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  • 1. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Björklund, Christina
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Exhaustion and Impaired Work Performance in the Workplace: Associations With Presenteeism and Absenteeism2019In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 438-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

    Methods: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

    Results: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

    Conclusions: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

  • 2. Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Jensen, Irene
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    What is Number of Days in Number of Times?: Associations Between, and Responsiveness of, Two Sickness Presenteeism Measures2020In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 62, no 5, p. e180-e185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the associations between sickness presenteeism (SP) reported as number of days with SP reported as number of times and to evaluate their responsiveness.

    Methods: The study population (n = 454) consisted of employed individuals, at risk of long-term sickness absence. Correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between the two SP measures and external constructs such as work performance, general health, and registered sick leave. Both SP constructs were measured several times to examine responsiveness.

    Results: The SP measures are moderately correlated. They moderately correlated with work performance and health status measures. SP reported as number of times seems to be more sensitive than number of days in detecting changes after rehabilitation.

    Conclusions: Numerical or categorical constructs are valid sources of data on SP. However, categorized SP seems to be more responsive.

  • 3.
    Ahlström Söderling, Celia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    VILKEN ORGANISATION IDENTIFIERAR SIG KONSULTER MED?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att anlita konsulter i stället för att anställa egen personal blir allt vanligare på arbetsmarknaden i Sverige. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att få inblick i vilken organisation konsulter identifierar sig med – konsultbolaget eller uppdragsgivaren. Åtta konsulter på ett konsultbolag inriktat mot offentlig sektor, i Sverige, intervjuades. Intervjuerna berörde både konsultbolagets befintliga upplägg för att öka identifikationen med bolaget samt möjliga sätt att öka denna. Även relationen mellan konsulten och uppdragsgivaren, ur konsultens synvinkel, berördes. I resultatet framkom en bild av att vid långa uppdrag på heltid så identifierar sig konsulterna generellt mer med uppdrags-givaren än med konsultbolaget. Att schemalägga en veckodag då konsulten ska vara på plats på konsultbolagets kontor framträdde som ett möjligt sätt att öka identifikationen med konsultbolaget vid långa heltidsuppdrag.

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    Vilken organisation identifierar sig konsulter med
  • 4. Andersson, Christina
    et al.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Einhorn, Stefan
    Bergsten, Katja Lindert
    Stenström, Emma
    Osika, Walter
    Cultivating Compassion and Reducing Stress and Mental Ill-Health in Employees: A Randomized Controlled Study2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 748140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and mental ill-health carry considerable costs for both individuals and organizations. Although interventions targeting compassion and self-compassion have been shown to reduce stress and benefit mental health, related research in organizational settings is limited. We investigated the effects of a 6-week psychological intervention utilizing compassion training on stress, mental health, and self-compassion. Forty-nine employees of two organizations were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 25) or a physical exercise control condition (n = 24). Multilevel growth models showed that stress (p = 0.04) and mental ill-health (p = 0.02) decreased over 3 months in both groups (pre-intervention to follow-up: Cohen’s d = −0.46 and d = 0.33, respectively), while self-compassion only increased in the intervention group (p = 0.03, between group d = 0.53). There were no significant effects on life satisfaction in any of the groups (p > 0.53). The findings show promising results regarding the ability of compassion training within organizations to decrease stress and mental ill-health and increase self-compassion. 

  • 5. Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Molander, Olof
    Lindner, Philip
    Topooco, Naira
    Engström, Karin
    Berman, Anne H.
    Does the management of personal integrity information lead to differing participation rates and response patterns in mental health surveys with young adults? A three-armed methodological experiment2021In: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e1891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study evaluates whether initiation rates, completion rates, response patterns and prevalence of psychiatric conditions differ by level of personal integrity information given to prospective participants in an online mental health self-report survey.

    Methods: A three-arm, parallel-group, single-blind experiment was conducted among students from two Swedish universities. Consenting participants following e-mail invitation answered the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health-International College Student (WMH-ICS) mental health self-report survey, screening for eight psychiatric conditions. Random allocation meant consenting to respond (1) anonymously; (2) confidentially, or (3) confidentially, where the respondent also gave consent for collection of register data.

    Results: No evidence was found for overall between-group differences with respect to (1) pressing a hyperlink to the survey in the invitation email; and (2) abandoning the questionnaire before completion. However, participation consent and self-reported depression were in the direction of higher levels for the anonymous group compared to the two confidential groups.

    Conclusions: Consent to participate is marginally affected by different levels of personal integrity information. Current standard participant information procedures may not engage participants to read the information thoroughly, and online self-report mental health surveys may reduce stigma and thus be less subject to social desirability bias.

  • 6. Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Molander, Olof
    Granlund, Lilian
    Topooco, Naira
    Engström, Karin
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Associations between compliance with covid-19 public health recommendations and perceived contagion in others: a self-report study in Swedish university students2021In: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: During the COVID pandemic, government authorities worldwide have tried to limit the spread of the virus. Sweden's distinctive feature was the use of voluntary public health recommendations. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of this strategy. Based on data collected in the spring of 2020, this study explored associations between compliance with recommendations and observed symptoms of contagion in others, using self-report data from university students.

    Results: Compliance with recommendations ranged between 69.7 and 95.7 percent. Observations of moderate symptoms of contagion in Someone else I have had contact with and Another person were markedly associated with reported self-quarantine, which is the most restrictive recommendation, complied with by 81.2% of participants. Uncertainty regarding the incidence and severity of contagion in cohabitants was markedly associated with the recommendation to avoid public transportation, a recommendation being followed by 69.7%. It is concluded that students largely followed the voluntary recommendations implemented in Sweden, suggesting that coercive measures were not necessary. Compliance with recommendations were associated with the symptoms students saw in others, and with the perceived risk of contagion in the student's immediate vicinity. It is recommended that voluntary recommendations should stress personal relevance, and that close relatives are at risk.

  • 7. Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Molander, Olof
    Granlund, Lilian
    Topooco, Naira
    Engström, Karin
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts in association to self-reported symptoms, mental health and study capacity in Swedish university students2022In: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study investigates if symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts (cohabitants, family, acquaintances, and others) are associated with university students' own self-reported symptoms of COVID-19 contagion, mental health, and study capacity. This was investigated by a cross-sectional survey administrated in Sweden during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, at the time when universities were locked down to limit viral spread and contagion.

    Results: Mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 in cohabitants and family members were associated with student’s self-reported symptoms of contagion, while no associations could be seen in relation to mental health and study capacity. Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in acquaintances and others were not associated with students’ self-reported symptoms, nor with their mental health and study capacity.

    To conclude, during the initial lockdown of universities students’ self-reported symptoms of contagion were mainly associated with cohabitants and family members, while symptoms of contagion in different social contexts were not associated with mental health and study capacity. Findings suggest that lockdown of universities may have contributed to limiting infection pathways, while still allowing students to focus on their studies despite significant contagion among others known to the student.

