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  • 1.
    Abdul Baten, Mohammed
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Property rights in mangroves: A case study of the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Mangroves represent an important source of livelihood for many poor people acrossthe world. However, insufficient policy responses relating to mangrove conservation,combined with the lack of clearly defined property rights contribute extensively to theconversion of mangroves to alternative uses, in particular shrimp aquaculture. On thebasis of relevant theoretical perspectives on property rights, this Master’s thesisanalyses various formal and informal institutions and existing governancemechanisms that determine natural resources management in the Mahakam delta, EastKalimantan, Indonesia. By employing a qualitative participatory research approachthe case study explores how different institutions in Indonesia shape the local propertyrights regime in mangroves. The results show that the interplay between formal andinformal institutions involved in defining property rights, along with the lack ofcoordination among responsible government agencies, has resulted in the clearing ofone of the largest Nypah forests in the world for shrimp pond construction withinthree decades. Moreover, the study suggests that the current problem of mangrovedestruction will not be solved merely by declaring the Mahakam delta as a protectedarea or by assigning full ownership rights to the local people. On the contrary, thestudy suggests that the coordination and enforcement mechanisms should be enhancedin such ways that they simultaneously address both local peoples’ needs as well asecosystem integrity.

  • 2. Acosta-Michlik, L.
    et al.
    Kumar, K.S.K.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Campe, S.
    Application of fuzzy models to assess susceptibility to droughts from a socio-economic perspective2008Inngår i: Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 151-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3. Adger, W. Neil
    et al.
    Brown, Katrina
    Nelson, Donald R.
    Berkes, Fikret
    Eakin, Hallie
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Galvin, Kathleen
    Gunderson, Lance
    Goulden, Marisa
    O'Brien, Karen
    Ruitenbeek, Jack
    Tompkins, Emma L.
    Resilience implications of policy responses to climate change2011Inngår i: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 2, nr 5, s. 757-766Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether some response strategies to climate variability and change have the potential to undermine long-term resilience of social-ecological systems. We define the parameters of a resilience approach, suggesting that resilience is characterized by the ability to absorb perturbations without changing overall system function, the ability to adapt within the resources of the system itself, and the ability to learn, innovate, and change. We evaluate nine current regional climate change policy responses and examine governance, sensitivity to feedbacks, and problem framing to evaluate impacts on characteristics of a resilient system. We find that some responses, such as the increase in harvest rates to deal with pine beetle infestations in Canada and expansion of biofuels globally, have the potential to undermine long-term resilience of resource systems. Other responses, such as decentralized water planning in Brazil and tropical storm disaster management in Caribbean islands, have the potential to increase long-term resilience. We argue that there are multiple sources of resilience in most systems and hence policy should identify such sources and strengthen capacities to adapt and learn.

  • 4.
    Ahammad, Ronju
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding institutional changes for reducing vulnerability to landslides in Chittagong City, Bangladesh2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 poäng / 60 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Ineffective hill management policy at the national level and weak enforcement by thelocal authorities has created space for developing many informal settlements alonglandslide prone hillslopes in Chittagong city, Bangladesh. These settlements areconsidered illegal by the formal authorities, the settlers perceive their presence inthose areas as legal occupants, which have caused land tenure conflicts with formalauthorities over the last decades. The continual land tenure conflict has weakenedinstitutional arrangement for reducing vulnerability to landslides in the informalsettlements. The thesis paper is prepared based on the findings of a case study on thelandslides which occurred in 2007 in Chittagong city. The fieldwork of the study wascarried out using qualitative tools such as individual interviewing of organisationalrespondents and a focus group interview in Matijarna informal settlement to examinewhat institutional changes have occurred for reducing social vulnerability of informalsettlers to landslides in Chittagong city. The study finds that the institutional changeshave occurred as short-term mitigation policies like establishing structural measuresalong hillslopes for adjustment and relocation of the most vulnerable informal settlers.Anchoring on institutional change theory, the study suggests that new policies mayreduce social vulnerability of informal settlers to landslides through addressing thefollowing issues. First, previous institutional arrangements and how those shapedpresent vulnerability of informal settlers to landslides must be understood. Second,land tenure security of the informal settlers must be well incorporated in currentmitigation policies. Third, organisational coordination should be strengthened fromnational to local level, as well as, between government agencies and otherorganisations like NGOs and civil society to facilitate policy implementation process.

