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  • 1. Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Brown, Michael
    Carey, Joanna C.
    Ernakovich, Jessica
    Frederick, Jennifer M.
    Guo, Laodong
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lee, Raymond M.
    Loranty, Michael M.
    Macdonald, Robie
    Mann, Paul J.
    Natali, Susan M.
    Olefeldt, David
    Pearson, Pam
    Rec, Abigail
    Robards, Martin
    Salmon, Verity G.
    Sayedi, Sayedeh Sara
    Schädel, Christina
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Shakil, Sarah
    Shogren, Arial J.
    Strauss, Jens
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Thornton, Brett
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Treharne, Rachael
    Turetsky, Merritt
    Voigt, Carolina
    Wright, Nancy
    Yang, Yuanhe
    Zarnetske, Jay P.
    Zhang, Qiwen
    Zolkos, Scott
    We Must Stop Fossil Fuel Emissions to Protect Permafrost Ecosystems2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 889428Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is an existential threat to the vast global permafrost domain. The diverse human cultures, ecological communities, and biogeochemical cycles of this tenth of the planet depend on the persistence of frozen conditions. The complexity, immensity, and remoteness of permafrost ecosystems make it difficult to grasp how quickly things are changing and what can be done about it. Here, we summarize terrestrial and marine changes in the permafrost domain with an eye toward global policy. While many questions remain, we know that continued fossil fuel burning is incompatible with the continued existence of the permafrost domain as we know it. If we fail to protect permafrost ecosystems, the consequences for human rights, biosphere integrity, and global climate will be severe. The policy implications are clear: the faster we reduce human emissions and draw down atmospheric CO2, the more of the permafrost domain we can save. Emissions reduction targets must be strengthened and accompanied by support for local peoples to protect intact ecological communities and natural carbon sinks within the permafrost domain. Some proposed geoengineering interventions such as solar shading, surface albedo modification, and vegetation manipulations are unproven and may exacerbate environmental injustice without providing lasting protection. Conversely, astounding advances in renewable energy have reopened viable pathways to halve human greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and effectively stop them well before 2050. We call on leaders, corporations, researchers, and citizens everywhere to acknowledge the global importance of the permafrost domain and work towards climate restoration and empowerment of Indigenous and immigrant communities in these regions.

  • 2. Abdelkader, M.
    et al.
    Metzger, S.
    Mamouri, R. E.
    Astitha, M.
    Barrie, Leonard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Levin, Z.
    Lelieveld, J.
    Dust-air pollution dynamics over the eastern Mediterranean2015Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 15, nr 16, s. 9173-9189Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions of desert dust and air pollution over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) have been studied, focusing on two distinct dust transport events on 22 and 28 September 2011. The atmospheric chemistry-climate model EMAC has been used at about 50 km grid spacing, applying an on-line dust emission scheme and calcium as a proxy for dust reactivity. EMAC includes a detailed tropospheric chemistry mechanism, aerosol microphysics and thermodynamics schemes to describe dust aging. The model is evaluated using ground-based observations for aerosol concentrations and aerosol optical depth (AOD) as well as satellite observations. Simulation results and back trajectory analysis show that the development of synoptic disturbances over the EM can enhance dust transport from the Sahara and Arabian deserts in frontal systems that also carry air pollution to the EM. The frontal systems are associated with precipitation that controls the dust removal. Our results show the importance of chemical aging of dust, which increases particle size, dust deposition and scavenging efficiency during transport, overall reducing the lifetime relative to non-aged dust particles. The relatively long travel periods of Saharan dust result in more sustained aging compared to Arabian dust. Sensitivity simulations indicate 3 times more dust deposition of aged relative to pristine dust, which significantly decreases the dust lifetime and loading.

  • 3. Abdelkader, Mohamed
    et al.
    Metzger, Swen
    Steil, Benedikt
    Klingmüller, Klaus
    Tost, Holger
    Pozzer, Andrea
    Stenchikov, Georgiy
    Barrie, Leonard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Lelieveld, Jos
    Sensitivity of transatlantic dust transport to chemical aging and related atmospheric processes2017Inngår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 3799-3821Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux, convection schemes and the chemical aging of mineral dust, by using the EMAC model following Abdelkader et al. (2015). To characterize the dust outflow over the Atlantic Ocean, we distinguish two geographic zones: (i) dust interactions within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the dust-ITCZ interaction zone (DIZ), and (ii) the adjacent dust transport over the Atlantic Ocean (DTA) zone. In the latter zone, the dust loading shows a steep and linear gradient westward over the Atlantic Ocean since particle sedimentation is the dominant removal process, whereas in the DIZ zone aerosol-cloud interactions, wet deposition and scavenging processes determine the extent of the dust outflow. Generally, the EMAC simulated dust compares well with CALIPSO observations; however, our reference model configuration tends to overestimate the dust extinction at a lower elevation and underestimates it at a higher elevation. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Caribbean responds to the dust emission flux only when the emitted dust mass is significantly increased over the source region in Africa by a factor of 10. These findings point to the dominant role of dust removal (especially wet deposition) in transatlantic dust transport. Experiments with different convection schemes have indeed revealed that the transatlantic dust transport is more sensitive to the convection scheme than to the dust emission flux parameterization. To study the impact of dust chemical aging, we focus on a major dust outflow in July 2009. We use the calcium cation as a proxy for the overall chemical reactive dust fraction and consider the uptake of major inorganic acids (i.e., H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl) and their anions, i.e., sulfate (SO42-), bisulfate (HSO4-), nitrate (NO 3) and chloride (Cl), on the surface of mineral particles. The subsequent neutralization reactions with the calcium cation form various salt compounds that cause the uptake of water vapor from the atmosphere, i.e., through the chemical aging of dust particles leading to an increase of 0.15 in the AOD under subsaturated conditions (July 2009 monthly mean). As a result of the radiative feedback on surface winds, dust emissions increased regionally. On the other hand, the aged dust particles, compared to the non-aged particles, are more efficiently removed by both wet and dry deposition due to the increased hygroscopicity and particle size (mainly due to water uptake). The enhanced removal of aged particles decreases the dust burden and lifetime, which indirectly reduces the dust AOD by 0.05 (monthly mean). Both processes can be significant (major dust outflow, July 2009), but the net effect depends on the region and level of dust chemical aging.

  • 4. Aben, Ralf C. H.
    et al.
    Barros, Nathan
    van Donk, Ellen
    Frenken, Thijs
    Hilt, Sabine
    Kazanjian, Garabet
    Lamers, Leon P. M.
    Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.
    Roelofs, Jan G. M.
    de Senerpont Domis, Lisette N.
    Stephan, Susanne
    Velthuis, Mandy
    Van de Waal, Dedmer B.
    Wik, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Thornton, Brett F.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Wilkinson, Jeremy
    DelSontro, Tonya
    Kosten, Sarian
    Cross continental increase in methane ebullition under climate change2017Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 1682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) strongly contributes to observed global warming. As natural CH4 emissions mainly originate from wet ecosystems, it is important to unravel how climate change may affect these emissions. This is especially true for ebullition (bubble flux from sediments), a pathway that has long been underestimated but generally dominates emissions. Here we show a remarkably strong relationship between CH4 ebullition and temperature across a wide range of freshwater ecosystems on different continents using multi-seasonal CH4 ebullition data from the literature. As these temperature-ebullition relationships may have been affected by seasonal variation in organic matter availability, we also conducted a controlled year-round mesocosm experiment. Here 4 degrees C warming led to 51% higher total annual CH4 ebullition, while diffusion was not affected. Our combined findings suggest that global warming will strongly enhance freshwater CH4 emissions through a disproportional increase in ebullition (6-20% per 1 degrees C increase), contributing to global warming.

  • 5. Acosta, R. P.
    et al.
    Burls, N. J.
    Pound, M. J.
    Bradshaw, C. D.
    de Boer, Agatha M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI).
    Herold, N.
    Huber, M.
    Liu, X.
    Donnadieu, Y.
    Farnsworth, A.
    Frigola, A.
    Lunt, D. J.
    von der Heydt, A. S.
    Hutchinson, D. K.
    Knorr, G.
    Lohmann, G.
    Marzocchi, A.
    Prange, M.
    Sarr, A. C.
    Li, X.
    Zhang, Z.
    A Model-Data Comparison of the Hydrological Response to Miocene Warmth: Leveraging the MioMIP1 Opportunistic Multi-Model Ensemble2024Inngår i: Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, ISSN 2572-4517, E-ISSN 2572-4525, Vol. 39, nr 1, artikkel-id e2023PA004726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Miocene (23.03-5.33 Ma) is recognized as a period with close to modern-day paleogeography, yet a much warmer climate. With large uncertainties in future hydroclimate projections, Miocene conditions illustrate a potential future analog for the Earth system. A recent opportunistic Miocene Model Intercomparison Project 1 (MioMIP1) focused on synthesizing published Miocene climate simulations and comparing them with available temperature reconstructions. Here, we build on this effort by analyzing the hydrological cycle response to Miocene forcings across early-to-middle (E2MMIO; 20.03-11.6 Ma) and middle-to-late Miocene (M2LMIO; 11.5-5.33 Ma) simulations with CO2 concentrations ranging from 200 to 850 ppm and providing a model-data comparison against available precipitation reconstructions. We find global precipitation increases by similar to 2.1 and 2.3% per degree of warming for E2MMIO and M2LMIO simulations, respectively. Models generally agree on a wetter than modern-day tropics; mid and high-latitude, however, do not agree on the sign of subtropical precipitation changes with warming. Global monsoon analysis suggests most monsoon regions, except the North American Monsoon, experience higher precipitation rates under warmer conditions. Model-data comparison shows that mean annual precipitation is underestimated by the models regardless of CO2 concentration, particularly in the mid- to high-latitudes. This suggests that the models may not be (a) resolving key processes driving the hydrological cycle response to Miocene boundary conditions and/or (b) other boundary conditions or processes not considered here are critical to reproducing Miocene hydroclimate. This study highlights the challenges in modeling and reconstructing the Miocene hydrological cycle and serves as a baseline for future coordinated MioMIP efforts. This study looks at Earth's hydrological cycle during the Miocene (23-5 million years ago). During this period, the Earth's climate was 3-7 degrees C warmer than today, with carbon dioxide (CO2) estimates ranging between 400 and 850 ppm. Understanding how the hydrological cycle responded during warmer climate conditions can give us insight into what might happen as the Earth gets warmer. We analyzed a suite of Miocene paleoclimate simulations with different CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and compared them against fossil plant data, which gives an estimate of the average annual rainfall during the period. We found that during the Miocene global rainfall increased by about 2.1%-2.3% for each degree of warming. The models agree that the tropics, mid- and high-latitude, became wetter than they are today but have lower agreement on whether subtropical areas got wetter or drier as they warmed. Compared to proxies, models consistently underestimated how much rain fell in a year, especially in the mid- to high-latitude. This illustrates the challenges in reconstructing the Miocene's hydrological cycle and suggests that the models might not fully capture the range of uncertainties associated with changes in the hydrological cycle due to warming or other factors that differentiated the Miocene. A multi-model comparison of the hydrological cycle in early-to-middle and middle-to-late Miocene simulations is conductedModels generally agree on wetter than modern tropics, middle and high latitudes, but not on the sign of subtropical precipitation changesModel-data comparison shows mean annual precipitation is underestimated by the models, particularly in the mid- to high-latitudes