  • 8. Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Molander, Olof
    Lindner, Philip
    Granlund, Lilian
    Topooco, Naira
    Engström, Karin
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Berman, Anne H. H.
    Academic self-efficacy: Associations with self-reported COVID-19 symptoms, mental health, and trust in universities' management of the pandemic-induced university lockdown2022In: Journal of American College Health, ISSN 0744-8481, E-ISSN 1940-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate perceived changes in academic self-efficacy associated with self-reported symptoms of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and trust in universities’ management of the pandemic and transition to remote education during lockdown of Swedish universities in the spring of 2020. Methods: 4495 participated and 3638 responded to self-efficacy questions. Associations were investigated using multinomial regression. Results: Most students reported self-experienced effects on self-efficacy. Lowered self-efficacy was associated with symptoms of contagion, perceived worsening of mental health and low trust in universities’ capacity to successfully manage the lockdown and transition to emergency remote education. Increased self-efficacy was associated with better perceived mental health and high trust in universities. Conclusion: The initial phase of the pandemic was associated with a larger proportion of students reporting self-experienced negative effects on academic self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy is a predictor of academic performance, it is likely that students’ academic performance will be adversely affected.

  • 9. Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Berman, Anne H
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Effects of COVID-19 contagion in cohabitants and family members on mental health and academic self-efficacy among university students in Sweden: a prospective longitudinal study2024In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 14, no 3, article id e077396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study used causal inference to estimate the longitudinal effects of contagion in cohabitants and family members on university students’ mental health and academic self-efficacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design A prospective longitudinal study including a baseline online measurement in May 2020, and online follow-ups after 5 months and 10 months. Participants were recruited through open-access online advertising. Setting Public universities and university colleges in Sweden. Participants The analytical sample included 2796 students. Outcome measures Contagion in cohabitants and in family members was assessed at baseline and at the 5-month follow-up. Mental health and academic self-efficacy were assessed at the 5-month and 10-month follow-ups. Results Mild symptoms reported in cohabitants at baseline resulted in negative mental health effects at follow-up 5 months later, and mild baseline symptoms in family members resulted in negative effects on academic self-efficacy at follow-ups both 5 and 10 months later. Conclusions Notwithstanding the lack of precision in estimated effects, the findings emphasise the importance of social relationships and the challenges of providing students with sufficient support in times of crisis.

  • 10.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brief report: Contemplate your symptoms and re-evaluate your health. A study on working adults2019In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 1562-1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether self-ratings of health are affected by a symptom rating. A diary including a one-item self-rating of health ("pre-self-rated health"; 1 = excellent, 7 = very poor), a subsequent 26-item rating of symptoms, and thereafter a second (identical) health rating ("post-self-rated health") was completed by 820 persons 21 times. Self-rated health worsened significantly ( p < .0001) after the symptom rating, from 2.72 pre-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.70-2.74) to 2.77 post-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.75-2.79) and more so in persons who reported more symptoms ( b = .058, p < .05). The results support the notion that subjective health perception is influenced by attending to symptoms, especially so in persons with a high symptom burden.

  • 11.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sustainable Recruitment: Individual Characteristics and Psychosocial Working Conditions Among Swedish Police Officers2018In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection research has typically focused on how to identify suitable candidates, while less is known regarding the long-term effects of various selection factors once the suitable candidates have start-ed working. The overall aim of this study was to examine the relative importance of selection fac-tors (measured during recruitment), and psychosocial working conditions (once candidates started working) for four outcomes, namely (1) job satisfaction, (2) organizational citizenship behavior, (3) occupational retention, and (4) health. Data came from a longitudinal study of newly hired police officers in Sweden (N = 508), including recruitment data and a follow-up after 3.5 years. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that psychosocial working conditions were more important than selection factors in predicting the four outcomes. The findings suggest that employers, to ensure sustainability, need to focus on activities that facilitate newcomers’ enter-ing in the organization and their professions by providing a sound work climate.

  • 12.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lämna yrket eller stanna kvar? En studie om nya poliser2019In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 6-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker vilka faktorer som bidrar till att yngre poliser i Sverige väljer att lämna yrket. Studien följer en kohort (N=717) av yngre poliser. Data från antagningen till polisutbildningen (T1-2008), efter ett års arbete (T2-2011) och efter sju års arbete (T3-2017) används för statistiska analyser baserade på en bred uppsättning variabler. Resultaten visar att förhållandevis få poliser lämnat yrket (7,4%) och att det finns få skillnader mellan de som stannat respektive lämnat yrket. Låg organisationssamhörighet efter ett års arbete var den enskilt starkaste prediktorn av frivillig uppsägning. Åtgärder som stärker organisationssamhörigheten tidigt i karriären bör därför prioriteras.

  • 13. Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Newcomers Taking Different Paths: Proximal Socialization Outcome Profiles among Police Officers2022In: 15th EAOHP Conference 2022. Supporting knowledge comparison to promote good practice in occupational health psychology: Book of Proceedings / [ed] Kevin Teoh; Fiona Frost; Jasmeet Singh; Maria Charalampous; Miguel Muños, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, 2022, p. 532-533, article id P37Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Answering calls for an interactionist approach that would help clarify the complexity of organizational socialization, this study applied a person-centered analytic approach aiming to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. Organizational socialization concerns the learning and adjustment process enabling newcomers to adapt to an organizational role. Proximal outcomes (or adjustment indicators) are assumed to reflect how well individuals adjust on their way to become organizational insiders, while distal outcomes reflect the ultimate organizational socialization outcomes. Thus, proximal outcomes precede distal outcomes, mediating effects of various organizational and individual socialization factors (known as antecedents) that foster the socialization process.

    Method: In this study, a person-centered analytic approach was used to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. Data from new police officers in Sweden (N = 430), from three time points (T0 = Application process [spring 2008], T1 = Near end of field training [end of 2010], and T2 = Near end of first work year [end of 2011]), were analyzed. First, latent profile analysis (LPA) was performed to identify proximal outcomes profiles. Then, the identified profiles were validated by a complementary analysis, which examined differences in antecedents and distal socialization outcomes among officers with different profiles.

    Results: Among the new police officers, three proximal outcome profiles were identified – a vulnerable (35%), a troublesome (11%), and a successful (54%) – with profiles exhibiting distinct patterns in the proximal outcome indicators role conflict, task mastery, and social integration. Complementary analysis showed subgroup differences in some antecedents (e.g., personality and psychosocial working conditions) and distal outcomes (e.g., organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and work-related anxiety), thus emphasizing the role of personality and psychosocial working conditions in organizational socialization.

    Implications: The study showed that proximal socialization outcome indicators may form profiles that characterize subgroups of newcomers following different socialization paths. Depicting how the socialization process may differ among subgroups is a significant theoretical contribution that adds nuance to traditional stage models. Findings also emphasize that both psychosocial working conditions and personality are important antecedents, which support viewing organizational socialization as an interactive process including both the individual and the environment. Accordingly, the study suggests the person-centered approach as promising for gaining new insights regarding organizational socialization processes. Further, this study indicates that the socialization process was successful for most new police officers. Still, for a fairly large proportion (i.e., the Vulnerable and Troublesome groups), the proximal outcome profiles indicated a less favourable adjustment. The differences in proximal outcome profiles suggest that the Troublesome and the Vulnerable groups struggled with somewhat different adjustment challenges, which may yield organizational challenges. From an applied perspective, the findings suggest that targeting the challenges and needs that characterize different groups of newcomers may help organizations to tailor actions facilitating learning and adjustment among newcomers. Moreover, to facilitate newcomers’ socialization, organizations may also benefit from monitoring newcomers’ experiences of their working climate as well as their personality.