  • 5. Ahlroth, S.
    et al.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Hochschorner, E.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 92, nr 2/3, s. 145-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6. Ahmed, N
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Allison, E.H.
    Muir, J.F.
    Prawn postlarvae fishing in coastal Bangladesh: Challenges for sustainable livelihoods2010Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 218-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fishing for prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) postlarvae is a major contributor to the livelihoods of the coastal poor in Bangladesh, including women. A study of coastal livelihoods along the lower Pasur River in southwest Bangladesh indicates that on average 40% of total annual income comes from postlarvae fishing during the few months involved. However, indiscriminate fishing of wild postlarvae, with high levels of by-catch, has an impact on biodiversity in coastal ecosystems. This has provoked imposition of restrictions on postlarvae collection. The ban has, however, not been firmly enforced because of the lack of alternative livelihoods for coastal poor. A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the sustainable livelihoods approach, is applied to understanding the role of prawn postlarvae fishing. Evidence from this study suggests that postlarvae fishers faced a number of livelihood constraints, including poor livelihood assets. This paper concludes that wider livelihood options need to be found for postlarvae fishers to support their livelihoods.

  • 7. Albihn, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, Y.
    Lindgren, E.
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Klimatförändringen: vad händer med djurhälsan?2008Inngår i: Svensk Veterinärtidning, nr 7, s. 11-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8. Alcamo, J.
    et al.
    Acosta-Michlik, L.
    Carius, A.
    Eierdanz, F.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Krömker, D.
    Tänzler, D.
    A new approach to quantifying and comparing vulnerability to drought2008Inngår i: Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 137-149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9. Alfsen, C.
    et al.
    Duval, A.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The urban landscape as a social-ecological system for governance of ecosystem services2011Inngår i: Urban Ecology: patterns, processes, and applications / [ed] Jari Niemelä, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 1, s. 213-218Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Porcelli, D.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Anderson, L. G.
    Sanchez-Garcia, L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Andersson, P. S.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Degradation of terrestrial organic carbon, primary production and out-gassing of CO2 in the Laptev and East Siberian Seas as inferred from delta C-13 values of DIC2012Inngår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 95, s. 143-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The cycling of carbon on the Arctic shelves, including outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere, is not clearly understood. Degradation of terrestrial organic carbon (OCter) has recently been shown to be pronounced over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), i.e. the Laptev and East Siberian Seas, producing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). To further explore the processes affecting DIC, an extensive suite of shelf water samples were collected during the summer of 2008, and assessed for the stable carbon isotopic composition of DIC (delta C-13(DIC)). The delta C-13(DIC) values varied between -7.2 parts per thousand to +1.6 parts per thousand and strongly deviated from the compositions expected from only mixing between river water and seawater. Model calculations suggest that the major processes causing these deviations from conservative mixing were addition of (DIC) by degradation of OCter, removal of DIC during primary production, and outgassing of CO2. All waters below the halocline in the ESAS had delta C-13(DIC) values that appear to reflect mixing of river water and seawater combined with additions of on average 70 +/- 20 mu M of DIC, originating from degradation of OCter in the coastal water column. This is of the same magnitude as the recently reported deficits of DOCter and POCter for the same waters. The surface waters in the East Siberian Sea had higher delta C-13(DIC) values and lower DIC concentrations than expected from conservative mixing, consistent with additions of DIC from degradation of OCter and outgassing of CO2. The outgassing of CO2 was equal to loss of 123 +/- 50 mu M DIC. Depleted delta C-13(POC) values of -29 parts per thousand to -32 parts per thousand in the mid to outer shelf regions are consistent with POC from phytoplankton production. The low delta C-13(POC) values are likely due to low delta C-13(DIC) of precursor DIC, which is due to degradation of OCter, rather than reflecting terrestrial input compositions. Overall, the delta C-13(DIC) values confirm recent suggestions of substantial degradation of OCter over the ESAS, and further show that a large part of the CO2 produced from degradation has been outgassed to the atmosphere.

