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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brief report: Contemplate your symptoms and re-evaluate your health. A study on working adults2017In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether self-ratings of health are affected by a symptom rating. A diary including a one-item self-rating of health ("pre-self-rated health"; 1 = excellent, 7 = very poor), a subsequent 26-item rating of symptoms, and thereafter a second (identical) health rating ("post-self-rated health") was completed by 820 persons 21 times. Self-rated health worsened significantly ( p < .0001) after the symptom rating, from 2.72 pre-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.70-2.74) to 2.77 post-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.75-2.79) and more so in persons who reported more symptoms ( b = .058, p < .05). The results support the notion that subjective health perception is influenced by attending to symptoms, especially so in persons with a high symptom burden.

  • 2.
    Anton, Rådh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Anställningsbarhet och prestation: indirekta effekter av välmående2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Upplevd anställningsbarhet är ett begrepp som kan användas för att förstå hur

    individer hanterar den ökande flexibiliteten på arbetsmarknaden. Med

    anställningsbarhet menas i bredaste bemärkelse hur individer ser på sina

    möjligheter på arbetsmarknaden. Den här studien undersöker förhållandet

    mellan anställningsbarhet och prestation i bemanningsbranschen och

    hypotesen är att det positiva förhållandet mellan anställningsbarhet och

    prestation medieras av välmående. En enkätundersökning besvarades av

    (N=127) tjänstemän vid ett företag i bemanningsbranschen. Resultatet visar

    att anställningsbarhet har ett samband med prestation och att effekten

    medierades av välmående. Resultatet är i linje med tidigare studier, som visar

    på liknande samband. Studien bidrar till förståelsen av vad upplevelser av

    anställningsbarhet kan leda till i bemanningsbranschen. Hur

    anställningsbarheten upplevs påverkar hur vi mår och presterar.

  • 3.
    Appelbom, Sophia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nordin, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Kvinnor i ledande positioner i organisatorisk motgång - chefers syn på glasklippan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Glasklippan symboliserar fenomenet att kvinnor oftare befordras till ledande positioner i motgång än framgång. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att hos chefer i Sverige undersöka upplevelser och förhållningssätt till glasklippan, vad den tros bero på samt hur kvinnor anses påverkas av den i arbetslivet. Semistrukturerade intervjuer där ett scenario om glasklippan diskuterades utfördes med 12 chefer. Induktiv tematisk analys användes. Några intervjupersoner hade själva hamnat på glasklippan utan att ha verkat medvetna om det. Deltagarna förde ofta motstridiga resonemang och deras uppfattningar var inte samstämmiga. Det lyftes även hur kvinnors situation ser ut på organisationer idag, varför det är viktigt att medvetandegöra fenomenet, och förklaringar till glasklippan. Trots glasklippans närvaro i organisationer verkar den vara svår att se och förstå. Olika förväntningar som ställs på kvinnor skapar en svårhanterlig situation för dem på glasklippan. Att fenomenet förekommer i Sverige men är svårupptäckt visar på vikten av att uppmärksamma glasklippan.

  • 4.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslösa krav - gränslösa möjligheter2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, 1, p. 84-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna skrift har vi försökt ringa in en aspekt – gränslöst arbete – i det mångdimensionella och komplexa fenomen som nu allt oftare benämns digitalisering. En del människor associerar ordet snarast med gränslösa möjligheter, och för andra är upplevelsen snarare gränslösa krav. Vi har i skriften mer betonat möjligheterna än farhågorna genom att lägga stor vikt vid forskning och erfarenheter som kan vägleda och stärka de gränslöst arbetandes kontroll över sitt arbetsliv och sin livssituation. I detta avslutande kapitel sammanfattas vissa tendenser och vi tar på nytt upp en del farhågor som blivit knapphändigt behandlade i kapitlen samt försöker urskilja riskgrupper.