  • 14.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    On the same path? Profiles of proximal socialization outcomes among new police officers2022In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 301-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Answering calls for an interactionist approach that would help clarify complex relationships among organizational socialization variables, this study applied a person-centered analytic approach aiming to examine the role of proximal socialization outcome profiles for distal outcomes. This approach is novel to organizational socialization research, contrasting the variable-centered approach dominating the field. Data from new police officers in Sweden (N = 430) were analyzed using latent profile analysis (LPA). Three proximal outcome profiles – a vulnerable (n = 151), a troublesome (n = 47), and a successful (n = 232) – were identified, with distinct patterns in the proximal outcome indicators role conflict, task mastery, and social integration. Complementary analysis showed subgroup differences in some antecedents and distal outcomes, which emphasized the role of personality and psychosocial working conditions. Thus, the findings show that proximal socialization outcome indicators may yield profiles characteristic of subgroups of newcomers who follow different socialization paths. Importantly, the findings show that a person-centered approach can add nuance to the understanding of how socialization processes differ among newcomers. While these results are promising, their generalizability to other professions and organizations remains to be investigated, which calls for continued person-centered research of organizational socialization processes. 

  • 15.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Swedish Defence Universiy, Sweden.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stay or leave the Police? A longitudinal examination of turnover among younger police officers in Sweden2019In: Abstract Book of the 19th European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology Congress: Working for the greater good - Inspiring people, designing jobs and leading organizations for a more inclusive society, 2019, p. 1262-1262, article id 839Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Turnover increases among Police officers in Sweden. This is coupled with the Police force facing higher demands. The resulting recruitment of new officers is time-consuming and expensive, and also indicates the need to reduce turnover rates. Thus, increasing turnover rates are important, but knowledge regarding police turnover is limited. This study aims to understand voluntary police turnover among younger officers in a European setting.

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: Using a sample of Swedish police officers (N = 720) and data from three time-points (application to the police education–2008, first work year–2011, and seven years of work–2017), we followed a two-step approach. First, we performed univariate comparisons between stayers and leavers. Then we predicted turnover-status by hierarchical logistic regression.

    Results: Findings revealed low but increasing annual turnover rates. Some differences  emerged  between stayers and leavers. Regression analyses showed organizational commitment to be the most important long-term predictor of turnover, outperforming predictors such as educational level, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.

    Limitations: Since data were not originally designed to examine turnover, not all potentially relevant variables were included.

    Research/Practical Implications: This study emphasizes early career organizational commitment as an important predictor of long-term retention among police officers. Low associations between turnover intention and actual turnover suggest a need to address reluctant stayers. Further, findings suggest selection being of limited value in preventing police turnover.

    Originality/Value: This is the first larger study that examines turnover among police officers in Sweden.

  • 16.
    Anton, Rådh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Anställningsbarhet och prestation: indirekta effekter av välmående2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Upplevd anställningsbarhet är ett begrepp som kan användas för att förstå hur

    individer hanterar den ökande flexibiliteten på arbetsmarknaden. Med

    anställningsbarhet menas i bredaste bemärkelse hur individer ser på sina

    möjligheter på arbetsmarknaden. Den här studien undersöker förhållandet

    mellan anställningsbarhet och prestation i bemanningsbranschen och

    hypotesen är att det positiva förhållandet mellan anställningsbarhet och

    prestation medieras av välmående. En enkätundersökning besvarades av

    (N=127) tjänstemän vid ett företag i bemanningsbranschen. Resultatet visar

    att anställningsbarhet har ett samband med prestation och att effekten

    medierades av välmående. Resultatet är i linje med tidigare studier, som visar

    på liknande samband. Studien bidrar till förståelsen av vad upplevelser av

    anställningsbarhet kan leda till i bemanningsbranschen. Hur

    anställningsbarheten upplevs påverkar hur vi mår och presterar.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Appelbom, Sophia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordin, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kvinnor i ledande positioner i organisatorisk motgång - chefers syn på glasklippan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Glasklippan symboliserar fenomenet att kvinnor oftare befordras till ledande positioner i motgång än framgång. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att hos chefer i Sverige undersöka upplevelser och förhållningssätt till glasklippan, vad den tros bero på samt hur kvinnor anses påverkas av den i arbetslivet. Semistrukturerade intervjuer där ett scenario om glasklippan diskuterades utfördes med 12 chefer. Induktiv tematisk analys användes. Några intervjupersoner hade själva hamnat på glasklippan utan att ha verkat medvetna om det. Deltagarna förde ofta motstridiga resonemang och deras uppfattningar var inte samstämmiga. Det lyftes även hur kvinnors situation ser ut på organisationer idag, varför det är viktigt att medvetandegöra fenomenet, och förklaringar till glasklippan. Trots glasklippans närvaro i organisationer verkar den vara svår att se och förstå. Olika förväntningar som ställs på kvinnor skapar en svårhanterlig situation för dem på glasklippan. Att fenomenet förekommer i Sverige men är svårupptäckt visar på vikten av att uppmärksamma glasklippan.

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    Kvinnor i ledande positioner i organisatorisk motgång - chefers syn på glasklippan
  • 18.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att ha kontroll över sitt arbetsliv: Om inlåsning, utlåsning och anställningsformer förr, nu och i framtiden2022In: Framtidens arbetsliv: arbetsvillkor och arbetsmiljö / [ed] Kristina Palm; Lars Ivarsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, p. 243-265Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I beskrivningar av arbetslivet talas det ofta om det nya men inte sällan är det nygamla frågor som uppenbarar sig i en ny kontext. Det finns en kontinuitet till tidigare förhållanden som är värd att uppmärksamma inte minst i fråga om makt, sociala relationer och mänskliga behov. Digitala infrastrukturer genomsyrar nu arbetslivet och dessa kan ses som en ny produktionsform i relation till tidigare agrara och industriella former. I kapitlet undersöks och jämförs anställningsvillkor och anställningssystem i dessa tre produktionsformer. Gemensamt är grundkonflikten mellan den enskilda individens behov av kontroll, trygghet, mening och förutsägbarheti livet och företags och organisationers intresse av snabbar anpassningar till omvärldsförändringar. Konflikten formar konstruktionenav anställnings- och anknytningsformer både i kvalitativ och i kvantitativ mening. Kapitlet har i grunden ett psykologiskt perspektiv med fokus på arbetsvillkor och hälsa i två grupper av anställda -inlåsta och utlåsta - med stor diskrepans mellan sin aktuella och sin önskvärda arbets- och livssitutation

     

  • 19.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Ett gränslöst arbetsliv – tids- och rumsoberoende arbete och psykisk ohälsa2023In: Psykisk ohälsa: utmaning i arbetslivet / [ed] Åke Magnusson, Göteborg: Folkuniversitetets Akademiska Press , 2023, p. 85-99Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslösa krav - gränslösa möjligheter2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Solna: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, p. 84-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna skrift har vi försökt ringa in en aspekt – gränslöst arbete – i det mångdimensionella och komplexa fenomen som nu allt oftare benämns digitalisering. En del människor associerar ordet snarast med gränslösa möjligheter, och för andra är upplevelsen snarare gränslösa krav. Vi har i skriften mer betonat möjligheterna än farhågorna genom att lägga stor vikt vid forskning och erfarenheter som kan vägleda och stärka de gränslöst arbetandes kontroll över sitt arbetsliv och sin livssituation. I detta avslutande kapitel sammanfattas vissa tendenser och vi tar på nytt upp en del farhågor som blivit knapphändigt behandlade i kapitlen samt försöker urskilja riskgrupper.