  • 11.
    Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sanchez-Garcia, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Porcelli, Don
    Pugach, Sveta
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    van Dongen, Bart
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Anderson, Leif G.
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Andersson, Per
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Semiletov, Igor
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Non-conservative behavior of dissolved organic carbon across the Laptev and East Siberian Seas2010Inngår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 24, s. GB4033-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to have a strong effect on the Eastern Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) region, which includes 40% of the Arctic shelves and comprises the Laptev and East Siberian seas. The largest organic carbon pool, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), may change significantly due to changes in both riverine inputs and transformation rates; however, the present DOC inventories and transformation patterns are poorly understood. Using samples from the International Siberian Shelf Study 2008, this study examines for the first time DOC removal in Arctic shelf waters with residence times that range from months to years. Removals of up to 10%–20% were found in the Lena River estuary, consistent with earlier studies in this area, where surface waters were shown to have a residence time of approximately 2 months. In contrast, the DOC concentrations showed a strong nonconservative pattern in areas with freshwater residence times of several years. The average losses of DOC were estimated to be 30%–50% during mixing along the shelf, corresponding to a first-order removal rate constant of 0.3 yr−1. These data provide the first observational evidence for losses of DOC in the Arctic shelf seas, and the calculated DOC deficit reflects DOC losses that are higher than recent model estimates for the region. Overall, a large proportion of riverine DOC is removed from the surface waters across the Arctic shelves. Such significant losses must be included in models of the carbon cycle for the Arctic Ocean, especially since the breakdown of terrestrial DOC to CO2 in Arctic shelf seas may constitute a positive feedback mechanism for Arctic climate warming. These data also provide a baseline for considering the effects of future changes in carbon fluxes, as the vast northern carbon-rich permafrost areas draining into the Arctic are affected by global warming.

  • 12. Anderies, John M.
    et al.
    Norberg, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Theoretical challenges: Information processing and navigation in social-ecological systems.2008Inngår i: Complexity theory for a sustainable future, Columbia university press. NY , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13. Anderson, Pippin
    et al.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town: Insights Emerging from an Urban Ecology CityLab2012Inngår i: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 23-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Ahrné, Karin
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pyykönen, Markku
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Patterns and scale relations among urbanization measures in Stockholm, Sweden2009Inngår i: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 24, s. 1331-1339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we measure urbanization based on a diverse set of 21 variables ranging from landscape indices to demographic factors such as income and land ownership using data from Stockholm, Sweden. The primary aims were to test how the variables behaved in relation to each other and if these patterns were consistent across scales. The variables were mostly identified from the literature and limited to the kind of data that was readily accessible. We used GIS to sample the variables and then principal component analyses to search for patterns among them, repeating the sampling and analysis at four different scales (250 × 250, 750 × 750, 1,250 × 1,250 and 1,750 × 1,750, all in meters). At the smallest scale most variables seemed to be roughly structured along two axes, one with landscape indices and one mainly with demographic factors but also impervious surface and coniferous forest. The other land-cover types did not align very well with these two axes. When increasing the scale this pattern was not as obvious, instead the variables separated into several smaller bundles of highly correlated variables. Some pairs or bundles of variables were correlated on all scales and thus interchangeable while other associations changed with scale. This is important to keep in mind when one chooses measures of urbanization, especially if the measures are indices based on several variables. Comparing our results with the findings from other cities, we argue that universal gradients will be difficult to find since city shape and size, as well as available information, differ greatly. We also believe that a multivariate gradient is needed if you wish not only to compare cities but also ask questions about how urbanization influences the ecological character in different parts of a city.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Practical tool for landscape planning? An empirical investigation of network based models of habitat fragmentation.2009Inngår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 123-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a graph-theoretical modelling approach using daily movements and habitat demands of different target bird species in an urban context to assess: 1) habitable land cover types, 2) threshold distances between patches of habitat, 3) the required minimum accessible habitat areas and 4) the effects of barriers and stepping stones. The modelling approach is tested using empirical data from field surveys in the urban area of Stockholm, Sweden.

    The results show that groups of small habitat patches can house the same species as larger contiguous patches as long as they are perceived as functionally connected by the inhabitant organisms. Furthermore, we found that binary habitat/non-habitat representations of the landscape could roughly explain the variation in species occurrence, as long as habitat was properly defined. However, the explanatory power of the landscape models increased when features of matrix heterogeneity such as stepping stones and barriers were accounted for.

    Synthesis and application: in a world where forest ecosystems are becoming increasingly fragmented there is an urgent need to find comprehensive and scientifically relevant methods for managing and planning ecosystems. This study shows that: 1) groups of well placed small habitat patches can, together, be sufficient to attract birds in intensively developed areas, 2) the presented modelling approach can help identify such groups of patches, 3) matrix heterogeneity should preferably be accounted for, and 4) proper assessments of habitable land cover types are important. Finally, we argue that the modelling approach applied here may substantially improve landscape management and planning at scales ranging from whole landscapes down to neighbourhoods.