  • 5.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete - introduktion2018In: Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnar Aronsson, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2018, 1, p. 11-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den informationstekniska utvecklingen har möjliggjort helt nya sätt att organisera arbete. I rum och på platser som tidigare var reserverade för privatliv har nu det avlönade arbetet tagit sig in, och på den uppkopplade arbetsplatsen finns möjligheter för anställda att via nätet sköta privatlivsärenden. Både på arbetsplatsen, på andra platser och i det uppkopplade hemmet går det att snabbt växla fram och tillbaka mellan arbete och personliga angelägenheter. Denna typ av arbetsvillkor kallas för gränslöst arbete, och det kan också ställas i kontrast till fabriksarbete med höggradig maskinstyrning där arbetaren måste finnas vid sin maskin och genomföra specificerade arbetsuppgifter i tidsintervall som bestäms av maskinernas hastighet. Sådant arbete var vanligt i Sverige för bara några decennier sedan men har nu kraftigt minskat genom teknikutveckling. Höggradigt styrt arbete är dock fortfarande utbrett runt om i världen. De två exemplen är poler i en skala och däremellan finns en stor variation i villkor vad gäller arbetets reglering och tidsmässigt och rumsligt oberoende.

  • 6.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete: En forskarantologi om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förord

    Delar av arbetslivet har under de senaste decennierna gått mot mer flexibilitet, inte minst i fråga om när och var man kan utföra sitt arbete. Denna flexibilitet kan innebära fördelar men det gränslösa arbetslivet medför också utmaningar för både arbetsgivare och arbetstagare. 

    I regeringens arbetsmiljöstrategi 2016–2020 fick Arbetsmiljöverket ett uppdrag att i samråd med arbetsmarknadens parter ta fram en vägledning om arbetsmiljöutmaningar i anknytning till ett gränslöst arbetsliv. Den här forskarantologin har tagits fram inom ramen för det uppdraget. Texterna har skrivits av ledande forskare inom området och utgör ett av underlagen till vägledningen. Professor Gunnar Aronsson har varit redaktör för antologin. Både antologin och vägledningen finns att ladda ner från Arbetsmiljöverkets webbplats.

    Projektledare för denna antologi vid Arbetsmiljöverket har varit Tommy Fahlander. Vi vill även tacka övriga kollegor vid Arbetsmiljöverket som varit behjälpliga i arbetet med antologin. 

    De åsikter som uttrycks i denna antologi är författarnas egna och speglar inte nödvändigtvis Arbetsmiljöverkets uppfattning. 

    Christina Jonsson

    Chef för enheten för människa och omgivningArbetsmiljöverketStockholm i januari 2018

  • 7.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gränslöst arbete, resiliens och kompensation2016In: Friska arbetsplatser för kvinnor och män i alla åldrar, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2016, p. 22-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Tillit2015In: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 22-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Rehabilitering och samordning: Slutrapport: Utvärdering av Rehsams forskningsprogram 2009–20112017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rehabilitering och samordning, Rehsam, var ett forskningsprogram som initierades av regeringen år 2009. Målet var att öka den evidensbaserade kunskapsmassan kring rehabilitering av personer som är sjukskrivna, eller riskerar att bli sjukskrivna, på grund av psykiska eller muskuloskeletala problem. Denna rapport är en sammanfattande utvärdering av Rehsamprogrammet.

    Som en uppföljning av Rehsam-satsningen fick Forte 2014 bland annat i uppdrag att göra en vetenskaplig kvalitetsbedömning av den forskning som genomförts inom Rehsam-satsningen. Detta uppdrag har genomförts i olika etapper, med två delrapporter under 2015. Den här utvärderingen omfattar 21 projekt och är en slutrapport av uppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar Rehsam-projektens resultat att projekt som omfattar insatser på arbetsplatsen är mer effektiva än de projekt som inte genomfört arbetsplats-interventioner. Tendensen är även att projekt med högre vetenskaplig kvalitet oftare har signifikanta utfall.

  • 10.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Illegitima arbetsuppgifter och identitet - en introduktion2016In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 22, no 3/4, p. 28-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressreaktioners styrka beror inte bara på hur mycket och hur ofta människor arbetar utan hör även samman med ett arbetsuppdrags sociala innebörd. Forskningen om illegitima arbetsuppgifter och stress inkluderar denna sociala aspekt, vilken antas vara relaterad till individens självuppfattning och identitet. I artikeln introduceras en modell om illegitima uppgifter som identitetsrelevanta stressorer. Dessutom redovisas en empirisk studie av tre yrkesgrupper kring sambandet mellan identitetsrelevanta stressorer och ohälsoreaktioner.