  • 6.
    Afrifa, Yamoah Kweku Kyei
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Reconstruction of the Southeast Asian hydro-climate using biomarkers and their hydrogen isotopic composition2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Southeast Asia is characterized by a monsoonal climate, with distinct wet and dry seasons. This has great impact on societies, agriculture and infrastructures. Despite the critical importance to understand the mechanisms that influence the variability of the Asian Monsoon, there is scarcity of both historical and paleoclimate proxy data from Southeast Asia. For this reason, two lakes from Thailand, Lake Pa Kho (LPK) and Lake Nong Thale Pron (NTP), which are located in the northeastern and southern part of Thailand, respectively, were cored. The region also offers the opportunity to study the potential influence of climate on the Angkor civilization. Overall, this project seeks to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to Asian monsoon variability and how the variability influenced Angkor Civilization. Here I present results on a 2000-years sediment record from LPK. The most important part of the work presented here consists of compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (δD), which are used to infer past changes in the hydrological cycle of Southeast Asia. This approach is based on the premise that δD of lipid biomarkers from plants, algae and microorganisms deposited in sediments reflects the δD of their source water, which in turn is influenced by local hydrology. A rapid increase in precipitation is inferred from ca. 700 to ca. 850 AD, after a long dry phase. The inferred shift to wet conditions likely contributed to the rise of the Angkor Civilization, by boosting agriculture. However, gradual drying occurred at around 900 AD until the 19th century. This long-term decline in precipitation, favoring ever more frequent occurrences of severe droughts, likely also contributed to the demise and fall of the Angkor, around 1400 AD. Comparison with other hydroclimate proxy records revealed that wet conditions in tropical SE Asia corresponded to a dry Western Pacific, wet conditions in the East Pacific, and vice versa - a pattern that can be explained by opposing centers of convection and subsidence. Moreover, our tropical record also appears to be anti-correlated with the subtropical East Asian Monsoon, possibly caused by rainout effects along moisture trajectories. These long-term rainfall shifts closely match patterns observed during periods of strong El Niño, and suggests a central role for Pacific Walker circulation as a driver of centennial-scale hydroclimatic change. Besides these results from LPK oriented towards reconstructing hydroclimate, I also present some initial results concerning the evolution of the plant community of LPK, based on compound specific 13C analysis, as well as first biomarker results from NTP.

  • 7. Agnini, Claudia
    et al.
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Boscolo-Galazzo, Flavia
    Condon, Daniel J.
    Fornaciari, Eliana
    Galeotti, Simone
    Giusberti, Luca
    Grandesso, Paolo
    Lanci, Luca
    Luciani, Valeria
    Monechi, Simonetta
    Muttoni, Giovanni
    Pälike, Heiko
    Pampaloni, Maria Letizia
    Papazzoni, Cesare A.
    Pearson, Paul N.
    Pignatti, Johannes
    Premoli Silva, Isabella
    Raffi, Isabella
    Rio, Domenico
    Rook, Lorenzo
    Sahy, Diana
    Spofforth, David J. A.
    Stefani, Cristina
    Wade, Bridget S.
    Proposal for the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Priabonian Stage (Eocene) at the Alano section (Italy)2021Inngår i: Episodes, ISSN 0705-3797, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 151-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The base of the Priabonian Stage is one of two stage boundaries in the Paleogene that remains to be formalized. The Alano section (NE Italy) was elected by consensus as a suitable candidate for the base of the Priabonian during the Priabonian Working Group meeting held in Alano di Piave in June 2012. Further detailed research on the section is now followed by a formal proposal, which identifies the base of a prominent crystal tuff layer, the Tiziano bed, at meter 63.57 of the Alano section, as a suitable candidate for the Priabonian Stage. The choice of the Tiziano bed is appropriate from the historical point of view and several bio-magnetostratigraphic events are available to approximate this chronostratigraphic boundary and guarantee a high degree of correlatability over wide geographic areas. Events which approximate the base of the Priabonian Stage in the Alano section are the successive extinction of large acarininids and Morozovelloides (planktonic foraminifera), the Base of common and continuous Cribrocentrum erbae and the Top of Chiasmolithus grandis (nannofossils), as well as the Base of Subchron C17n.2n and the Base of Chron C17n (magnetostratigraphy). Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Bartonian-Priabonian transition of the Alano section as well as radioisotopic data of the Tiziano tuff layer provide an absolute age (37.710 - 37.762 Ma, respectively) of this bed and, consequently, of the base of the Priabonian Stage.

  • 8. Agnini, Claudia
    et al.
    Fornaciari, Eliana
    Raffi, Isabella
    Catanzariti, Rita
    Paelike, Heiko
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Rio, Domenico
    Biozonation and biochronology of Paleogene calcareous nannofossils from low and middle latitudes2014Inngår i: Newsletters on stratigraphy, ISSN 0078-0421, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 131-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcareous nannofossils have provided a powerful biostratigraphic tool since the 1950's and 1960's, when several milestone papers began to highlight their potential use in dating Cenozoic sediments and rocks. Here, we present a new calcareous nannofossil biozonation for the Paleogene Period, which is based on biostratigraphic data collected during the past 30 years. Semi-quantitative counting methods applied on DSDP/ODP drill sites and marine on-land sections have been used to demonstrate the details of the abundance patterns of each biostratigraphically useful calcareous nannofossil taxon. This new biozonation still partly relies on older biozonations and thus represents an integration between those classical biohorizons that proved reliable and new biohorizons proposed as substitutes for bioevents considered problematic. Thirty-eight new Paleogene biozones are proposed using a new code system: 11 Paleocene biozones (CNP1-CNP11), 21 Eocene biozones (CNE1-CNE21) and 6 Oligocene biozones (CNO1-CNO6). The new scheme uses a limited number of biohorizons, one for each biozone boundary, which guarantees more stability although with a coarser resolution. A series of additional biohorizons are included in almost every biozone. This new Paleogene biozonation has an average duration of 1.1 Myr per biozone, ranging from 0.9 Myr in the Paleocene, to 1.0 Myr in the Eocene, and 1.8 Myr in the Oligocene. Age estimates provided for calcareous nannofossil biohorizons are calculated using both magnetostratigraphic and astronomically tuned cyclostratigraphic data.

  • 9. Agnini, Claudia
    et al.
    Spofforth, David J. A.
    Dickens, Gerald R.
    Rio, Domenico
    Pälike, Heiko
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Backman, Jan
    Muttoni, Giovanni
    Dallanave, Edoardo
    Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage record of the late Paleocene and early Eocene (Cicogna section)2016Inngår i: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 883-909Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along the Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate delta C-13 profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common timescale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in delta C-13 and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). This precise correlation of widely separated delta C-13 records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the delta C-13 record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate 8180, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster,, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Sphenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent distinct variations in abundance as well as permanent evolutionary changes in terms of appearances and disappearances. By contrast, placoliths such as Coccolithus and Tow eius, which represent the main component of the assemblages, were characterized by a gradual decline in abundance over time. Comparisons of detailed nannofossil assemblage records at the Cicogna section and at ODP Site 1262 support the idea that variations in the relative and absolute abundances, even some minor changes, were globally synchronous. An obvious link is through climate forcing and carbon cycling, although the linkages between variations in calcareous nannoplankton, changes in delta C-13 records and oceanography will need additional work.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Engy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Microbe-mineral interactions in soil: Investigation of biogenic chelators, microenvironments and weathering processes2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The interplay between geology and biology has shaped the Earth during billions of years. Microbe-mineral interactions are prime examples of this interplay and underscore the importance of microorganisms in making Earth a suitable environment for all forms of life. The present thesis takes an interdisciplinary approach to obtain an integrated understanding of microbe-mineral interactions. More specifically it addresses how the composition and distribution of biogenic weathering agents (siderophores) differ with regard to soil horizon and mineral type in situ, what siderophore type soil microorganisms produces under laboratory conditions, what role microbial surface attachment plays in mineral weathering reactions and what central roles and applications siderophores have in the environment.

    Podzol, the third most abundant soil in Europe, and most abundant in Scandinavia, was chosen for a field experiment, where three minerals (apatite, biotite and oligoclase) were inserted in the organic, eluvial and upper illuvial soil horizons. The study started with an investigation of the siderophore composition in the bulk soil profile and on the mineral surfaces (paper I), which was followed by a study of the siderophore producing capabilities of microorganisms isolated from the soil profile under laboratory conditions (paper II). Subsequently, a study was done on the impact of microbial surface attachment on biotite dissolution (paper III). Finally, the roles of siderophores in nature and their potential applications were reviewed (paper IV).

    The major findings were that the concentration of hydroxamate siderophores in the soil attached to the mineral surfaces was greater than those in the surrounding bulk soil, indicating that the minerals stimulate the microbial communities attached to their surfaces to produce more siderophores than the microorganisms in the bulk soil. Each mineral had a unique assemblage of hydroxamate siderophores, that makes the mineral type one of the main factors affecting siderophore composition in the natural environment. Siderophore production varied between the microbial species originating from different soil horizons, suggesting that the metabolic properties of microbes in deep soil horizons function differently from those at upper soil horizons. Microbial surface attachment enhanced the biotite dissolution, showing that attached microbes has a greater influence on weathering reactions in soil than planktonic populations. In conclusion, our findings reflected that the complicated relationship between microorganisms and mineral surfaces reinforces the central theme of biogeochemistry that the mineral controls the biological activity in the natural environments. However, the importance of these relationships to the biogeochemical systems requires further investigation.