  • 16. Andersson, Jafet C. M.
    et al.
    Zehnder, Alexander J. B.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Yang, Hong
    Potential impacts of water harvesting and ecological sanitation on crop yield, evaporation and river flow regimes in the Thukela River basin, South Africa2011Inngår i: Agricultural Water Management, ISSN 0378-3774, E-ISSN 1873-2283, Vol. 98, nr 7, s. 1113-1124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore the potential impacts of two strategies, namely in situ water harvesting (in situ WH) and fertilisation with stored human urine (Ecosan), to increase the water and nutrient availability in rain-fed smallholder agriculture in South Africa's Thukela River basin (29,000 km(2)). We use the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to simulate potential impacts on smallholder maize yields, river flow regimes, plant transpiration, and soil and canopy evaporation during 1997-2006. Based on the results, the impacts on maize yields are likely to be small with in situ WH (median change: 0%) but significant with Ecosan (median increase: 30%). The primary causes for these effects are high nitrogen stress on crop growth, and low or untimed soil moisture enhancement with in situ WH. However, the impacts vary significantly in time and space, occasionally resulting in yield increases of up to 40% with in situ WH. Soil fertility improvements primarily increase yield magnitudes, whereas soil moisture enhancements reduce spatial yield variability. Ecosan significantly improves the productivity of the evaporative fluxes by increasing transpiration (median: 2.8%, 4.7 mm season(-1)) and reducing soil and canopy evaporation (median: -1.7%, -4.5 mm season(-1)). In situ WH does not generally affect the river flow regimes. Occasionally, significant regime changes occur due to enhanced lateral and shallow aquifer return flows. This leads to higher risks of flooding in some areas, but also to enhanced low flows, which help sustain aquatic ecosystems in the basin.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Kim
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Multifunctional Wetlands and Stakeholder Engagement: Lessons from Sweden2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands construction and restoration has been adopted as an agri-environmental measure in some of the Baltic Sea Region countries to help make agriculture more environmentally sustainable. However, Sweden’s experience shows that despite great efforts, the country only achieved 60% of its target of adding 12,000 hectares of wetlands in the agricultural landscape between 2000 and 2010.The main objective of this study, conducted within the EU-financed project Baltic COMPASS, was to draw lessons from Sweden’s wetland implementation and identify key enabling and disabling factors, especially in the governance system. Of special interest is to what extent wetlands can generate multiple benefits. The study is based on a participatory analysis involving interviews with professionals from governmental agencies, civil society organizations and the private sector, carried out in January to June 2012

  • 18.
    Andrejev, Oleg
    et al.
    Finnish Environment Institute.
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Soomere, Tarmo
    Institute of Cybernetics.
    Värv, Rolf
    Institute of Cybernetics.
    Viikmäe, Bert
    Institute of Cybernetics.
    The use of high-resolution bathymetry for circulation modelling in the Gulf of Finland2010Inngår i: Estonian Journal of Engineering, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 187-210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present preliminary results of the extension of the OAAS circulation model to a high-resolution bathymetry with a finest resolution of 0.25 nautical miles in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The models with a resolution of 1 mile or finer are capable of resolving typical mesoscale eddies in this basin where the internal Rossby radius is usually 2–4 km. An increase in the model resolution from 1 to 0.5 NM leads to a clear improvement of the representation of the key hydrophysical fields. A further increase in the resolution to 0.25 NM has a lesser impact on hydro­physical fields, but may lead to some changes in the instantaneous patterns of currents. The para­meterization of the spreading effect of sub-grid-scale turbulence on the trajectories of initially closely located drifters is realized by means of accounting for the largely rotational character of the dynamics in this basin. The modelled average spreading rate for initially closely located particles for 1991 was 2 mm/s.