  • 21.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete - introduktion2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Solna: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, p. 11-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den informationstekniska utvecklingen har möjliggjort helt nya sätt att organisera arbete. I rum och på platser som tidigare var reserverade för privatliv har nu det avlönade arbetet tagit sig in, och på den uppkopplade arbetsplatsen finns möjligheter för anställda att via nätet sköta privatlivsärenden. Både på arbetsplatsen, på andra platser och i det uppkopplade hemmet går det att snabbt växla fram och tillbaka mellan arbete och personliga angelägenheter. Denna typ av arbetsvillkor kallas för gränslöst arbete, och det kan också ställas i kontrast till fabriksarbete med höggradig maskinstyrning där arbetaren måste finnas vid sin maskin och genomföra specificerade arbetsuppgifter i tidsintervall som bestäms av maskinernas hastighet. Sådant arbete var vanligt i Sverige för bara några decennier sedan men har nu kraftigt minskat genom teknikutveckling. Höggradigt styrt arbete är dock fortfarande utbrett runt om i världen. De två exemplen är poler i en skala och däremellan finns en stor variation i villkor vad gäller arbetets reglering och tidsmässigt och rumsligt oberoende.

  • 22.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Delar av arbetslivet har under de senaste decennierna gått mot mer flexibilitet, inte minst i fråga om när och var man kan utföra sitt arbete. Denna flexibilitet kan innebära fördelar men det gränslösa arbetslivet medför också utmaningar för både arbetsgivare och arbetstagare. 

    I regeringens arbetsmiljöstrategi 2016–2020 fick Arbetsmiljöverket ett uppdrag att i samråd med arbetsmarknadens parter ta fram en vägledning om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv. Den här forskarantologin har tagits fram inom ramen för det uppdraget. Texterna har skrivits av ledande forskare inom området och utgör ett av underlagen till vägledningen. Professor Gunnar Aronsson har varit redaktör för antologin. Både antologin och vägledningen finns att ladda ner från Arbetsmiljöverkets webbplats.

    Projektledare för denna antologi vid Arbetsmiljöverket har varit Tommy Fahlander. Vi vill även tacka övriga kollegor vid Arbetsmiljöverket som varit behjälpliga i arbetet med antologin. 

    De åsikter som uttrycks i denna antologi är författarnas egna och speglar inte nödvändigtvis Arbetsmiljöverkets uppfattning. 

    Christina Jonsson

    Chef för enheten för människa och omgivning, Arbetsmiljöverket, Stockholm i januari 2018

  • 23.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Recension av boken Vad är arbetsvetenskap? En introduktion av Gunnar Gillberg, Erik Ljungar, Anna Peixoto och Jonas Axelsson (red.)2020In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 81-84Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Samtidigt som det pågår en inre specialisering i de ”gamla” disciplinerna fysiologi, psykologi och sociologi uppstår nya vetenskaper som syftar till att integrera och tillämpa de gamla disciplinernas fynd och kunskapsmassa. Arbetsvetenskapen etablerar sig på 1970-talet när det inom andra envetenskapliga discipliner utvecklats kunskapsmassor som kan sammanföras och få synergieffekter av både praktisk och teoretisk art. Jag ser Arbetsvetenskap som en sådan nödvändig skapelse som tillvaratar enskilda discipliners forskningsrön och för samman dem till praktikrelevant kunskap för tillämpning i ett mångfacetterat arbetsliv med mycket olika verksamheter, organisationsmodeller och arbetsvillkor. Det är med sådana glasögon jag börjar läsa boken Arbetsvetenskap – en introduktion.

  • 24.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Tillit2015In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 22-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Tillit2020In: Att synliggöra och motverka ojämställdhet i arbetslivet: En vänbok till Annika Härenstam / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Erik Berntson, Lisa Björk, Malin Bolin, Linda Corin, Helsingborg: Komlitt förlag , 2020, p. 47-60Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom arbetslivsforskningen har tillitsforskning inte haft samma expansiva utveckling som inom samhällsvetenskap. Kapitlet riktar fokus på tillitsbegreppet, konsekvenser av tillit och förhållanden som skapar eller raserar tillit.  

    Den psykologiska kärnan i tillit är att människor och ting är pålitliga. Därigenom blir socialt liv mera förutsägbart, osäkerhet och komplexitet reduceras, upplevelsen av risker, stress och kaos minskar. Tillit stabiliserar människors identitetsupplevelse och tillit styrker människors förmåga att vara aktörer i sina egna liv – den som känner tillit vågar göra det han eller hon vill, önskar och drömmer om. Genom tillit skapas och bibehålls sociala relationer och handlingar kan genomföras som annars skulle vara omöjliga utan stora transaktionskostnader. Om tilliten minskar eller försvinner minskar också människors vilja att ta risker. I forskning med inriktning mot arbete och hälsa finns ett fokus på kontroll i meningen anställdas inflytande i sitt arbete. Balans mellan kontroll och krav dämpar stress och förebygger ohälsa. Kontroll är begreppsligt en nära släkting till tillit. Gemensamt är att osäkerhet reduceras, vilket minskar stress och gör det lättare att fatta beslut och handla. 

    Tillit till andra människor spelar en avgörande roll för samarbete. Den som litar på att de andra – arbetskamrater och ledning – kommer att försöka uppfylla viktiga förpliktelser kommer också att öka sin egen uppslutning kring dessa förpliktelser. Ökade kunskaper om sambandet mellan tillit och kollektivt handlande skulle kunna förebygga ofruktbara konflikter och främja effektivt handlande och hälsa.

  • 26.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Så återhämtar vi oss!2019In: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 5, p. 14-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Berntson, ErikStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.Björk, LisaBolin, MalinCorin, Linda
    Att synliggöra och motverka ojämställdhet i arbetslivet: En vänbok till Annika Härenstam2020Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kommer det sig att arbetet medför status, goda arbetsvillkor och hälsa för vissa, medan det innebär vanmakt, underordning och sjukdom för andra? Denna uråldriga och till synes naiva fråga pockar allt ihärdigare på ett svar i en tid där den sociala ojämlikheten ökar. Den som är det minsta intresserad av arbetsliv och hälsa och som läser de kapitel som nu följer kommer att bli inspirerad, kanske provocerad och troligen väldigt imponerad av svensk arbetslivsforskning. Flera av Sveriges mest framträdande arbetslivsforskare medverkar i boken.

  • 28.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hagberg, J.
    Björklund, Christina
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    Marklund, S.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Health and motivation as mediators of the effects of job demands, job control, job support, and role conflicts at work and home on sickness presenteeism and absenteeism2021In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The first objective was to contribute to a better understanding of the contrasting and paradoxical results in studies of work environment factors and sickness presence and sickness absence. A second objective was to examine if, and under what conditions, employees choose to replace sickness absence with sickness presence, i.e., so-called substitution.