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  • 11.
    Ahmed, Engy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    The interaction between microbes, siderophores and minerals in podzol soil2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Abdulla, Hesham M.
    Mohamed, Amy H.
    El-Bassuony, Ahmed D.
    Remediation and recycling of chromium from tannery wastewater using combined chemical-biological treatment system2016Inngår i: Process Safety and Environmental Protection, ISSN 0957-5820, E-ISSN 1744-3598, Vol. 104, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tannery wastewater containing chromium (Cr) is one of the most serious problems in leather industry. In order to develop an effective and eco-friendly treatment technology, a combined chemical-biological treatment system was performed for Cr remediation and recycling. The aim of the present study is to design a laboratory scale system using chemical precipitation of Cr(III) combined with biological removal of Cr(VI) from tannery wastewater, and to investigate the possibility of recycling the recovered Cr(III) in the tanning industry. Chemical precipitation of Cr(III) was carried out using lime and cement dust. The actinomycete strain Kitasatosporia sp. was used in microcosm studies for Cr(VI) bioremoval. Moreover, parameters such as type of porous medium, inoculum size, flow rate and culture conditions were investigated. The precipitated Cr(III) that was recovered from the chemical precipitation stage was recycled in the leather tanning industry. Our findings indicate that the maximum Cr(III) precipitation (98%) was achieved using 2 g/100 mL of lime and 2 h of settling rate. On the other hand, microcosm columns using sand that was inoculated with induced culture (OD600 = 2.43) and flow rate (2 mL/min) gave the maximum recovery (99%) of Cr(VI). The experimental Cr(III) was successfully recycled in the tanning process and the experimental leathers showed comparable properties as same as the leathers tanned with commercial Cr(III). Thus, we concluded that using combined chemical-biological treatment system for Cr remediation from tanning wastewater together with recycling process for the recovered Cr(III) is a promising strategy for economic and environmental friendly tanning industry.

  • 13.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Soil Microorganisms and Mineral Weathering: Mechanics of Biotite Dissolution2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil microorganisms play an important role in the environment by contributing to leach and release of essential elements from soil minerals that are required not only for their own nutrition but also for plants growth. This study aims to compare between the mechanisms of different fungal and bacterial species isolated from podzol soil in biotite dissolution. Microplate devices with 6 wells were used for the biological weathering experiments. All of the sterilized microplate wells were filled with 4g/l of biotite followed by 12 ml of an iron free diluted mineral liquid medium. In these conditions, biotite particles are the only source of the essential elements for the microorganisms. To characterize the mechanisms of biotite dissolution, we monitored siderophores production, microbial biomass, pH, exchangeable cations concentration and SEM analysis for mineral surface. There was a significant difference between the behavior of the fungal and bacterial species in dissolution of biotite. This difference may be due to the variation of these microorganisms in their mechanics of interaction with mineral surface. It was observed also that these microorganisms directly and indirectly induce biotite dissolution. Defining soil as a system driven by biological mechanisms rather than chemical processes has major implications for our understanding of how the system functions and how it will respond to changing conditions.

  • 14.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    THE MICROBE-MINERAL INTERACTIONS IN THE ACIDIC PODZOL SOIL2013Inngår i: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 77, nr 5, s. 564-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Iron is a key component of the chemical architecture of the biosphere. Due to the low bioavailability of iron in the environment, microorganisms have developed specific uptake strategies, like siderophores, which are operationally defined as low-molecular-mass biogenic Fe(III)-binding compounds, that can increase iron’s bioavailability by promoting the dissolution of iron-bearing minerals. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the composition of hydroxamate siderophores in the soil horizons of the acidic podzol, and study how they are affected by the presence of specific mineral types and microbial communities.

     Three different minerals (apatite, biotite and oligioclase) were inserted in the soil horizons (O (organic), E (eluvial), B (upper illuvial), and C (mineral)). After two years, soil samples were collected from both the bulk soil (next to the minerals) and from the soil attached to the mineral surfaces. The concentration of ten different fungal tri-hydroxamates and five bacterial ones were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). In addition, total microbial composition and diversity were studied.

    Our field experiment succeeded in describing the relationship between the presence of siderophores, soil horizon and mineral type, in addition to understanding the interaction between mineral type and soil microbial composition. A wide range of fungal and bacterial hydroxamates were detected throughout the soil profile. On the other hand, the presence of the minerals completely altered the diversity of siderophores. In addition, each mineral had a unique interaction with hydroxamates in the different soil horizons. There were also a good relationship between the microbial diversity and the siderophore distribution. 

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    The Roles and Applications of Siderophores in Natural Environments2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Siderophores are organic compounds with low molecular mass that are produced by microorganisms growing under conditions of low iron. The primary function of these compounds is to chelate ferric iron from different terrestrial and aquatic habitats and thereby make it available for microbial cells.

    Siderophores have received much attention in recent years because of their potential roles and applications in various areas of environmental research. For instance, the production of siderophores can provide a quick identification of microbes to the species level that called “siderotyping”. On the other hand, siderophores could also function as biocontrol, biosensor, and bioremediation agents, in addition to their important role in mineral weathering and enhancing plant growth. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the composition of trihydroxamate siderophores in soil samples from different horizons (O (organic), E (eluvial), B (upper illuvial), and C (parent material)) of a podzol soil in Sweden, and study how they are affected by the presence of specific mineral types (apatite, biotite and oligioclase) that were inserted in the soil for two years in a field experiment.

    Our field experiment succeeded in describing the relationship between the presence of siderophores, soil horizons and mineral types. A wide range of fungal and bacterial hydroxamates were detected throughout the soil profile. On the other hand, the presence of the minerals completely altered the diversity of siderophores. In addition, each mineral had a unique interaction with hydroxamates in the different soil horizons. Our next step is to gain greater insight into the siderotyping to illustrate the relationship between the siderophore types that was found throughout the soil profile and on the different mineral surfaces and the microbial diversity by using metagenomic applications.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmström, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holm, Nils G.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    The Role of Microorganisms in the diversity and distribution of siderophores in Podzolic Forest Soil2013Inngår i: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 77, nr 2, s. 161--208(48)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron is a key component of the chemical architecture of the biosphere. Due to the low bioavailability of iron in the environment, microorganisms have developed specific uptake strategies. The most important one is the production of siderophores, which are operationally defined as low-molecular-mass biogenic Fe (III)-binding compounds which may greatly increase bioavailability of Fe [1]. One of the primary biogeochemical functions of siderophores is therefore to increase Fe bioavailability by promoting the dissolution of iron-bearing minerals [2]. This study aims to understand the role of microorganisms in the chemical diversity and distribution of siderophores in podzol soil and how this diversity can contribute to the bioavailability of Fe in forest soil.Soil samples were collected from an experimental site in the area of Bispgården in central Sweden (63°07′N, 16°70′E) from the O (organic), E (eluvial), B1 (upper illuvial), and C (mineral) horizons. Concentration and chemical composition of dissolved and adsorbed siderophores in the soil samples were determined using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography.The highest siderophore concentrations were found in the O layer and thereafter decreased by depth. Concentrations of dissolved hydroxamate, catecholate and carboxylate siderophores were up to 84, 17 and 0.2 nmol/ g soil, respectively. In contrast, concentrations of adsorbed hydroxamates, catecholates and carboxylates were only up to 1.8, 3 and 0.2 nmol/ g soil, respectively.Siderophore-producing microorganisms were isolated from the same soil samples. Viable fungi, bacteria and actinomycete counts ranged from 7 to 300, from 300 to 1800, and from 0 to 5 cfu/gm, respectively. The highest counts were found in the O and E layers. Only the E layer contained the three types of siderophore-producing microorganisms investigated in this study. Siderophores were extracted from culture filtrates of the isolated microorganisms when grown under iron-limited conditions. These extracts varied considerably in siderophore composition. Fungal isolates produced up to 183 μM of hydroxamates, especially those isolated from the O layer, whereas bacteria and actinomycete isolated from the O and E layers of the soil produced high amounts of carboxylate, catecholate and hydroxamate siderophores. Actinomycete produced up to 93 μM of hydroxamates and 47 μM of catecholates, while bacteria produced up to 34 μM of carboxylates and up to 14 μM of catecholates.The depth variability in concentration and chemical composition and the good correlation between abundance of siderophore-producing microorganisms and siderophore soil concentrations strongly suggest that these siderophore-producing microorganisms play an important role in the mobilization of iron in the podzol soil that may be important in iron availability to plants in forest environment.

    [1] Clay et al. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 2432-2436. [2] Duckworth et al. (2009) ChemGeol 260, 149-158.

  • 17.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Microbe-mineral interactions: The impact of surface attachment on mineral weathering and element selectivity by microorganisms2015Inngår i: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 403, s. 13-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major gaps within the field of biogeochemistry is the lack of a detailed and deep understanding of the mechanismbehind the microbial inducement of mineral dissolution. The association of microorganisms with the mineral surfaces is an important issue for understanding processes like mineral weathering, biomineralization, bioremediation and biofouling. The present study aims to investigate the performance of attached and unattached soil fungal and bacterial species in biotite weathering and in the selectivity of elements from biotite. Sterilized microplate devices were filled with biotite (>2 mm) followed by an iron limited liquid growth medium and were inoculated separately with six different microbial species isolated from podzol soil: Erwinia amylovora, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas mendocina, Streptomyces pilosus, Neurospora crassa and Penicillium melinii. The experiment was designed in two set-ups: 1) attached form, in which the microorganisms were inoculated directly to the biotite surface, and 2) unattached form, in which 0.4 mu m PET track etched devices were used to separate the microbial cells from the biotite surface. Our findings indicate that the surface attached microorganisms led to a greater dissolution of elements from biotite than the unattached microorganisms that was evidenced by 1) higher dissolution of Fe, Al and Si, 2) greater decrease in pH of the liquid growth medium, and 3) relatively higher production of siderophores. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the capability of element selectivity between the attached and unattached microbial forms. The biotite dissolution was promoted initially by complexation processes and later by acidification processes for most of the attached and unattached microorganisms. Thus, we conclude that despite the mineral dissolution induced by microbial attachment on the mineral surface, the element composition of the biotite and nutritional need of the microorganisms were the main factors affecting the element selectivity.