  • 19. Andrejev, Oleg
    et al.
    Soomere, Tarmo
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Myrberg, Kai
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    The role of the spatial resolution of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for marine transport risk assessment2011Inngår i: Oceanologia, ISSN 0078-3234, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 309-334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of a novel method for quantifying the environmental risks associated with the current-driven transport of adverse impacts released from offshore sources (e.g. ship traffic) with respect to the spatial resolution of the underlying hydrodynamic model. The risk is evaluated as the probability of particles released in different sea areas hitting the coast and in terms of the time after which the hit occurs (particle age) on the basis of a statistical analysis of large sets of 10-day long Lagrangian trajectories calculated for 1987-1991 for the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The relevant 21) maps are calculated using the OAAS model with spatial resolutions of 2, 1 and 0.5 nautical miles (nm) and with identical initial, boundary and forcing conditions from the Rossby Centre 3D hydrodynamic model (RCO, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). The spatially averaged values of the probability and particle age display hardly any dependence on the resolution. They both reach almost identical stationary levels (0.67-0.69 and ca 5.3 days respectively) after a few years of simulations. Also, the spatial distributions of the relevant fields are qualitatively similar for all resolutions. In contrast, the optimum locations for fairways depend substantially on the resolution, whereas the results for the 2 nm model differ considerably from those obtained using finer-resolution models. It is concluded that eddy-permitting models with a grid step exceeding half the local baroclinic Rossby radius are suitable for a quick check of whether or not any potential gain from this method is feasible, whereas higher-resolution simulations with eddy-resolving models are necessary for detailed planning. The asymptotic values of the average probability and particle age are suggested as an indicator of the potential gain from the method in question and also as a new measure of the vulnerability of the nearshore of water bodies to offshore traffic accidents.

  • 20.
    Andriam Parany, Rivolala
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    von Heland, Jacob
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of sacred forests in pollination of livelihoods crops in southern MadagascarInngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21. André, K.
    et al.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Simonsson, L.
    Stockholmsregionens anpassning till ett förändrat klimat: Sammanställning av delresultat från studier inom forskningsprogrammet Mistra-SWECIA2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22. André, K.
    et al.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Simonsson, L.
    Blennow, K.
    Lilja, A.
    Lagergren, F.
    First round of focus groups and other participatory methods completed for the Forestry Case Study2010Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Linköping University.
    Simonsson, Louise
    Department of Thematic Studies—Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, Linköping University.
    Method Development for Identifying and Analysing Stakeholders in Climate Change Adaptation Processes2012Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 243-261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now widely recognized that stakeholder interaction and dialogue is essential to improve decisions about and awareness of climate change. The term ‘stakeholder’ is broad and researchers and practitioners may have interrelated and contrasting views on who is a stakeholder or who is (or should be) responsible for adaptation to climate change. To engage stakeholders in research or other projects on adaptation thus requires a careful mapping of the stakeholder landscape and identification of relevant actors at different levels. Through a case study approach, based on studies of two Swedish urban regions, Stockholm and Gothenburg, this paper proposes a systematic method to analyse and identify roles and responsibilities in the stakeholder landscape. The initial mapping exercise was complemented by participatory studies of local and regional stakeholders’ perceptions of who is, or should be, involved in adaptation and their significance for climate change adaptation in the respective regions. The results indicate the value of careful stakeholder analysis for sustainable, effective, planned adaptation that is flexible, but also systematic enough to fulfil practical and scientific requirements for the study and advancement of ongoing adaptation processes and implementation.

  • 24. Armitage, Derek
    et al.
    de Loë, Rob
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Environmental governance and its implications for conservation practice2012Inngår i: Conservation Letters, ISSN 1755-263X, E-ISSN 1755-263X, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 245-255Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are no longer the most important source of decision making in the environmental field. Instead, new actors are playing critical decision-making roles, and new mechanisms and forums for decision making are becoming important (e.g., in some contexts regulation is being supplemented or replaced by markets and cooperative arrangements). New ways of governing in relation to the environment have important implications for the practice of conservation. Greater awareness of key ideas and concepts of environmental governance can help conservation managers and scientists participate more effectively in governance processes. Understanding how conservation practice is influenced by emergent hybrid and network governance arrangements is particularly important. This short review explores key environmental governance concepts relevant to the practice of conservation, with specific reference to institutional fit and scale; adaptiveness, flexibility and learning; the coproduction of knowledge from diverse sources; the emergence of new actors and their roles in governance; and changing expectations about accountability and legitimacy. Case-based examples highlight key directions in environmental governance.