    Methods: The study utilizes a large body of cross-sectional questionnaire data (n = 130,161) gathered in Sweden from 2002 to 2007 in connection with a comprehensive health promotion initiative. Health and motivation were analyzed as mediators of the effects of five job factors, job control, job support, job demand, role conflict and “work to family conflict” on sickness presence and absence.

    Results: The results concerning job demands indicate substitution in that increased job demands are associated with increased presenteeism and reduced absenteeism. The direct effect of higher job support was increased absenteeism, but via the health and motivation paths, the total effect of more social support was health-promoting and associated with a reduction in sickness absence and sickness presence. High job control emerged as the most pronounced health-promoting factor, reducing sickness presenteeism as well as absenteeism. More role conflicts and work-to-family conflicts were directly and indirectly associated with decreased health and increased absenteeism as well as presenteeism. earlier research.

    Conclusion: The mediation analyzes shed light on some of the paradoxes in research on sickness presenteeism and sickness absenteeism, especially regarding job demands and job support. The substitution effect is important for workplace policy and occupational health practice.

  • 29.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Distansarbete: översikt av internationella forskningen om arbetsmiljö och hälsa, balans i livet och produktivitet före och under covid-19 pandemin med särskilt beaktande av kvinnors och mäns villkor2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in early spring 2020, most countries, including Sweden, chose to recommend or require employees for whom doing so was possible to work remotely from home in order to reduce the spread of infection at workplaces, and during commutes to and from workplaces. Working remotely differs in many respects from working at theemployer’s premises. The overall objective of this three-part review has been to compile and increase research-based knowledge of remote work from home.

    This review encompasses research literature in three areas:

    • work environment and health
    • work–life balance
    • productivity.

    In the analyses, we have therefore focused in particular on similarities and differences in the conditions for men and women regarding paid work at home. Additional aims were to investigate and draw conclusions about remote work from home during the period before and during the pandemic, respectively.

    The first part is a review of research reviews of remote work before the pandemic (published 2005–2021), while the second part is a review of original studies of remote work from home during the pandemic (2020– 2021). Part three comments on and summarises the material presented in parts one and two. The main purpose of the division into before and after is that remote work before the pandemic was primarily voluntary and planned, while remote work from home during the pandemic was unexpected, with minimal planning, and more or less forced.

    The review has been limited to remote work from home conducted by employees through an internet connection.

  • 30.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Rehabilitering och samordning: Slutrapport: Utvärdering av Rehsams forskningsprogram 2009–20112017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rehabilitering och samordning, Rehsam, var ett forskningsprogram som initierades av regeringen år 2009. Målet var att öka den evidensbaserade kunskapsmassan kring rehabilitering av personer som är sjukskrivna, eller riskerar att bli sjukskrivna, på grund av psykiska eller muskuloskeletala problem. Denna rapport är en sammanfattande utvärdering av Rehsamprogrammet.

    Som en uppföljning av Rehsam-satsningen fick Forte 2014 bland annat i uppdrag att göra en vetenskaplig kvalitetsbedömning av den forskning som genomförts inom Rehsam-satsningen. Detta uppdrag har genomförts i olika etapper, med två delrapporter under 2015. Den här utvärderingen omfattar 21 projekt och är en slutrapport av uppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar Rehsam-projektens resultat att projekt som omfattar insatser på arbetsplatsen är mer effektiva än de projekt som inte genomfört arbetsplats-interventioner. Tendensen är även att projekt med högre vetenskaplig kvalitet oftare har signifikanta utfall.

  • 31.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Sickness Presenteeism and Attendance-Pressure Factors2018In: Presenteeism at work / [ed] Cary L. Cooper, Luo LU, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 145-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Helgesson, Magnus
    The changing nature of work - Job strain, job support and sickness absence among care workers and in other occupations in Sweden 1991-20132021In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 15, article id 100893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined exposure changes in three psychosocial dimensions - job demands, job control, and social support - and the associations between these dimensions and sickness absence throughout the period 1991-2013. The analyses covered periods of economic ups and downs in Sweden and periods involving major fluctuations in sickness absence. Data on care workers (n = 16,179) and a comparison group of employees in other occupations (n = 82,070) were derived from the biennial Swedish Work Environment Survey and linked to register data on sickness absence. Eight exposure profiles, based on combinations of demands, control, and support, were formed. The proportion of individuals with work profiles involving high demands doubled among care workers (14%-29%) while increasing modestly in the comparison group (17%-21%) 1991-2013. The work profile that isolated high-strain (iso-strain), i.e., high demands, low control, and low social support, was more prevalent among care workers, from 4% in 1991 to 11% in 2013. Individuals with work profiles involving highdemand jobs had the highest number of days on sickness absence during the study period and those with the isostrain work profile had the highest increase in sickness absence, from 15 days per year during 1993-1994, to 42 days during 2000-2002. Employees with a passive work profile (low job demands and low job control) had the lowest rate and the lowest increase in sickness absence. Individuals with active work profiles, where high demands are supposed to be balanced by high job control, had a rather high increase in sickness days around 2000. A conclusion is that there is a long-term trend towards jobs with high demands. This trend is stronger among care workers than among other occupations. These levels of job demands seem to be at such a level that it is difficult to compensate for with higher job control and social support.

  • 33.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Det gränslösa arbetet2019In: Arbete & välfärd: Ledning, personal och organisationsmodeller i Sverige / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, p. 451-465Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Johansson, Boo
    Albin, Maria
    Torgén, Margareta
    Nylén, Per
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Vingård, Eva
    Håkansta, Carin
    Healthy workplaces for women and men of all ages2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this knowledge compilation is to contribute with knowledge about the work environment in relation to the ever-older workforce. How do employee needs and possibilities change from a course of life perspective? What should the employer and other work environment actors think about in order for the workforce to be able to and want to work to a high age?

    The Swedish Work Environment Authority wishes to give an overarching knowledge profile of different aspects of the work environment and the ageing workforce, and we therefore asked seven researchers to summarise the research-based knowledge within each of their areas, from a course of life and gender perspective. An eighth researcher acted as an editor for the anthology, and has also written the preface.

    In summary, the report shows that we are becoming even healthier, living ever longer and working to an ever higher age. Older people in the workforce are positive for the economy because productivity increases, and the business sector can make use of competent and experienced staff for a longer time. But for the older labour force to be healthy and want to work at higher ages, one needs to take into consideration how ageing influences health and the capacity to work. With age, all people are affected to different degrees by reduced vision, hearing and physical capacity, as well as longer reaction times. Even their cognitive capacity changes. Certain cognitive abilities are strengthened with rising age, while others deteriorate. With an ageing workforce, more employees have chronic illnesses, which, however, seldom affect the actual working ability. Changes in working life also affect health and wellbeing, for example deregulated work and the technical development. Age and previous experiences impact upon our ability to adapt to these changes. One factor that promotes adaptation is partly resilience (that is to say, resistance and the ability to adapt to the new), partly compensation strategies when the mental and physical resources change. There are no great differences between gender when it comes to the consequences of ageing on health and wellbeing in the work. On the other hand, the public health trend shows increasing differences in health between the lower educated and the higher educated - a difference increasing more quickly among women than among men. The gender-segregated labour market also means that more women than men work in physical and mentally burdensome work. Attitudes at the workplace also affect wellbeing and the will to continue working at higher ages. Men tend to be more sensitive to age discrimination while women run the risk of double discrimination, that is to say based upon both gender and age. Work environment and the attitude to an older workforce are central to the considerations that an employee makes in the choice between continuing to work and retiring. Other prerequisites that influence the decision are one’s own health, private finances and self-fulfilling activities.