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Siderophore Production by Microorganisms Isolated From a Podzol Soil Profile2015Inngår i: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 397-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Siderophore-producing bacteria/actinobacteria and fungi were isolated from O- (organic), E- (eluvial), B- (upper illuvial), and C- (parent material) horizons of podzol soil. Siderophores were isolated and hydroxamate type siderophores were detected and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The molecular identification of siderophore-producing isolates showed that there was a high diversity of fungal and bacterial/actinobacterial species throughout the soil profile. The isolated bacteria/actinobacteria showed different abilities in the production of ferrioxamines (E, B, G and D). Moreover, the isolated fungal species showed great variety in the production of ferrichromes, coprogens and fusarinines.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications2014Inngår i: Microbial Biotechnology, ISSN 1751-7907, E-ISSN 1751-7915, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 196-208Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Siderophores are organic compounds with low molecular masses that are produced by microorganisms and plants growing under low iron conditions. The primary function of these compounds is to chelate the ferric iron [Fe(III)] from different terrestrial and aquatic habitats and thereby make it available for microbial and plant cells. Siderophores have received much attention in recent years because of their potential roles and applications in various areas of environmental research. Their significance in these applications is because siderophores have the ability to bind a variety of metals in addition to iron, and they have a wide range of chemical structures and specific properties. For instance, siderophores function as biocontrols, biosensors, and bioremediation and chelation agents, in addition to their important role in weathering soil minerals and enhancing plant growth. The aim of this literature review is to outline and discuss the important roles and functions of siderophores in different environmental habitats and emphasize the significant roles that these small organic molecules could play in applied environmental processes.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    The effect of soil horizon and mineral type on the distribution of siderophores in soil2014Inngår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 131, s. 184-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron is a key component of the chemical architecture of the biosphere. Due to the low bioavailability of iron in the environment, microorganisms have developed specific uptake strategies like production of siderophores. Siderophores are operationally defined as low-molecular-mass biogenic Fe(III)-binding compounds, that can increase the bioavailability of iron by promoting the dissolution of iron-bearing minerals. In the present study, we investigated the composition of dissolved and adsorbed siderophores of the hydroxamate family in the soil horizons of podzol and the effect of specific mineral types on siderophores. Three polished mineral specimens of 3 cm x 4 cm x 3 mm (apatite, biotite and oligioclase) were inserted in the soil horizons (O (organic), E (eluvial) and B (upper illuvial)). After two years, soil samples were collected from both the bulk soil of the whole profile and from the soil attached to the mineral surfaces. The concentration of ten different fungal tri-hydroxamates within ferrichromes, fusigen and coprogens families, and five bacterial hydroxamates within the ferrioxamine family were detected. All hydroxamate types were determined in both soil water (dissolved) and soil methanol (adsorbed) extracts along the whole soil profile by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS); hence, the study is the most extensive of its kind. We found that coprogens and fusigen were present in much higher concentrations in bulk soil than were ferrioxamines and ferrichromes. On the other hand, the presence of the polished mineral completely altered the distribution of siderophores. In addition, each mineral had a unique interaction with the dissolved and adsorbed hydroxamates in the different soil horizons. Thus siderophore composition in the soil environment is controlled by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of each soil horizon and also by the available mineral types.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    Logue, Jurg B.
    Brüchert, Volker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Mineral Type Structures Soil Microbial Communities2017Inngår i: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 538-545Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil microorganisms living in close contact with minerals play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of elements, soil formation, and plant nutrition. Yet, the composition of microbial communities inhabiting the mineralosphere (i.e., the soil surrounding minerals) is poorly understood. Here, we explored the composition of soil microbial communities associated with different types of minerals in various soil horizons. To this effect, a field experiment was set up in which mineral specimens of apatite, biotite, and oligoclase were buried in the organic, eluvial, and upper illuvial horizons of a podzol soil. After an incubation period of two years, the soil attached to the mineral surfaces was collected, and microbial communities were analyzed by means of Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S (prokaryotic) and 18S (eukaryotic) ribosomal RNA genes. We found that both composition and diversity of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities varied across the different mineral surfaces, and that mineral type had a greater influence on structuring microbial assemblages than soil horizon. Thus, our findings emphasize the importance of mineral surfaces as ecological niches in soils.

  • 22.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Parducci, Laura
    Unneberg, Per
    Ågren, Rasmus
    Schenk, Frederik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Rattray, Jayne E.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Han, Lu
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Columbia University, USA.
    Pedersen, Mikkel W.
    Smittenberg, Rienk H.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Afrifa Yamoah, Kweku
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Slotte, Tanja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Stockholms universitet, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Archaeal community changes in Lateglacial lake sediments: Evidence from ancient DNA2018Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 181, s. 19-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lateglacial/early Holocene sediments from the ancient lake at Hasseldala Port, southern Sweden provide an important archive for the environmental and climatic shifts at the end of the last ice age and the transition into the present Interglacial. The existing multi-proxy data set highlights the complex interplay of physical and ecological changes in response to climatic shifts and lake status changes. Yet, it remains unclear how microorganisms, such as Archaea, which do not leave microscopic features in the sedimentary record, were affected by these climatic shifts. Here we present the metagenomic data set of Hasseldala Port with a special focus on the abundance and biodiversity of Archaea. This allows reconstructing for the first time the temporal succession of major Archaea groups between 13.9 and 10.8 ka BP by using ancient environmental DNA metagenomics and fossil archaeal cell membrane lipids. We then evaluate to which extent these findings reflect physical changes of the lake system, due to changes in lake-water summer temperature and seasonal lake-ice cover. We show that variations in archaeal composition and diversity were related to a variety of factors (e.g., changes in lake water temperature, duration of lake ice cover, rapid sediment infilling), which influenced bottom water conditions and the sediment-water interface. Methanogenic Archaea dominated during the Allerod and Younger Dryas pollen zones, when the ancient lake was likely stratified and anoxic for large parts of the year. The increase in archaeal diversity at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition is explained by sediment infilling and formation of a mire/peatbog.

  • 23. Akam, Sajjad A.
    et al.
    Swanner, Elizabeth D.
    Yao, Hongming
    Hong, Wei-Li
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Peckmann, Jörn
    Methane-derived authigenic carbonates – A case for a globally relevant marine carbonate factory2023Inngår i: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 243, artikkel-id 104487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation of methane-derived authigenic carbonates (MDAC) is an integral part of marine methane production and consumption, but MDAC's relative significance to the global marine carbon cycle is not well understood. Here we provide a synthesis and perspective to highlight MDAC from a global marine carbon biogeochemistry viewpoint. MDAC formation is a result and archive of carbon‑sulfur (C S) coupling in the shallow sulfatic zone and carbon‑silicon (C Si) coupling in deeper methanic sediments. MDAC constitute a carbon sequestration of 3.93 Tmol C yr−1 (range 2.34–5.8 Tmol C yr−1) in the modern ocean and are the third-largest carbon burial mechanism in marine sediments. This burial compares to 29% (11–57%) organic carbon and 10% (6–23%) skeletal carbonate carbon burial along continental margins. MDAC formation is also an important sink for benthic alkalinity and, thereby, a potential contributor to bottom water acidification. Our understanding of the impact of MDAC on global biogeochemical cycles has evolved over the past five decades from what was traditionally considered a passive carbon sequestration mechanism in a seep-oasis setting to what is now considered a dynamic carbonate factory expanding from deep sediments to bottom waters—a factory that has been operational since the Precambrian. We present a strong case for the need to improve regional scale quantification of MDAC accumulation rates and associated carbonate biogeochemical parameters, leading to their incorporation in present and paleo‑carbon budgets in the next phase of MDAC exploration.

  • 24.
    Akhoudas, Camille Hayatte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI).
    Sallée, Jean-Baptiste
    Reverdin, Gilles
    Haumann, F. Alexander
    Pauthenet, Etienne
    Chapman, Christopher C.
    Margirier, Félix
    Lo Monaco, Claire
    Metzl, Nicolas
    Meilland, Julie
    Stranne, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI).
    Isotopic evidence for an intensified hydrological cycle in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean2023Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 2763Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrological cycle is expected to intensify in a warming climate. However, observational evidence of such changes in the Southern Ocean is difficult to obtain due to sparse measurements and a complex superposition of changes in precipitation, sea ice, and glacial meltwater. Here we disentangle these signals using a dataset of salinity and seawater oxygen isotope observations collected in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Our results show that the atmospheric water cycle has intensified in this region between 1993 and 2021, increasing the salinity in subtropical surface waters by 0.06 ± 0.07 g kg−1 per decade, and decreasing the salinity in subpolar surface waters by -0.02 ± 0.01 g kg−1 per decade. The oxygen isotope data allow to discriminate the different freshwater processes showing that in the subpolar region, the freshening is largely driven by the increase in net precipitation (by a factor two) while the decrease in sea ice melt is largely balanced by the contribution of glacial meltwater at these latitudes. These changes extend the growing evidence for an acceleration of the hydrological cycle and a melting cryosphere that can be expected from global warming.

  • 25.
    Alasdair, Skelton
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Fredrik, Arghe
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Pitcairn, Iain
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Spatial coupling between spilitization and carbonation ofbasaltic sills in SW Scottish Highlands: evidence of amineralogical control of metamorphic fluid flow2011Inngår i: Geofluids, ISSN 1468-8115, E-ISSN 1468-8123, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 245-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a geochemical and petrological analysis of overprinting episodes of fluid–rock interaction in a well-studied metabasaltic sill in the SW Scottish Highlands, we show that syn-deformational access of metamorphic fluids and consequent fluid–rock interaction is at least in part controlled by preexisting mineralogical variations. Lithological and structural channelling of metamorphic fluids along the axis of the Ardrishaig Anticline, SW Scottish Highlands, caused carbonation of metabasaltic sills hosted by metasedimentary rocks of the Argyll Group in the Dalradian Supergroup. Analysis of chemical and mineralogical variability across a metabasaltic sill at Port Cill Maluaig shows that carbonation at greenschist to epidote–amphibolites facies conditions caused by infiltration of H2O-CO2 fluids was controlled by mineralogical variations, which were present before carbonation occurred. This variability probably reflects chemical and mineralogical changes imparted on the sill during premetamorphic spilitization. Calculation of precarbonation mineral modes reveals heterogeneous spatial distributions of epidote, amphibole, chlorite and epidote. This reflects both premetamorphic spilitization and prograde greenschist facies metamorphism prior to fluid flow. Spilitization caused albitization of primary plagioclase and spatially heterogeneous growth of epidote ± calcic amphibole ± chlorite ± quartz ± calcite. Greenschist facies metamorphism caused breakdown of primary pyroxene and continued, but spatially more homogeneous, growth of amphibole + chlorite ± quartz. These processes formed diffuse epidote-rich patches or semi-continuous layers. These might represent precursors of epidote segregations, which are better developed elsewhere in the SW Scottish Highlands. Chemical and field analyses of epidote reveal the evidence of local volume fluctuations associated with these concentrations of epidote. Transient permeability enhancement associated with these changes may have permitted higher fluid fluxes and therefore more extensive carbonation. This deflected metamorphic fluid such that its flow direction became more layer parallel, limiting propagation of the reaction front into the sill interior.