  • 25.
    Armitage, Derek
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Studies.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Adapting and transforming: Governance for navigating change2010Inngår i: Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance / [ed] Armitage, Derek; Plummer, Ryan, Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2010, 1, s. 287-302Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Armitage, Derek Russel
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier Univeristy, Ontario, Kanada.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Adaptive capacity and environmental governance2010Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid environmental change calls for individuals and societies with an ability to transform our interactions with each other and the ecosystems upon which we depend. Adaptive capacity - the ability of a social-ecological system (or the components of that system) to be robust to disturbances and capable of responding to changes - is increasingly recognized as a critical attribute of multi-level environmental governance. This unique volume offers the first interdisciplinary and integrative perspective on an emerging area of applied scholarship, with contributions from internationally recognized researchers and practitioners. It demonstrates how adaptive capacity makes environmental governance possible in complex social-ecological systems. Cutting-edge theoretical developments are explored and empirical case studies offered from a wide range of geographic settings and natural resource contexts, such as water, climate, fisheries and forestry. • Of interest to researchers, policymakers and resource managers seeking to navigate and understand social-ecological change in diverse geographic settings and resource contexts.

  • 27.
    Arvidson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Needed: tools, mandate and capacity ...2007Inngår i: ENABLE newsletter, nr 5, s. 4-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 28.
    Arvidson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Scaling-up energy services access in East Africa to achieve the millennium development goals2007Inngår i: African Development Perspectives Yearbook: Commodity dependence, resource curse and export diversification, LIT Verlag, Berlin , 2007Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Arvidson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nordström, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Forslund, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Morales, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Chen, Yong
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    ENABLE Policy Summary Report (brochure)2007Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 30.
    Arvola, Lauri
    et al.
    Lammi Biological Station.
    George, Glen
    Freshwater Biological Association.
    Blenckner, Thorsten et. al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The Impact of Changing Climate on the Thermal Characteristics of Lakes2010Inngår i: The Impact of Climate Change on European Lakes / [ed] George, Glen, Springer , 2010, 1, s. 85-102Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Atteridge, Aaron
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
     Will Private Finance Support Climate Change Adaptation in Developing Countries?: Historical Investment Patterns as a Window on Future Private Climate Finance2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Atteridge, Aaron
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Kehler Siebert, Clarisse
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Butler, Carmen
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Vilchis Tella, Patricia
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bilateral finance institutions and climate change: a mapping of climate portfolios : prepared by the Stockholm Environment Institute for the Climate Change Working Group for Bilateral Finance Institutions : submitted to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) andthe Agence Française de Développement (AFD)2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Atteridge, Aaron
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Nilsson Axberg, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Lazarus, Michael
    Polycarp, Clifford
    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in India: financial mechanisms and opportunities for EU-India collaboration2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Atteridge, Aaron
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Shrivastava, Manish Kumar
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Pahuja, Neha
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Upadhyay, Himani
    Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India.
    Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?2012Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 68-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understandwhy policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how internationalparties might cooperate with and support India’s domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states.  We argue that at each level of decision making in India,climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests.  While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  • 35.
    Axelsson, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Global miljöpåverkan och lokala fotavtryck: analys av fyra svenska kommuners totala konsumtion2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om alla människor på jorden hade samma livsstil som vi i Sverige skulle vi behöva resurser motsvarande 3,25 jordklot. Det säger sig självt att detta är en orättvis fördelning av jordens resurser som inte är hållbar på längre sikt. För att komma tillrätta med denna obalans kommer det att behövas mycket stora investeringar i teknikutveckling, infrastruktur, marknadsstyrsystem och konsumenter som tar större ansvar för sin totala miljöpåverkan.Sveriges kommuner har en viktig roll att spela i arbetet för en hållbar utveckling. En stor del av vår miljöpåverkan genereras som ett resultat av aktiviteter på lokal nivå, till exempel genom vårt resande och vårt boende. Många kommuner har idag ett ambitiöst miljöarbete med miljöplaner och miljöledningssystem, men fortfarande finns mycket kvar att göra för att omsätta nationella och lokala miljömål i praktiken och för att bättre kunna illustrera vilka miljöförbättringar olika åtgärder leder till. Den här rapporten har tagits fram för att användas som informationsmaterial under en seminarieserie på temat klimaträttvisa i städerna Göteborg, Linköping, Malmö och Stockholm. Rapporten presenterar miljö-påverkan ur ett konsumtionsperspektiv för dessa fyra kommuner med hjälp av verktyget REAP samt jämför avslutningsvis konsumtionsperspektivet med den nationella miljörapporteringen. Konsumtionsbaserat perspektiv på utsläppen innebär att man studerar den miljöpåverkan som uppstår som ett resultat av vår totala konsumtion av varor och tjänster, såsom boende, transporter, livsmedel m.m. och därmed även inkluderar vår import, istället för att bara studera de utsläpp som sker nationellt.Rapporten syftar dels till att skapa förståelse för konsumtionsperspektivet och dels till att illustrera hur ett verktyg som REAP kan användas. Rapporten fungerar vidare som en kortfattad sammanfattning över de fyra städernas miljöpåverkan och innehållet kommer att diskuteras mer utförligt under de regionala seminarierna.