    The employer can do a great deal to lengthen and improve their employees’ working life. Systematic work environment management benefits everyone, and it can contribute to everyone keeping their working ability and to older people wanting to and being able to work for longer. Occupational health services of good quality also play an important role. Technical aids and adaptation of the working pace and working tasks are other measures that improve the work environment for the older workforce. The employer can also contribute to stimulating work arrangements and organisational support for the employees in order to strengthen their resilience and promote the development of compensation strategies. 

  • 35.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nylén, Eva Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Ishall, Lars
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. North-West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa.
    The long arm of the job - work characteristics and recovery windows in social welfare work2019In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 15-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Social welfare work contains elements that may be difficult for employees to put out of their minds when the working day ends, which may affect the recovery. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the length of recovery in relation to different work characteristics and to two types of welfare work. Design/methodology/approach All 1,365 employees, excluding managers, of two municipality administrations were invited to a survey study. Of these, 673 (49 percent) responded. After adjusting for partial missing, the effective sample included 580 employees (43 percent). Retrospective ratings of four recovery windows were analyzed: recovery after one night's sleep, weekends, shorter holidays and vacations. Findings Employees with a university education were less recovered than those with a shorter education. For those with a university education, the long arm of the job mainly involved failures regarding qualitative job demands (task difficulty). For those with a shorter education, quantitative job demands (too much to do) were most prominent for their prolonged recovery. Feedback from managers had consistent and positive associations with all four recovery windows among employees with a university education, but not among those with a shorter education for whom instead having too much to do and social support had significant spillover effects. Originality/value The identified differences may relate to employees with a university education having more problem-solving tasks, which may result in a higher need of work-related feedback but also in difficulties detaching from work. Thus, education and job characteristics have differential associations with self-rated recovery.

  • 36.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Taloyan, Marina
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Associations Between Being 'locked-In' and Health - An Epidemiological Study2019In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 71-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between an individual's level of perceived control over labor market position (locked-in and not locked-in) and self-rated health and psychological well-being. Methods. A representative sample (n = 11,675) of the working population in southern Sweden responded to a questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents worked in their preferred workplace and occupation. Nineteen percent reported being in a nonpreferred workplace and nonpreferred occupation (double locked-in). Twenty-three percent reported suboptimal health compared with 31% among the double locked-in. The risk of suboptimal health was elevated in all locked-in groups also after adjustment for background variables and job strain. In the double locked-in group, the fully adjusted odds ratio for suboptimal health was 1.72 (95% confidence interval 1.49-1.99) and for suboptimal psychological well-being 2.17 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.56). Odds ratio for the other locked-in groups was lower but still statistically significant. Conclusions. Being at a nonpreferred work-place or occupation was associated with impaired health.

  • 37.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    Hammarström, Anne
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Träskman-Bendz, Lil
    Hall, Charlotte
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 264Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies - original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms.

    METHODS: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990-2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1-5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used.

    RESULTS: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout.

    CONCLUSION: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 38.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Welander, Jonas
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    A comparative study of how social workers' voice and silence strategies relate to organisational resources, attitudes and well-being at work2021In: Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1468-0173, E-ISSN 1741-296X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 206-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sets out to investigate the potential differences between social workers using voice- or silence strategies in their experience of organisational resources, attitudes and health, and whether social workers moving between strategies (voice or silence) over time have a different experience of the same outcomes than those who stay with the same strategy group. The participating social workers (n = 1356) responded to two web-based questionnaires over a one-year period. Findings The results show that voice strategies are related to the experience of more positive organisational resources, more positive attitudes (greater job satisfaction and organisational commitment, but lower intention to exit) and more positive health (greater recovery, but less emotional exhaustion and stress symptoms) than those using silence strategies. The results also show that moving from silence to voice is related to the experience of increased organisational resources, more positive attitudes and more positive health at T2, while those moving from voice to silence reported the opposite. Applications The longitudinal approach applied in this study adds empirical evidence of the relationship between voice/silence and work-related attitudes, as well as health and well-being. The close relationship between organisational resources, employee voice behaviour and related individual outcomes regarding attitudes and health imply that Human Resources (HR) management has a lot to gain by developing and securing a voice-friendly and considerate climate in their organisations.

  • 39.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Mälardalens högskola, Sverige .
    Welander, Jonas
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, E-ISSN 2002-343X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 41-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Personalsituationen i socialtjänsten framstår som alltmer problematisk med omfattande personalomsättning och rekryteringssvårigheter. Baserat på en nationell enkätstudie undersöks betydelsen av arbetsvillkor och organisatoriska faktorer för handlingsalternativen sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer inom socialtjänsten. Resultaten visar bland annat att styrningen inom socialtjänsten behöver utvecklas i riktning mot färre motstridiga krav och för en öppenhet som tillåter dialog och kritisk reflektion för att behålla och på sikt attrahera nya medarbetare.

  • 40.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Mälardalen University, Sweden .
    Welander, Jonas
    Larsson, Robert
    Reasons for Staying: A Longitudinal Study of Work Conditions Predicting Social Workers’ Willingness to Stay in Their Organisation2020In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 1382-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive staff turnover within the statutory social services is a serious problem in Sweden and in other European countries. This study examines which work conditions predict social workers’ willingness to stay in their organisation. A web-based questionnaire was used to gather data. The participating social workers responded to two questionnaires over a one-year period. To identify the social workers who wanted to stay and also remained in the organisation, the group ‘Stayers’ (n = 1,368) consisted of social workers who reported low intentions to quit at T1. The group ‘Leavers’ (n = 1,182) were social workers who had actually resigned at T2. The data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The multivariate analysis shows that the work conditions that predicted staying in the organisation were low degrees of conflicting demands and quantitative demands, high degrees of openness and human resource orientation in the organisation and a high degree of perceived service quality. The results are discussed in relation to public management and managerial responsibility to create sustainable work conditions that facilitate the provision of good social services for citizens.

  • 41. Augustsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    Hasson, Henna
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    The Need for Dual Openness to Change: A Longitudinal Study Evaluating the Impact of Employees' Openness to Organizational Change Content and Process on Intervention Outcomes2017In: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, ISSN 0021-8863, E-ISSN 1552-6879, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 349-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how individual- and group-level openness to organizational change, concerning change content and process, affects intervention outcomes. The intervention aimed to improve primary health care employees' competence in and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Employees' (n = 1,042) ratings of their openness to the change content and process as well as of their workgroup's openness to the change content before the intervention were used to predict ICT competence and its use 18 months later. Openness to the change process predicted both ICT competence and use of competence, while openness to the change content and group openness predicted use of competence only. These results show that individual- and group-level openness to organizational change are important predictors of successful outcomes. Furthermore, employees should be open both to the content of the change and to the process by which the intervention is implemented in order to maximize outcomes.