  • 26. Alatarvas, Raisa
    et al.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Strand, Kari
    Heavy mineral assemblages of the De Long Trough and southern Lomonosov Ridge glacigenic deopsits: implication for the East Siberian Ice Sheet extent2022Inngår i: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 18, nr 8, s. 1867-1881Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic's glacial history has classically been interpreted from marine records in terms of the fluctuations of the Eurasian and North American ice sheets. However, the extent and timing of the East Siberian Ice Sheet (ESIS) have remained uncertain. A recently discovered glacially scoured cross-shelf trough extending to the edge of the continental shelf north of the De Long Islands has provided additional evidence that glacial ice existed on parts of the East Siberian Sea (ESS) during previous glacial periods MIS 6 and 4. This study concentrates on defining the heavy mineral signature of glacigenic deposits from the East Siberian continental margin which were collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition. The cores studied are 20-GC1 from the East Siberian shelf, 23-GC1 and 24-GC1 from the De Long Trough (DLT), and 29-GC1 from the southern Lomonosov Ridge (LR). Heavy mineral assemblages were used to identify prominent parent rocks in hinterland and other sediment source areas. The parent rock areas include major eastern Siberian geological provinces such as the Omolon massif, the Chukotka fold belt, the Verkhoyansk fold belt, and possibly the Okhotsk–Chukotka volcanic belt. The primary riverine sources for the ESS sediments are the Indigirka and Kolyma rivers, the material of which was glacially eroded and re-deposited in the DLT. The higher abundances of amphiboles in the heavy mineral assemblages may indicate ESS paleovalley of the Indigirka River as a major pathway of sediments, while the Kolyma River paleovalley pathway relates to a higher share of pyroxenes and epidote. The mineralogical signature in the DLT diamicts, consisting predominantly of amphiboles and pyroxenes with a minor content of garnet and epidote, shows clear delivery from the eastern part of the ESIS. Although the physical properties of the DLT glacial diamict closely resemble a pervasive diamict unit recovered from the southern LR, their source material is slightly different. The assemblages with elevated amphibole and garnet content, along with higher titanite and ilmenite content of the southern LR ice-rafted diamict, emphasise the Verkhoyansk fold belt as a possible primary source. The presence of glacial sediments and the recovered glacial–tectonic features on the East Siberian continental shelf and slope, along with the results from this heavy mineral analysis, imply that glacial ice not only grew out of the East Siberian shelf but also from the De Long Islands, and that there was also ice rafting related sediment transportation to the southern LR from westerly sources, such as the Laptev Sea.

  • 27. Alexanderson, Helena
    et al.
    Backman, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Cronin, Thomas M.
    Funder, Svend
    Ingólfsson, Ólafur
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Landvik, Jon Y.
    Löwemark, Ludvig
    Mangerud, Jan
    März, Christian
    Möller, Per
    O'Regan, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Spielhagen, Robert F.
    An Arctic perspective on dating Mid-Late Pleistocene environmental history2014Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 92, s. 9-31Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand Pleistocene climatic changes in the Arctic, integrated palaeoenvironmental andpalaeoclimatic signals from a variety of marine and terrestrial geological records as well as geochronologicage control are required, not least for correlation to extra-Arctic records. In this paper we discuss,from an Arctic perspective, methods and correlation tools that are commonly used to date ArcticPleistocene marine and terrestrial events. We review the state of the art of Arctic geochronology, withfocus on factors that affect the possibility and quality of dating, and support this overview by examples ofapplication of modern dating methods to Arctic terrestrial and marine sequences.Event stratigraphy and numerical ages are important tools used in the Arctic to correlate fragmentedterrestrial records and to establish regional stratigraphic schemes. Age control is commonly provided byradiocarbon, luminescence or cosmogenic exposure ages. Arctic Ocean deep-sea sediment successionscan be correlated over large distances based on geochemical and physical property proxies for sedimentcomposition, patterns in palaeomagnetic records and, increasingly, biostratigraphic data. Many of theseproxies reveal cyclical patterns that provide a basis for astronomical tuning.Recent advances in dating technology, calibration and age modelling allow for measuring smallerquantities of material and to more precisely date previously undatable material (i.e. foraminifera for 14C,and single-grain luminescence). However, for much of the Pleistocene there are still limits to the resolutionof most dating methods. Consequently improving the accuracy and precision (analytical andgeological uncertainty) of dating methods through technological advances and better understanding ofprocesses are important tasks for the future. Another challenge is to better integrate marine andterrestrial records, which could be aided by targeting continental shelf and lake records, exploringproxies that occur in both settings, and by creating joint research networks that promote collaborationbetween marine and terrestrial geologists and modellers.

  • 28. Alfieri, James M.
    et al.
    Johnson, Taryn
    Linderholm, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Blackmon, Heath
    Athrey, Giridhar N.
    Genomic investigation refutes record of most diverged avian hybrid2023Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id e9689Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most diverged avian hybrid that has been documented (Numida meleagris × Penelope superciliaris) was reported in 1957. This identification has yet to be confirmed, and like most contemporary studies of hybridization, the identification was based on phenotype, which can be misleading. In this study, we sequenced the specimen in question and performed analyses to validate the specimen's parentage. We extracted DNA from the specimen in a dedicated ancient DNA facility and performed whole-genome short-read sequencing. We used BLAST to find Galliformes sequences similar to the hybrid specimen reads. We found that the proportion of BLAST hits mapped overwhelmingly to two species, N. meleagris and Gallus gallus. Additionally, we constructed phylogenies using avian orthologs and parsed the species placed as sister to the hybrid. Again, the hybrid specimen was placed as a sister to N. meleagris and G. gallus. Despite not being a hybrid between N. meleagris and P. superciliaris, the hybrid still represents the most diverged avian hybrid confirmed with genetic data. In addition to correcting the “record” of the most diverged avian hybrid, these findings support recent assertions that morphological and behavioral-based identifications of avian hybrids can be error-prone. Consequently, this study serves as a cautionary tale to researchers of hybridization. 

  • 29. Ali, Rabea A. M.
    et al.
    Maurice, Ayman E.
    Pitcairn, Lain K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Ahmed, Ahmed H.
    Azer, Mokhles K.
    Boskabadi, Arman
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. University of Texas at Dallas, USA.
    Bakhit, Bottros R.
    Shahien, Mohamed G.
    Neoproterozoic and Cretaceous mantle oxidation states: Controls Chock for and heterogeneity through time2020Inngår i: Lithos, ISSN 0024-4937, E-ISSN 1872-6143, Vol. 356, artikkel-id 105375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate the oxygen fugacity (fO(2)) of the Neoproterozoic and Cretaceous suprasubduction zone mantle, and to evaluate the possible secular changes in the upper mantle oxidation state, the compositions of spinel, olivine and orthopyroxene of Neoproterozoic (Egypt and Saudi Arabia) and late Cretaceous (Iran) mantle rocks were determined. For accurate estimation fO(2), spinel ferric iron was calculated after correcting the electron microprobe data using a set of spine! standards for which the ferric iron content was measured by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The Neoproterozoic samples record strongly heterogenous fO(2) values ranging from moderately oxidized (FMQ +0.54) to ultra-reduced (FMQ-4.73) for harzburgites, from highly oxidized (FMQ+1.49) to moderately reduced (FMQ-0.60) for dunites as well as one highly reduced (FMQ-1.61) value for chromitite. Such heterogeneity is not apparent in the late Cretaceous harzburgites that record fO(2) values ranging from slightly oxidized (FMQ +0.45) to moderately reduced (FMQ -0.85). The fO(2) of the Neoproterozoic forearc mantle is most easily explained by melt-mantle interaction and deep-mantle recycling, while that of the late Cretaceous forearc mantle can be attributed to variable degrees of melt-mantle interaction. The estimated fO(2 )values of Neoproterozoic/Cretaceous mantle unaffected by melt-rock interaction and deep-mantle recycling, and published values of Precambrian and Modern mantle suggest a consistent upper mantle oxidation state from Proterozoic to present day.

  • 30. Ali, Rabea A. M.
    et al.
    Pitcairn, Iain K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Maurice, Ayman E.
    Azer, Mokhles K.
    Bakhit, Bottros R.
    Shahien, Mohamed G.
    Petrology and geochemistry of ophiolitic ultramafic rocks and chromitites across the Eastern Desert of Egypt: Insights into the composition and nature of a Neoproterozoic mantle and implication for the evolution of SSZ system2020Inngår i: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 337, artikkel-id 105565Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large outcrops of ultramafic rocks are common in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt and represent residual mantle sections and cumulates of dismembered Neoproterozoic oceanic lithosphere. This study integrates field observations, petrography, geochemistry and mineral chemistry to investigate ultramafic rocks of the dismembered ophiolitic rocks at four areas distributed from east to west across the CED, with the aim of gaining a better understanding the tectonic settings and mantle conditions under which the ultramafic rocks formed. The ultramafic masses studied are composed of serpentinized peridotites, serpentinites and pyroxenites, and occasionally host podiform chromitites. Preserved textures, relict primary minerals and whole-rock compositions indicate that the protoliths of these ultramafic rocks were dominated by harzburgites. The Al2O3- and CaO-depleted nature of residual harzburgites, the high Fo and NiO contents of primary olivines and the high Cr# and low TiO2 contents of fresh Cr-spinels suggest that these ultramafic rocks are remnants of depleted to highly depleted forearc mantle of suprasubduction zone (SSZ) system. Temperatures from olivine-spinet geothermometry (668-778 degrees C) and Al-in-orthopyroxene geothermometry (984 degrees C) estimated for residual harzburgites are comparable to those reported for modern forearc mantle peridotites. The range of oxygen fugacity [Delta logfO(2) (FMQ)] values (-3.01 to +0.32) calculated for the residual harzburgites reveals heterogeneity in the Neoproterozoic mantle oxidation state and suggests that SSZ mantle was not consistently more oxidized than MOR mantle. The podiform chromitites of different ultramafic masses were formed following the interaction of residual mantle peridotites with forearc basaltic and boninitic melts, implying the evolution of Neoproterozoic SSZ system from subduction initiation to more mature island arc stage. Integration of the analyses carried out in this study shows a Neoproterozoic SSZ system where slab-derived melts evolve in composition and oxidation state from early reduced forearc basalt in the east to more oxidised boninitic melts in the west.

