19 years. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish and 15 native speakers of Spanish were engaged as controls. The participants provided online-retellings of a film excerpt. The results showed that the L2 speakers resorted to an event segmentation strategy with an intermediate degree of event resolution, which fell in between the monolingual Spanish high degree of resolution and the monolingual Swedish low degree of resolution. Regarding temporal structuring patterns, the results showed that the L2 speakers converged with the Swedish-speaking controls, linking the events by means of anaphoric adverbials (i.e., x then y). There was no effect of age of L2 acquisition on the L2 speakers' degree of conformity with Swedish native speaker behaviour.

  • 50.
    Bylund Spångberg, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age differences in first language attrition: A maturational constraints perspective2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates age-related differences in first language (L1) attrition in a second language (L2) setting. The thesis is based on four individual studies. The aim of each of the studies has been to examine aspects of age differences that to date have remained in the background of attrition research: Study I gives an overview of research on age differences in L1 attrition and suggests a reinterpretation of age effects in attrition, using as a point of departure critical period constructs. Study I also formulates hypotheses regarding the contour and timing of attrition susceptibility and its interplay with non-biological factors. Study II investigates L1 residual knowledge and L2 ultimate attainment in international adoptees. The results suggest that a) that L1 remnants may be found if relearning activities have taken place prior to testing; b) L2 learners who have experienced a complete cut-off in L1 contact do not attain higher L2 proficiency levels than learners who have stayed in contact with the L1. The results also indicate that the level of L1 reactivation and L2 ultimate attainment are related to age of adoption. Study III examines age effects on the retention of L1 event construal patterns. The results show that the onset of puberty is a turning point for the degree of conformity with native behaviour, i.e. those who arrived in the L2 setting before puberty were more likely to exhibit non-converging patterns than those who arrived after puberty. This finding suggests that in attrition conceptual proficiency is equally affected by age as are formal language skills. Finally, Study IV explores the role of language aptitude in prepubescent attriters. The results show that nativelike grammatical intuitions are connected to language aptitude, and that speakers with high levels of language aptitude rely less on L1 contact than do speakers with low levels of language aptitude in their retention of nativelike grammatical intuitions in the L1.

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