  • 36. Baggio, J. A.
    et al.
    Salau, K.
    Janssen, M. A.
    Schoon, M. L.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Landscape connectivity and predator-prey population dynamics2011Inngår i: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 33-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes are increasingly fragmented, and conservation programs have started to look at network approaches for maintaining populations at a larger scale. We present an agent-based model of predator–prey dynamics where the agents (i.e. the individuals of either the predator or prey population) are able to move between different patches in a landscaped network. We then analyze population level and coexistence probability given node-centrality measures that characterize specific patches. We show that both predator and prey species benefit from living in globally well-connected patches (i.e. with high closeness centrality). However, the maximum number of prey species is reached, on average, at lower closeness centrality levels than for predator species. Hence, prey species benefit from constraints imposed on species movement in fragmented landscapes since they can reproduce with a lesser risk of predation, and their need for using anti-predatory strategies decreases.

  • 37. Baker, S.
    et al.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Governance for Sustainable Development in Sweden: The Experience of the Local Investment Programme.2007Inngår i: Local environment, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 325-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38. Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Conclusion: combining old and new governance in pursuit of sustainable development2008Inngår i: In pursuit of sustainable development: new governance practice at the sub-national level in Europe, Routledge, Abingdon (UK) , 2008, s. 208-228Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39. Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Economic instruments and the promotion of sustainable development: governance experience in key European states2008Inngår i: In pursuit of sustainable development: new governance practice at the sub-national level in Europe, 2008, s. 50-73Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40. Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Eckerberg, KatarinaStockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    In pursuit of sustainable development: new governance practice at the sub-national level in Europe2008Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41. Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Övriga enheter, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Introduction: in pursuit of sustainable development at the sub-national level: the ’new’ governance agenda2008Inngår i: In pursuit of sustainable development: new governance practice at the sub-national level in Europe, Routledge, Abingdon (UK) , 2008, s. 1-25Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42. Bakkes, Jan
    et al.
    Aalbers, Laura
    Biggs, Oonsie
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hoff, Holger
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Getting into the Right Lane for 2050: A primer for EU debate2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43. Balducci, Alessandro
    et al.
    Boelens, Luuk
    Hillier, Jean
    Nyseth, Torill
    Wilkinson, Cathy
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Introduction: Strategic spatial planning in uncertainty: theory and exploratory practice2011Inngår i: Town planning review, ISSN 0041-0020, E-ISSN 1478-341X, Vol. 82, nr 5, s. 481-501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers in this issue develop practical and theoretical ideas about strategic spatial planning in uncertainty. This Introduction contextualises the papers in terms of spatial planning and the uncertainties that planning practitioners face as they attempt to cope with the messiness of strategy-making and implementation. The authors explain their understanding of post-structuralism and how it differs from the pragmatist theoretical foundations of other scholars. The five papers are introduced through the use of recurring themes. The Introduction concludes by proposing that post-structuralist ideas can work to improve planning practice in conditions of uncertainty, provided that key elements are in place.