  • 31. Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Skogby, Henrik
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Metal Exchangeability in the REE-Enriched Biogenic Mn Oxide Birnessite from Ytterby, Sweden2023Inngår i: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikkel-id 1023Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A black substance exuding from fractures was observed in 2012 in Ytterby mine, Sweden, and identified in 2017 as birnessite with the composition Mx[Mn(III,IV)]2O4∙(H2O)n. M is usually calcium and sodium, with x around 0.5. The Ytterby birnessite is unique, with M being calcium, magnesium, and also rare earth elements (REEs) constituting up to 2% of the total metal content. The biogenic origin of the birnessite was established in 2018. Analysis of the microbial processes leading to the birnessite formation and the REE enrichment has continued since then. The process is fast and dynamic, as indicated by the depletion of manganese and of REE and other metals in the fracture water during the passage over the precipitation zone in the mine tunnel. Studies of the exchangeability of metals in the structure are the main objective of the present program. Exposure to solutions of sodium, calcium, lanthanum, and iron led to exchanges and altered distribution of the metals in the birnessite, however, generating phases with almost identical structures after the exchanges, and no new mineral phases were detected. Exchangeability was more efficient for trivalent elements (REE) over divalent (calcium) and monovalent (sodium) elements of a similar size (ionic radii 90–100 pm).

  • 32. Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Skogby, Henrik
    Karlsson, Stefan
    On the formation and metal exchangeability of the rare earth element enriched birnessite from the Ytterby mine, SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A porous black substance exuding from fractures in an underground tunnel leading to the shaft of the Ytterby mine, Sweden, was observed in 2012 and characterized as a secondary manganese (Mn) oxide in 2015. The oxide was identified in 2017 as a birnessite variety, Mx[Mn(III,IV)]2O4∙(H2O)n  where M usually is Ca, Na and x is around 0.5, but the Ytterby birnessite appears to be unique with M being Ca, Mg but also yttrium and rare earth elements (YREE), constituting up to 2% of the metal content. The biogenic origin of the Ytterby birnessite was established in 2018. Studies of the formation of this unique birnessite phase has progressed during 2018-19 with detailed studies of the hydrochemistry of the fracture water as well of the exchangeability of the metals M in the structure: Na, Ca, Fe and La representing the YREE. Exposure to solutions of  Na, Ca, Fe, and La, respectively (1 M) led to exchanges and altered distribution of the metals constituting M, with a preference of YREE (trivalent) over Ca (divalent) over Na (monovalent), all of similar ionic radii, as well as higher affinity for YREE over Fe(III), being smaller. Fe(III) did not replace Mn(III) in the structure, despite the fact that their radii are almost identical. No discrete new Fe phase was indicated, and the structure of the birnessite phase was almost identical after exchanges of M, as indicated from XRD. The formation of birnessite in the fracture opening on the tunnel wall appears to be a fast and dynamic process, as indicated by a significant depletion of Mn as well as of YREE in the fracture water during the passage over the precipitation zone, from top to bottom.

  • 33.
    Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Rahm, Lars
    Polehne, Falk
    Tracing terrestrial organic matter by delta34S and delta13C signatures in a subarctic estuary2008Inngår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 53, nr 6, s. 2594-2602Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue to understanding the transformations of terrestrial organic carbon in the ocean is to disentangle the latter from marine-produced organic matter. We applied a multiple stable isotope approach using 34S and 13C isotope signatures from estuarine dissolved organic matter (DOM), enabling us to constrain the contribution of terrestrial-derived DOM in an estuarine gradient of the northern Baltic Sea. The stable isotope signatures for dissolved organic sulfur (34SDOS) have twice the range between terrestrial and marine end members compared to the stable isotope signatures for dissolved organic carbon (13CDOC); hence, the share of terrestrial DOM in the total estuarine DOM can be calculated more precisely. DOM samples from the water column were collected using ultrafiltration on board the German RV Maria S Merian during a winter cruise, in the Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea, and Baltic proper. We calculated the terrestrial fraction of the estuarine DOC (DOCter) from both 13CDOC and 34SDOS signatures and applying fixed C: S ratios for riverine and marine end members to convert S isotope signatures into DOC concentrations. The 34SDOS signature of the riverine end member was +7.02‰, and the mean signatures from Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea, and Baltic proper were +10.27, +12.51, and +13.67‰, respectively, showing an increasing marine signal southwards (34SDOS marine end member 5 18.1‰). These signatures indicate that 87‰, 75‰, and 67‰, respectively, of the water column DOC is of terrestrial origin (DOCter) in these basins. Comparing the fractions of DOCter in each basin—that are still based on few winter values only—with the annual river input of DOC, it appears that the turnover time for DOCter in the Gulf of Bothnia is much shorter than the hydraulic turnover time, suggesting that high-latitude estuaries might be efficient sinks for DOCter.

  • 34.
    Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Porcelli, D.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Anderson, L. G.
    Sanchez-Garcia, L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Andersson, P. S.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Degradation of terrestrial organic carbon, primary production and out-gassing of CO2 in the Laptev and East Siberian Seas as inferred from delta C-13 values of DIC2012Inngår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 95, s. 143-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The cycling of carbon on the Arctic shelves, including outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere, is not clearly understood. Degradation of terrestrial organic carbon (OCter) has recently been shown to be pronounced over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), i.e. the Laptev and East Siberian Seas, producing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). To further explore the processes affecting DIC, an extensive suite of shelf water samples were collected during the summer of 2008, and assessed for the stable carbon isotopic composition of DIC (delta C-13(DIC)). The delta C-13(DIC) values varied between -7.2 parts per thousand to +1.6 parts per thousand and strongly deviated from the compositions expected from only mixing between river water and seawater. Model calculations suggest that the major processes causing these deviations from conservative mixing were addition of (DIC) by degradation of OCter, removal of DIC during primary production, and outgassing of CO2. All waters below the halocline in the ESAS had delta C-13(DIC) values that appear to reflect mixing of river water and seawater combined with additions of on average 70 +/- 20 mu M of DIC, originating from degradation of OCter in the coastal water column. This is of the same magnitude as the recently reported deficits of DOCter and POCter for the same waters. The surface waters in the East Siberian Sea had higher delta C-13(DIC) values and lower DIC concentrations than expected from conservative mixing, consistent with additions of DIC from degradation of OCter and outgassing of CO2. The outgassing of CO2 was equal to loss of 123 +/- 50 mu M DIC. Depleted delta C-13(POC) values of -29 parts per thousand to -32 parts per thousand in the mid to outer shelf regions are consistent with POC from phytoplankton production. The low delta C-13(POC) values are likely due to low delta C-13(DIC) of precursor DIC, which is due to degradation of OCter, rather than reflecting terrestrial input compositions. Overall, the delta C-13(DIC) values confirm recent suggestions of substantial degradation of OCter over the ESAS, and further show that a large part of the CO2 produced from degradation has been outgassed to the atmosphere.

  • 35.
    Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sanchez-Garcia, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Porcelli, Don
    Pugach, Sveta
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    van Dongen, Bart
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Per
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Non-conservative behavior of dissolved organic carbon across the Laptev and East Siberian Seas2010Inngår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 24, s. GB4033-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have a strong effect on the Eastern Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) region, which includes 40% of the Arctic shelves and comprises the Laptev and East Siberian seas. The largest organic carbon pool, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), may change significantly due to changes in both riverine inputs and transformation rates; however, the present DOC inventories and transformation patterns are poorly understood. Using samples from the International Siberian Shelf Study 2008, this study examines for the first time DOC removal in Arctic shelf waters with residence times that range from months to years. Removals of up to 10%–20% were found in the Lena River estuary, consistent with earlier studies in this area, where surface waters were shown to have a residence time of approximately 2 months. In contrast, the DOC concentrations showed a strong nonconservative pattern in areas with freshwater residence times of several years. The average losses of DOC were estimated to be 30%–50% during mixing along the shelf, corresponding to a first-order removal rate constant of 0.3 yr−1. These data provide the first observational evidence for losses of DOC in the Arctic shelf seas, and the calculated DOC deficit reflects DOC losses that are higher than recent model estimates for the region. Overall, a large proportion of riverine DOC is removed from the surface waters across the Arctic shelves. Such significant losses must be included in models of the carbon cycle for the Arctic Ocean, especially since the breakdown of terrestrial DOC to CO2 in Arctic shelf seas may constitute a positive feedback mechanism for Arctic climate warming. These data also provide a baseline for considering the effects of future changes in carbon fluxes, as the vast northern carbon-rich permafrost areas draining into the Arctic are affected by global warming.

  • 36. Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.
    et al.
    Bender, Hagen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Bergman, Amanda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Ramböll Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Ring, Uwe
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Magnetic properties of pseudotachylytes from western Jämtland, central Swedish Caledonides2020Inngår i: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 807-828Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault kinematics can provide information on the relationship and assembly of tectonic units in an orogen. Magnetic fabric studies of faults where pseudotachylytes form have recently been used to determine direction and sense of seismic slip in prehistoric earthquakes. Here we apply this methodology to study magnetic fabrics of pseudotachylytes in field structures of the Koli Nappe Complex (central Swedish Caledonides), with the aim to determine fault kinematics and decipher the role of seismic faulting in the assembly of the Caledonian nappe pile. Because the pseudotachylyte veins are thin, we focused on small (ca. 0.2 to 0.03 cm(3)) samples for measuring the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. The small sample size challenges conventional use of magnetic anisotropy and results acquired from such small specimens demand cautious interpretation. Importantly, we find that magnetic fabric results show inverse proportionality among specimen size, degree of magnetic anisotropy and mean magnetic susceptibility, which is most likely an analytical artifact related to instrument sensitivity and small sample dimensions. In general, however, it is shown that the principal axes of magnetic susceptibility correspond to the orientation of foliation and lineation, where the maximum susceptibility (k(1)) is parallel to the mineral lineation, and the minimum susceptibility (k(3)) is dominantly oriented normal to schistosity. Furthermore, the studied pseudotachylytes develop distinct magnetic properties. Pristine pseudotachylytes preserve a signal of ferrimagnetic magnetite that likely formed during faulting. In contrast, portions of the pseudotachylytes have altered, with a tendency of magnetite to break down to form chlorite. Despite magnetite breakdown, the altered pseudotachylyte mean magnetic susceptibility is nearly twice that of altered pseudotachylyte, likely originating from the Fe-rich chlorite, as implied by temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements and thin-section observations. Analysis of structural and magnetic fabric data indicates that seismic faulting occurred during exhumation into the upper crust, but these data yield no kinematic information on the direction and sense of seismic slip. Additionally, the combined structural field and magnetic fabric data suggest that seismic faulting was postdated by brittle E-W extensional deformation along steep normal faults. Although the objective of finding kinematic indicators for the faulting was not fully achieved, we believe that the results from this study may help guide future studies of magnetic anisotropy with small specimens (< 1 cm(3)), as well as in the interpretation of magnetic properties of pseudotachylytes.