  • 42. Berg, Hanna
    et al.
    Lindström, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Online product size perceptions: Examining liquid volume size perceptions based on online product pictures2021In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 122, p. 192-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines consumers' liquid volume size perceptions based on standardized product pictures in online stores. Four empirical studies compare liquid volume size perceptions for the same products when displayed online and offline. The findings indicate that size perceptions require more effort online than they do offline and that the online display decreases the accuracy of the size perceptions. Online size perceptions require more effort in terms of time and visual attention, as consumers need to study product labels to determine product sizes. The study also introduces a new visual bias to consumer research: the familiar size bias. A consideration of this bias reveals that consumer size perceptions are less accurate online, where consumers tend to overestimate the sizes of small products and underestimate the sizes of large products.

  • 43.
    Berg, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hovne, Vera
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Oscarsson, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Mechler, Jakob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Topooco, Naira
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Philips, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    “Good job!”: Therapists' encouragement, affirmation, and personal address in internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with depression2022In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 30, article id 100592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered interventions are generally effective for psychological problems. While the presence of a clinician guiding the client via text messages typically leads to better outcomes, the characteristics of what constitutes high-quality communication are less well investigated. This study aimed to identify how an internet therapist most effectively communicates with clients in internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT). Using data from a treatment study of depressed adolescents with a focus on participants who had a positive outcome, messages from therapists were analyzed using thematic analysis. The study focused on the therapist's 1) encouragement and 2) affirmation, and how the therapists used 3) personal address. The analysis resulted in a total of twelve themes (Persistence Wins, You Are a Superhero, You Make Your Luck, You Understand, Hard Times, You Are Like Others, My View on the Matter, Time for a Change, Welcome In, Let Me Help You, You Affect Me, and I Am Human). Overall, the themes form patterns where treatment is described as hard work that requires a motivated client who is encouraged by the therapist. The findings are discussed based on the cognitive behavioral theoretical foundation of the treatment, prior research on therapist behaviors, and the fact that the treatment is provided over the internet.

  • 44.
    Bergman, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Försvarshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Why jump out of a perfectly good airplane?: Parachute training, self-efficacy and leading in combat2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Training military officers to lead in combat has always presented a training paradox: it is impossible to expose individuals to the inherent strains and dangers of real combat, but combat is where they are supposed to lead, making those demands normative for training. To overcome this paradox, the military uses training courses where stress is as realistic as possible within ethical limits. One frequent example of such a course is parachute training. Completing one demanding task (parachuting) can also increase the individual’s belief that other tasks with equal or even greater difficulty (leading in combat) can be overcome similarly. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate whether and how military parachute training can function as a method for leadership development. The purpose of Study I was to investigate whether military parachute training was associated with an increase in leadership self-efficacy. The results show that parachute training increased leader self-control efficacy when compared to the different training of a group of cadets. In addition, the training given contributed to increased leader assertiveness efficacy for both groups. The purpose of Study II was to investigate whether the inability to complete training was associated with any direct and sustained effects. The results show that there were no differences between those who completed training and those who did not. Regarding outcome, leader self-control efficacy decreased significantly for those who were unable to complete training when compared to those who did. The purpose of Study III was to examine how the two sub-domains of leadership self-efficacy examined in the first two studies were associated with leadership behaviors, specifically those described in the developmental leadership model. The results show that leader assertiveness efficacy was the best predictor to the dimensions of developmental leadership. Leader self-control efficacy seems to be more related to functioning within an extreme context. Overall, the thesis indicates that parachute training can help to prepare future military leaders to lead in combat. The results imply that the effects of parachute training are indirect rather than directly associated to leadership and that ability to remain composure in extreme situations in turn enables individual behaviors, including leadership. The thesis also contributes insight into the process of how personal beliefs can be transferred or generalized across different areas or domains in a person’s life. The results are also relevant for other professions that routinely work in extreme contexts. 

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  • 45.
    Bergman, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Direct and sustained effects on leadership self-efficacy due to the inability to complete a parachute training course2020In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 222-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined a parachute training course intended to improve the leadership abilities of future military officers. Two research questions were examined. First, whether there were any differences between completers and non-completers in anxiety, stress, and collective identity at the beginning of the course (time 1), and second, whether there were any differences between completers and non-completers in leadership self-efficacy immediately after the course and at a five-month follow-up (time 2 and time 3). Participants were cadets from the Swedish Military Academy undergoing the course as part of their officer training curriculum. The results showed no significant differences between completers and non-completers in anxiety, stress, and collective identity at the beginning of the course (time 1). Non-completers showed a significant reduction in leader self-control efficacy compared to those who completed the training immediately after the course and at a five-month follow-up (time 2 and 3). Overall, these results indicate that non-completion of this type of demanding training could have negative effects on the individual's leader self-control efficacy.

  • 46.
    Bergman, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    From believing to doing: The association between leadership self-efficacy and the developmental leadership model2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 669905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined the association between leadership self-efficacy and the developmental leadership model. The purpose is to better understand how leadership training transfers to facets of developmental leadership. This was tested in a cross-sectional design with military commanders in the Swedish armed forces. The results show that the sub-domain of leader self-control efficacy (the cognitive and emotional ability to remain composure) did predict developmental leadership in only one dimension of being an exemplary model, but that leader assertiveness efficacy (the ability to make rational decisions) predicted the two dimensions of exemplary model and inspiration & motivation in developmental leadership. One possibility is that leader self-control efficacy can be what enables the individual to function within an extreme context, but leader assertiveness efficacy can be what most determine the leadership performance within that context. The possibility for mediatory analyses in further research is discussed.

  • 47.
    Bergman, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Preparing to lead in combat: Development of leadership self-efficacy by static-line parachuting2019In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 481-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examined whether a static-line parachute program could help prepare future military officers to lead in extreme situations by increasing leadership self-efficacy. Parachute training is commonly used for preparing to lead in combat since it presents a perceived threat to life which requires active mastery. Achieving such mastery facilitates the development of leader self-control efficacy and leader assertiveness efficacy. This assumption was tested in a real training situation within the Swedish Military Academy where two groups of cadets were included in the study. The group of cadets undertaking parachute training conducted repeated measures of assessment of their self-efficacy before and after the course as well as at a five-month follow-up. The results show that parachute training increased leader self-control efficacy when compared to a group of cadets who undertook different training. In addition, the training given contributed to increased leader assertiveness efficacy for both groups.

  • 48.
    Bergman, Louise E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Entering and exiting self employment – how do they relate to health and well-being?2023In: Book of Abstracts (DRAFT): 21st EAWOP Congress: The Future is Now: the changing world of work, Katowice, Poland, 2023, p. 415-416, article id OP260Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research goals and motivation: Self-employed workers contribute significantly to our society in terms of economic productivity, job opportunity and innovation. Thus, it is in the interest of our society to support and encourage self employment. It is well documented that self-employed workers – on average – experience higher levels of wellbeing, and less mental health problems than employed workers do. However, self-employed workers are a highly heterogeneous group when it comes to who they are, how they work, and their health status. Thus, averages are not sufficient to inform researchers, policymakers and companies on how to understand the mental health and wellbeing of this group of workers. 

    Workers enter and exit self employment all the time as business opportunities occur, need of an income arises, innovations are created, and businesses fail. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind these career transitions beyond economic factors. Is the decision to start a business related to wellbeing, and how? How many self-employed workers are thriving over time, both when it comes to wellbeing and their business? Who is struggling and experiencing mental health problems, and is this related to exiting self employment? Questions like these currently go unanswered. 