  • 44.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rainwater harvesting: a lifeline for human well-being.2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enfors, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cambridge, Howard
    Moustapha, Adamou M.
    Coping with Rainfall Variability: Dry Spell Mitigation and Implication on Landscape Water Balances in Small-scale Farming Systems in Semi-arid Niger2010Inngår i: International Journal of Water Resources Development, ISSN 0790-0627, E-ISSN 1360-0648, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 543-559Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rainfall variability and inherent dry spells are a reality with severe implications for smallholder agro-ecosystems in semi-arid Sahel. To increase both on- and off-farm biomass production and productivity is challenging with these climate-induced temporal and spatial variations of water. This paper tests the idea that increased vegetation through tree cover may impact water balance in a water-stressed landscape: South-east Niger. Local rainfall data, farming systems data and a landscape water-modelling tool (ArcSWAT) are used. Four production domains (conventional or fertilized combined with millet crop or millet crop plus trees) were assessed for long-term yield and landscape water balance impacts. The dry-spell analysis shows a frequency of dry spells less than 14 days is in the order of one to two dry-spell events per season in 7 years out of 10 years. The occurrence has increased between 1960 and 2004, despite a slight recovery of total annual rainfall amounts since the severe droughts of the 1980s. Results of modelled millet yields and landscape water balances suggest that options exist to enhance landscape productivity. With marginal inputs of fertilizer, millet yields increased fivefold to 2.0-2.4tha-1, and water productivity improved from 6,000 to 12,000m3 actual evapotranspiration (ETa) t-1 grain, to an improved 1,700-3,000m3 ETa t-1 grain. In addition, 10% tree cover in combination with fertilized millet increased yield with marginal or no impact on water partitioning and flows in the landscape. The policy opportunities are complex and urgently needed in view of increased rainfall variability due to expected climate change. To develop sustainable pathways in these landscapes dominated by poor smallholder framers requires water managers to be more innovative and go beyond water resources alone.

  • 46.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Water pressure and increases in food & bioenergy demand implications of economic growth and options for decoupling2007Inngår i: Scenarios on economic growth and resource demand: background report to the Swedish Environmental Advisory Council memorandum 2007:1, Swedish Environmental Advisory Council, Stockholm , 2007, s. 55-151Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Barron,, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Keys, P.
    Watershed management through a resilience lens2011Inngår i: Integrated Watershed Management in Rainfed Agriculture / [ed] S. Wani, et al. Francis & Taylor, London: CRC Press, 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Noel, Stacey
    Agricultural water management in smallholder farming systems: the value of soft components in mesoscale interventions2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Noel, Stasey
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Valuing soft components in agricultural water management interventions in meso-scale watersheds: a review and synthesis2011Inngår i: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 145-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2) is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM) goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM) interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'soft components' accompanying AWM interventions. The focus is on meso-scale watersheds in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We found very few cases with benefit-to-cost evaluation at full project level, or separate costing of hard and soft components. The synthesis suggests higher development success rates in communities with an initial level of social capital, where projects were implemented with cost- and knowledge-sharing between involved stakeholders, and where one or more 'agents of change' were present to facilitate leadership and communications. There is a need to monitor and evaluate both the external and the internal gains and losses in a more systematic manner to help development agents and other investors to ensure wiser and more effective investments in AWM interventions and watershed management.

  • 50.
    Barron, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för systemekologi.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Fox, P
    Risk analysis and economic viability of water harvesting for supplemental irrigation in the Semi-arids2005Inngår i: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 83, nr 3, s. 231-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food insecurity affects a large portion of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To meet future food requirements current rainfed farming systems need to upgrade yield output. One way is to improve water and fertiliser management in crop production. But adaptation among farmers will depend on perceived risk reduction of harvest failure as well as economic benefit for the household. Here, we present risk analysis and economical benefit estimates of a water harvesting (WH) system for supplemental irrigation (SI). Focus of the analysis is on reducing investment risk to improve self-sufficiency in staple food production. The analysis is based on data from two on-farm experimental sites with SI for cereals in currently practised smallholder farming system in semi-arid Burkina Faso and Kenya, respectively. The WH system enables for both SI of staple crop (sorghum and maize) and a fully irrigated off-season cash crop (tomatoes). Different investment scenarios are presented in a matrix of four reservoir sealants combined with three labour opportunity costs. It is shown that the WH system is labour intensive but risk-reducing investment at the two locations. The current cultivation practices do not attain food self-sufficiency in farm households. WH with SI resulted in a net profit of 151–626 USD year−1 ha−1 for the Burkina case and 109–477 USD year−1 ha−1 for the Kenya case depending on labour opportunity cost, compared to −83 to 15 USD year−1 ha−1 for the Burkina case and 40–130 USD year−1 ha−1 for the Kenyan case for current farming practices. Opportunity cost represents 0–66% of the investment cost in an SI system depending on type of sealant. The most economical strategy under local labour conditions was obtained using thin plastic sheeting as reservoir sealant. This resulted in a net profit of 390 and 73 USD year−1 ha−1 for the Burkina Faso and Kenyan respective site after household consumption was deducted. The analysis suggests a strong mutual dependence between investment in WH for SI and input of fertiliser. The WH system is only economically viable if combined with improved soil fertility management, but the investment in fertiliser inputs may only be viable in the long term when combined with SI.

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