  • 37.
    Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Bigler, Christian
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Lotter, André F.
    Institute of Environmental Biology, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University.
    Veres, Daniel
    “Emil Racovita” Speleological Institute, Clinicilor 5, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Modest summer temperature variability during DO cycles in western Europe2010Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 29, nr 11-12, s. 1322-1327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abrupt climatic shifts between cold stadials and warm interstadials, termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles, occurred frequently during the Last Glacial. Their imprint is registered in paleorecords worldwide, but little is known about the actual temperature change both annually and seasonally in different regions. A recent hypothesis based on modelling studies, suggests that DO cycles were characterised by distinct changes in seasonality in the Northern Hemisphere. The largest temperature change between stadial and interstadial phases would have occurred during the winter and spring seasons, whereas the summer seasons would have experienced a rather muted temperature shift. Here we present a temporally high-resolved reconstruction of summer temperatures for eastern France during a sequence of DO cycles between 36 and 18 thousand years before present. The reconstruction is based on fossil diatom assemblages from the paleolake Les Echets and indicates summer temperature changes of ca 0.5–2 °C between stadials and interstadials. This study is the first to reconstruct temperatures with a sufficient time resolution to investigate DO climate variability in continental Europe. It is therefore also the first proxy record that can test and support the hypothesis that temperature changes during DO cycles were modest during the summer season.

  • 38.
    Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Jakobsson, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Identifying changes in Arctic Ocean sea ice conditions north of Greenland during the Holocene2012Inngår i: APEX Sixth International Conference and Workshop: Quaternary Glacial and Climate Extremes / [ed] Ninna Immonen, Martin Jakobsson, Juha Pekka Lunkka, Kari Strand, Oulu: Oulun yliopisto , 2012, s. 32-32Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Kylander, Malin E.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Steinthorsdottir, Margret
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Abrupt climate change and early lake development - the Lateglacial diatom flora at Hasseldala Port, southeastern Sweden2015Inngår i: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 94-102Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fossil diatom record from the Hasseldala Port palaeolake, southeastern Sweden, offers an excellent opportunity to investigate how past climatic shifts influenced catchment conditions and early lake development. The record, dating to between 13900 and 11200 cal. a BP, covers a climatically dynamic period, starting with deglaciation followed by oscillations between warmer and colder climate states. The stratigraphical changes in the fossil diatom assemblages show a trend of less open-water taxa and a successively more complex periphytic community as the lake shallows and the aquatic habitat structure develops. A diatom-based reconstruction of lake water pH indicates a natural acidification trend early in the record from 13900 to 12500 cal. a BP. From 12500 cal. a BP, coincident with the start of climate cooling, to 11300 cal. a BP this trend is disrupted and lake waters become more alkaline. A cooler and drier climate most likely resulted in reduced soil organic matter build-up as well as more frozen ground that impeded hydrological flow and decreased the input of dissolved organic matter and organic acids into the lake system. This study demonstrates the importance of the hydrological system as a link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during early lake ontogeny.

  • 40.
    Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Veres, Daniel
    Paleolimnological response to millennial and centennial scale climate variability during MIS 3 and 2 as suggested by the diatom record in Les Echets, France2008Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, Vol. 27, nr 15-16, s. 1493-1504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A 27 m long sediment sequence retrieved from the central part of the Les Echets basin in France has been analysed in sub-centennial resolution for biogenic silica and fossil diatom remains. The sequence corresponds to the later part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 and to most of MIS 2. Distinct changes in diatom productivity, diversity and taxonomic composition between 36.2 and 31.7 kyr BP appear to relate to Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) climate variability. Intervals characterized by low diversity, productivity and small-sized benthic diatom taxa are most likely a response to colder conditions in relation to DO stadials. In contrast, higher diversity, productivity and a high abundance of planktonic taxa indicate a response to warmer temperatures during DO interstadials. The time interval between 30.3 and 15.7 kyr BP is characterized by continuous low diatom productivity and a benthic dominated community with intermediate species richness, suggesting a transition to more stable conditions. Three time intervals with extremely low concentrations of diatom valves (46.1–36.2, 31.7–30.3 and 26.3–23.6 kyr BP) overlap with ages reported for Heinrich (H) events 4, 3, and 2. We speculate that the lake at Les Echets suffered from severe ecological stress as a response to H events. This is the first detailed study exemplifying the response of a lake, based on diatoms, to climate variability during late part of MIS 3 and most of MIS 2 in Europe.

  • 41.
    Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Veres, Daniel
    Leng, Melanie
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    Diatom assemblage dynamics during abrupt climate change: The response oflacustrine diatoms to Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles during the last glacialperiod2010Inngår i: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 397-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sedimentary record from the paleolake at Les Echets in eastern France allowed a reconstruction of the lacustrine response to several abrupt climate shifts during the last glacial period referred to as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles. The high-resolution diatom stratigraphy has revealed distinct species turnover events and large fluctuations in stable oxygen isotope values in diatom frustules, as a response to DO climate variability. More or less identical species compositions became re-established during each DO stadial and interstadial phases, respectively. However, the relative abundance of the most dominant species within these assemblages varies and might indicate differences in climatic conditions. Interstadial phases are characterized by identical species successions. Transitions from stadial to interstadial conditions show a distinct Fragilaria-Cyclotella succession, which resembles the diatom regime shifts that have been recognized in some lakes in the Northern Hemisphere since the mid-nineteenth century.

  • 42. An, Lu
    et al.
    Rignot, Eric
    Chauche, Nolwenn
    Holland, David M.
    Holland, Denise
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Kane, Emily
    Wood, Michael
    Klaucke, Ingo
    Morlighem, Mathieu
    Velicogna, Isabella
    Weinrebe, Wilhelm
    Willis, Josh K.
    Bathymetry of Southeast Greenland From Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) Data2019Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 46, nr 11, s. 197-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Southeast Greenland has been a major participant in the ice sheet mass loss over the last several decades. Interpreting the evolution of glacier fronts requires information about their depth below sea level and ocean thermal forcing, which are incompletely known in the region. Here, we combine airborne gravity and multibeam echo sounding data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) mission with ocean probe and fishing boat depth data to reconstruct the bathymetry extending from the glacier margins to the edges of the continental shelf. We perform a three-dimensional inversion of the gravity data over water and merge the solution with a mass conservation reconstruction of bed topography over land. In contrast with other parts of Greenland, we find few deep troughs connecting the glaciers to the sources of warm Atlantic Water, amidst a relatively uniform, shallow (350 m) continental shelf. The deep channels include the Kangerlugssuaq, Sermilik, Gyldenlove, and Tingmiarmiut Troughs.

  • 43. Andersen, J. L.
    et al.
    Egholm, D. L.
    Knudsen, M. F.
    Linge, H.
    Jansen, J. D.
    Goodfellow, Bradley W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Pedersen, V. K.
    Tikhomirov, D.
    Olsen, J.
    Fredin, O.
    Pleistocene Evolution of a Scandinavian Plateau Landscape2018Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, ISSN 2169-9003, E-ISSN 2169-9011, Vol. 123, nr 12, s. 3370-3387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The origins and Pleistocene evolution of plateau landscapes along passive continental margins of the North Atlantic have been debated for more than a century. A key question in this debate concerns whether glacial and periglacial surface processes have substantially eroded plateau areas during late Cenozoic climatic cooling or whether the plateaus have mainly been protected from erosion by cold-based and largely nonerosive ice sheets. Here we investigate the Pleistocene evolution of a prominent plateau landscape in Reinheimen National Park, southern Norway. We estimate erosion rates across the plateau via inverse modeling of 141 new cosmogenic Be-10 and Al-26 measurements in regolith profiles and bedrock. We combine these results with sedimentological analyses of the regolith. In the vicinity of Reinheimen's regolith-covered summits, the combination of uniformly slow erosion (<10m/Myr) and near-parabolic slope geometry suggests long-term equilibrium with the presently active periglacial mass-wasting processes. Outside summit areas, erosion is faster (up to >50m/Myr), possibly due to episodic glacial erosion. Despite some indications of chemical alteration, such as grusic saprolite and small amounts of secondary minerals, the fine regolith comprises low clay/silt ratios and is dominated by primary minerals with no sign of dissolution. Together with our modeled erosion rates, this indicates that the regolith cover formed, and continues to develop, during the cold climate of the Late Pleistocene. Plain Language Summary Plateaus dissected by steep-sided valleys and fjords are common landscape elements within the mountains bordering the North Atlantic. Most of these plateaus have likely experienced millions of years of near-freezing temperatures and were repeatedly covered by ice sheets during recent glacial periods. Yet the imprint of cold-climate erosion processes on the plateau landscape evolution remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the Pleistocene evolution of an extensive Scandinavian plateau landscape in Reinheimen National Park, southern Norway. We measure cosmogenic nuclides within the surficial layers of rock and sediment on the plateau. The concentration of these cosmogenic nuclides reflects the erosion of the plateau landscape and thereby the impact of recent cold-climate surface processes. We find that erosion has influenced the plateaus within the latest glacial cycles. In the vicinity of the highest, sediment-clad summits, the plateau shape is determined by processes related to freezing and thawing of rocks and sediment, while the influence of erosion by glaciers and streams increases further downslope.