    Theoretical background: This study is mainly exploratory, but mental health problems, wellbeing and how it develops and how it relates to entering and exiting self employment can be related work environment. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) has proven to be a good framework to understand health developments, and is adapted and used in this study as theoretical framework. 

    Method: Latent transition analysis (LTA) is used to consider both the longitudinal aspect and the heterogeneity of the group of self-employed workers, in a unique and novel way. We investigate what profiles of mental health and wellbeing exist among self-employed workers, how common they are, and how the workers transition between these profiles over time. Further, we study how the profiles and transitions between them relate to entrepreneurial entrance and exit, work environment factors (ERI) and background variables (i.e., age and gender). 

    We use data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) The current study is based on participants who responded to the 5 th -7 th wave of SLOSH conducted in 2014 (response rate 53%), 2016 (response rate 51%) and 2018 (response rate 48%). In this study, we use respondents who were self-employed at any of the three time points (N=2327). 

    Results: Results of all statistical analyses will be available when the conference takes place. Preliminary findings of factor analysis show that all scales have adequate fit and factor loadings. Based on previous research we expect to find at least one profile of relatively good mental health and wellbeing, as well as profiles with less advantageous mental health. We also expect that work environment factors are linked to health profiles such that better health is found in workers with less ERI. ERI, a well-documented theoretic model, is used to validate the health and wellbeing profiles. Probably, exits out of or entrance into self employment is related to changes in health and work environment. Mechanisms, the number of transitions, and the temporal order will be explored in our study. 

    Limitations: The limitations of this study lie in the exploratory nature of the analysis, and more studies will be needed to further validate any found profiles. 

    Relevance to congress theme: This study is relevant to the first theme of the congress: Careers and the labour market. Specifically, career transitions and employee mobility. With regard to the UN SDG, our study addresses good health and wellbeing and decent work and economic growth. 

    Conclusions: Exact conclusions will depend on the findings, but the study is one of the first to focus on health profiles of self-employed workers, and ways in which these workers’ mental health and wellbeing changes in relation to ERI and decisions to change employment. The results will yield a better understanding of how self-employed workers thrive or struggle, and how to identify the ones that struggle. This will also help to discuss potential possibilities to create better circumstances or preventive tools to shape decent work and sustainability of careers that involve self employment.

  • 49.
    Bergman, Louise E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Well-being of high skilled workers: Disentangling person and tasks effects2022In: 15th EAOHP Conference 2022. Supporting knowledge comparison to promote good practice in occupational health psychology: Book of Proceedings. / [ed] Kevin Teoh; Fiona Frost; Jasmeet Singh; Maria Charalampous; Miguel Muños, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2022, p. 564-565, article id P75Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research goals and why the work was worth doing: Research of well-being and positive affect of workers have previous mainly been focused on a general level. These previous studies have not yet disentangled whether positive affect can be linked to task-by-task experience at work, or whether it mainly varies between different people with different types of work. The purpose of this study was to differentiate between the general level, task level, and type of employment in self-determination, meaningfulness of work and positive affect, thus contributing to the understanding of how to best assess well-being. The novelty and contribution of this study lies in the analysis strategy that allows for disentangling the effect that specific work tasks may have on workers' positive affect. Specifically, the use of multi-level modelling on the data gathered with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) allows us to describe relationships between positive affect, self-determination, and meaningfulness of work at both person and task level. Multilevel studies assessing the intrapersonal variability of experienced well-being on not only a day-level, but also a task level, are rare and much needed to better understand the dynamics of well-being during a workday.

    Theoretical background: Researchers have connected positive affect – which represents momentary well-being experiences such as happiness, engagement, and inspiration – to high levels of general well-being and better health. High levels of positive affect is often attributed to higher levels of self-determination, and meaningfulness of work. Workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work should experience more positive affect, and tasks experienced as more self-determined and meaningful should lead to more positive affect. Additionally, self-employed workers are suggested to have a more self-determined career choice in itself, and thus higher levels of positive affect.

    Design/Methodology/Approach/Intervention: In this study we tested whether H1) workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work report higher levels of positive affect, H2) tasks experienced as more self-determined and meaningful are related to more positive affect, and H3) self-employed workers experience stronger relationships of task level self-determination and meaningfulness with positive affect than employed workers. We used a sample of 175 high skilled self-employed and employed workers, who reported self-determination, meaningfulness of work and positive affect for a total of 560 tasks during a workday by the DRM. DRM facilitates access to momentary experiences stored in memory, providing reliable estimates of intensity and variations of affect during the day. First, we tested two separate multilevel multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) models for momentary positive affect (outcome side of the model), as well as self-determination and meaningfulness of tasks (predictor side of the model), and then tested the models for measurement invariance. Since tasks were nested within individuals we fitted a bayesian structural equation model with random slopes with self-determination and meaningfulness of work and employment type as predictors and positive affect as an outcome variable.

    Results obtained: Results indicated that workers experiencing more self-determination and meaningfulness of work reported more positive affect, that tasks experienced as more self-determined also elicited higher levels of positive affect, and that there was a small positive effect of self employment on positive affect. The self-determination and meaningfulness of tasks seem to be more important to positive affect than employment type. The relationship between self employment on positive affect have been assumed by earlier research, but our study is the first to test and show that this indeed may be the case. However, other factors such as self-determination might be more important to task level positive affect.

    Limitations: We studied high-skilled worker, choosing this population facilitated comparison of groups of workers, as many background variables were similar, however, this does affect the generalizability of the results. As consequence, one limitation is that a fairly small sample. Further, we used DRM and a drawback of this method is that it is not in the moment assessment, but rather recorded after the tasks of the day. However, DRM still have practical benefits as it might elevate the response rate in contrast to in the moment reports, because it is difficult for the respondent to make pauses during their workday.

    Research/Practical Implications: These findings may inform researchers on how to best assess well-being, and organizations on how to design work of workers to elevate positive affect and thus, well-being, and health. We have empirically confirmed the assumptions of a positive relationship between self employment and positive affect of previous studies, and that this relationship might be less important than other factors such as self-determination.

    Originality/Value: The originality of this research lies in the multi-level structure of the method and analysis, as well as the comparison of groups of workers.

  • 50.
    Bergman, Louise E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Stress Research Institute.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Comparing Depressive Symptoms, Emotional Exhaustion, and Sleep Disturbances in Self-Employed and Employed Workers: Application of Approximate Bayesian Measurement Invariance2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 598303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies investigating differences in mental health problems between self-employed and employed workers have provided contradictory results. Many of the studies utilized scales validated for employed workers, without collecting validity evidence for making comparisons with self-employed. The aim of this study was (1) to collect validity evidence for three different scales assessing depressive symptoms, emotional exhaustion, and sleep disturbances for employed workers, and combinators; and (2) to test if these groups differed. We first conducted approximate measurement invariance analysis and found that all scales were invariant at the scalar level. Self-employed workers had least mental health problems and employed workers had most, but differences were small. Though we found the scales invariant, we do not find them optimal for comparison of means. To be more precise in describing differences between groups, we recommend using clinical cut-offs or scales developed with the specific purpose of assessing mental health problems at work.

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