  • 44. Anderson, John B.
    et al.
    Conway, Howard
    Bart, Philip J.
    Witus, Alexandra E.
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    McKay, Robert M.
    Hall, Brenda L.
    Ackert, Robert P.
    Licht, Kathy
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Stone, John O.
    Ross Sea paleo-ice sheet drainage and deglacial history during and since the LGM2014Inngår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 100, s. 31-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Onshore and offshore studies show that an expanded, grounded ice sheet occupied the Ross Sea Embayment during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Results from studies of till provenance and the orientation of geomorphic features on the continental shelf show that more than half of the grounded ice sheet consisted of East Antarctic ice flowing through Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) outlet glaciers; the remainder came from West Antarctica. Terrestrial data indicate little or no thickening in the upper catchment regions in both West and East Antarctica during the LGM. In contrast, evidence from the mouths of the southern and central TAM outlet glaciers indicate surface elevations between 1000 m and 1100 m (above present-day sea level). Farther north along the western margin of the Ross Ice Sheet, surface elevations reached 720 m on Ross Island, and 400 m at Terra Nova Bay. Evidence from Marie Byrd Land at the eastern margin of the ice sheet indicates that the elevation near the present-day grounding line was more than 800 m asl, while at Siple Dome in the central Ross Embayment, the surface elevation was about 950 m asl. Farther north, evidence that the ice sheet was grounded on the middle and the outer continental shelf during the LGM implies that surface elevations had to be at least 100 m above the LGM sea level. The apparent low surface profile and implied low basal shear stress in the central and eastern embayment suggests that although the ice streams may have slowed during the LGM, they remained active. Ice-sheet retreat from the western Ross Embayment during the Holocene is constrained by marine and terrestrial data. Ages from marine sediments suggest that the grounding line had retreated from its LGM outer shelf location only a few tens of kilometer to a location south of Coulman Island by similar to 13 ka BP. The ice sheet margin was located in the vicinity of the Drygalski Ice Tongue by similar to 11 ka BP, just north of Ross Island by similar to 7.8 ka BP, and near Hatherton Glacier by similar to 6.8 ka BP. Farther south, Be-10 exposure ages from glacial erratics on nunataks near the mouths of Reedy, Scott and Beardmore Glaciers indicate thinning during the mid to late Holocene, but the grounding line did not reach its present position until 2 to 3 ka BP. Marine dates, which are almost exclusively Acid Insoluble Organic (AIO) dates, are consistently older than those derived from terrestrial data. However, even these ages indicate that the ice sheet experienced significant retreat after similar to 13 ka BP. Geomorphic features indicate that during the final stages of ice sheet retreat ice flowing through the TAM remained grounded on the shallow western margin of Ross Sea. The timing of retreat from the central Ross Sea remains unresolved; the simplest reconstruction is to assume that the grounding line here started to retreat from the continental shelf more or less in step with the retreat from the western and eastern sectors. An alternative hypothesis, which relies on the validity of radiocarbon ages from marine sediments, is that grounded ice had retreated from the outer continental shelf prior to the LGM. More reliable ages from marine sediments in the central Ross Embayment are needed to test and validate this hypothesis.

  • 45.
    Anderson, John B.
    et al.
    Rice University.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Nitsche, Frank Oliver
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University.
    Geomorphic expression of collapsing ice streams revealed by latest generation swath bathymetry images2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is now a substantial swath bathymetry data set from Antarctica that reveals subglacial bedforms, in particular mega-scale glacial lineations, which were formed by ice streams that occupied glacial troughs during the LGM. However, with the exception of grounding zone wedges, few studies have yielded high-resolution sea floor images that show geomorphic features formed by retreating ice streams. For example, deep-tow side-scan sonar records from Ross Sea show a range of recessional features, mostly 1-3 meters high, that overprint mega-scale glacial lineations. These features were not imaged in swath bathymetry records. During the 2010 austral summer, the Swedish ice breaker Oden was used to conduct an extensive survey in the sparsely studied central trough in Pine Island Bay using the latest generation multibeam technology. The bedforms imaged in Pine Island Bay are similar to small-scale recessional features previously imaged in Ross Sea using deep-tow side-scan sonar. These include fishbone moraines and corrugated iceberg furrows, which we argue were produced daily through tidally-influenced motion of a disintegrating ice shelf. During this event a 65 km long stretch of the trough was cleared of floating ice in about 1.5 years. The break-up occurred ~12,000 cal ka BP and was likely a response to rapid sea-level rise at that time. Acquisition of more high-resolution swath bathymetry data should greatly increase our understanding of ice stream interaction with the seafloor and those factors that have influenced ice stream behavior during retreat. Future work should focus on the rugged inner shelf, were subglacial meltwater is believed to have contributed to ice stream instability.

  • 46.
    Anderson, John
    et al.
    Rice University.
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Oden Southern Ocean 0910: Cruise Report2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 47. Anderson, Leif G.
    et al.
    Björk, Göran
    Holby, Ola
    Jutterström, Sara
    Mörth, Carl Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    O'Regan, Matt
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Pearce, Christof
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Stranne, Christian
    Stöven, Tim
    Tanhua, Toste
    Ulfsbo, Adam
    Jakobsson, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Shelf-Basin interaction along the East Siberian Sea2017Inngår i: Ocean Science, ISSN 1812-0784, E-ISSN 1812-0792, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 349-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter takes place in the shallow continental shelf seas of Siberia. This, in combination with brine production from sea-ice formation, results in cold bottom waters with relatively high salinity and nutrient concentrations, as well as low oxygen and pH levels. Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition with icebreaker Oden, from July to September 2014, show the distribution of such nutrient-rich, cold bottom waters along the continental margin from about 140 to 180 degrees E. The water with maximum nutrient concentration, classically named the upper halocline, is absent over the Lomonosov Ridge at 140 degrees E, while it appears in the Makarov Basin at 150 degrees E and intensifies further eastwards. At the intercept between the Mendeleev Ridge and the East Siberian continental shelf slope, the nutrient maximum is still intense, but distributed across a larger depth interval. The nutrient-rich water is found here at salinities of up to similar to 34.5, i.e. in the water classically named lower halocline. East of 170 degrees E transient tracers show significantly less ventilated waters below about 150 m water depth. This likely results from a local isolation of waters over the Chukchi Abyssal Plain as the boundary current from the west is steered away from this area by the bathymetry of the Mendeleev Ridge. The water with salinities of similar to 34.5 has high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations as well as low pH, typically indicating decay of organic matter. A deficit in nitrate relative to phosphate suggests that this process partly occurs under hypoxia. We conclude that the high nutrient water with salinity similar to 34.5 are formed on the shelf slope in the Mendeleev Ridge region from interior basin water that is trapped for enough time to attain its signature through interaction with the sediment.

  • 48. Anderson, Lloyd B.
    et al.
    Hönisch, Bärbel
    Coxall, Helen K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Bolincentret för klimatforskning (tills m KTH & SMHI).
    Bolge, Louise
    Atmospheric CO2 Estimates for the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene Using Multi-Species Cross-Calibrations of Boron Isotopes2024Inngår i: Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, ISSN 2572-4517, E-ISSN 2572-4525, Vol. 39, nr 1, artikkel-id e2022PA004569Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The boron isotope (δ11B) proxy for seawater pH is a tried and tested means to reconstruct atmospheric CO2 in the geologic past, but uncertainty remains over how to treat species-specific calibrations that link foraminiferal δ11B to pH estimates prior to 22 My. In addition, no δ11B-based reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 exist for wide swaths of the Oligocene (33–23 Ma), and large variability in CO2 reconstructions during this epoch based on other proxy evidence leaves climate evolution during this period relatively unconstrained. To add to our understanding of Oligocene and early Miocene climate, we generated new atmospheric CO2 estimates from new δ11B data from fossil shells of surface-dwelling planktic foraminifera from the mid-Oligocene to early Miocene (∼28–18 Ma). We estimate atmospheric CO2 of ∼680 ppm for the mid-Oligocene, which then evolves to fluctuate between ∼500–570 ppm during the late Oligocene and between ∼420–700 ppm in the early Miocene. These estimates tend to trend higher than Oligo-Miocene CO2 estimates from other proxies, although we observe good proxy agreement in the late Oligocene. Reconstructions of CO2 fall lower than estimates from paleoclimate model simulations in the early Miocene and mid Oligocene, which indicates that more proxy and/or model refinement is needed for these periods. Our species cross-calibrations, assessing δ11B, Mg/Ca, δ18O, and δ13C, are able to pinpoint and evaluate small differences in the geochemistry of surface-dwelling planktic foraminifera, lending confidence to paleoceanographers applying this approach even further back in time.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Rina A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Meyers, Philip A.
    Effect of climate change on delivery and degradation of lipid biomarkers in a Holocene peat sequence in the Eastern European Russian Arctic2012Inngår i: Organic Geochemistry, ISSN 0146-6380, E-ISSN 1873-5290, Vol. 53, s. 63-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipid biomarkers from a peat plateau profile from the Northeast European Russian Arctic were analyzed. The peat originated as a wet fen ca. 9 ka BP and developed into a peat bog after the onset of permafrost ca. 2.5 ka BP. The distributions and abundances of n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones and sterols were determined to study the effect of degradation on their paleoclimate proxy information. Plant macrofossil analysis was also used in combination with the lipid distributions. The n-alkanol and n-alkanoic acid distributions in the upper part of the sequence generally correspond to compositions expected from plant macrofossil assemblages. Their carbon preference index (CPI) values increase with depth and age, whereas those of the n-alkanes decrease. The different CPI patterns suggest that n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols deeper in the sequence may be produced during humification through alteration of other lipids. Excursions in the n-alkanoic acid content also suggest an important contribution of invasive roots to the lipid biomarker composition. The CPIs associated with these compounds show that under permafrost conditions organic material from Sphagnum is better preserved than material from vascular plants. Increasing stanol/stenol ratio values and decreasing n-alkane CPI values indicate progressive degradation of organicmatter (OM) with depth. The n-alkan-2-one/n-alkane and n-alkan-2-one/n-alkanoic acid ratioswere shown to be useful proxies that can reflect the degree of OM preservation and suggest that both microbial oxidation of n-alkanes and decarboxylation of n-alkanoic acids produce n-alkan-2-ones in this peat sequence.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Rina Argelia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Lipid biomarkers and other geochemical indicators in paleoenvironmental studies of two Arctic systems: a Russian permafrost peatland and marine sediments from the Lomonosov Ridge2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The reconstruction of past environmental conditions is a fascinating research area that attracts the interest of many individuals in various geological disciplines. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction studies can shed light on the understanding of past climates and are a key to the prediction of future climate changes and their consequences. These studies take on special significance when focused on areas sensitive to climate change. The Arctic region, which is experiencing dramatic changes today in its peatlands and in its ocean, is prime example. The entire region plays a major role in global climate changes and has recently received considerable interest because of the potential feedbacks to climate change and its importance in the global carbon cycle.

    For a better understanding of the role of Arctic peatlands and the Arctic Ocean to global climate changes, more records of past conditions and changes in the region are needed. This work applies different geochemical proxies, with special emphasis on lipid biomarkers, to the study of a permafrost peat deposit collected from the Eastern European Russian Arctic and a marine core retrieved from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean. The results reported of this study show that molecular stratigraphy obtained from the analysis of lipid biomarkers in both peat and marine profiles, combined with other environmental proxies, can contribute significantly to the study of Arctic ecosystems of the past.

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