  • 11.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Johansson, Boo
    Albin, Maria
    Torgén, Margareta
    Nylén, Per
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Vingård, Eva
    Håkansta, Carin
    Healthy workplaces for women and men of all ages2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this knowledge compilation is to contribute with knowledge about the work environment in relation to the ever-older workforce. How do employee needs and possibilities change from a course of life perspective? What should the employer and other work environment actors think about in order for the workforce to be able to and want to work to a high age?

    The Swedish Work Environment Authority wishes to give an overarching knowledge profile of different aspects of the work environment and the ageing workforce, and we therefore asked seven researchers to summarise the research-based knowledge within each of their areas, from a course of life and gender perspective. An eighth researcher acted as an editor for the anthology, and has also written the preface.

    In summary, the report shows that we are becoming even healthier, living ever longer and working to an ever higher age. Older people in the workforce are positive for the economy because productivity increases, and the business sector can make use of competent and experienced staff for a longer time. But for the older labour force to be healthy and want to work at higher ages, one needs to take into consideration how ageing influences health and the capacity to work. With age, all people are affected to different degrees by reduced vision, hearing and physical capacity, as well as longer reaction times. Even their cognitive capacity changes. Certain cognitive abilities are strengthened with rising age, while others deteriorate. With an ageing workforce, more employees have chronic illnesses, which, however, seldom affect the actual working ability. Changes in working life also affect health and wellbeing, for example deregulated work and the technical development. Age and previous experiences impact upon our ability to adapt to these changes. One factor that promotes adaptation is partly resilience (that is to say, resistance and the ability to adapt to the new), partly compensation strategies when the mental and physical resources change. There are no great differences between gender when it comes to the consequences of ageing on health and wellbeing in the work. On the other hand, the public health trend shows increasing differences in health between the lower educated and the higher educated - a difference increasing more quickly among women than among men. The gender-segregated labour market also means that more women than men work in physical and mentally burdensome work. Attitudes at the workplace also affect wellbeing and the will to continue working at higher ages. Men tend to be more sensitive to age discrimination while women run the risk of double discrimination, that is to say based upon both gender and age. Work environment and the attitude to an older workforce are central to the considerations that an employee makes in the choice between continuing to work and retiring. Other prerequisites that influence the decision are one’s own health, private finances and self-fulfilling activities.

    The employer can do a great deal to lengthen and improve their employees’ working life. Systematic work environment management benefits everyone, and it can contribute to everyone keeping their working ability and to older people wanting to and being able to work for longer. Occupational health services of good quality also play an important role. Technical aids and adaptation of the working pace and working tasks are other measures that improve the work environment for the older workforce. The employer can also contribute to stimulating work arrangements and organisational support for the employees in order to strengthen their resilience and promote the development of compensation strategies. 

  • 12.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    Hammarström, Anne
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Träskman-Bendz, Lil
    Hall, Charlotte
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies - original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms.

    METHODS: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990-2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1-5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used.

    RESULTS: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout.

    CONCLUSION: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 13.
    Astvik, Wanja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Mälardalens högskola, Sverige .
    Welander, Jonas
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer i socialtjänsten2017In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 41-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Personalsituationen i socialtjänsten framstår som alltmer problematisk med omfattande personalomsättning och rekryteringssvårigheter. Baserat på en nationell enkätstudie undersöks betydelsen av arbetsvillkor och organisatoriska faktorer för handlingsalternativen sorti, tystnad och lojalitet bland medarbetare och chefer inom socialtjänsten. Resultaten visar bland annat att styrningen inom socialtjänsten behöver utvecklas i riktning mot färre motstridiga krav och för en öppenhet som tillåter dialog och kritisk reflektion för att behålla och på sikt attrahera nya medarbetare.

  • 14. Augustsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    Hasson, Henna
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden..
    The Need for Dual Openness to Change: A Longitudinal Study Evaluating the Impact of Employees' Openness to Organizational Change Content and Process on Intervention Outcomes2017In: Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, ISSN 0021-8863, E-ISSN 1552-6879, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 349-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how individual- and group-level openness to organizational change, concerning change content and process, affects intervention outcomes. The intervention aimed to improve primary health care employees' competence in and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Employees' (n = 1,042) ratings of their openness to the change content and process as well as of their workgroup's openness to the change content before the intervention were used to predict ICT competence and its use 18 months later. Openness to the change process predicted both ICT competence and use of competence, while openness to the change content and group openness predicted use of competence only. These results show that individual- and group-level openness to organizational change are important predictors of successful outcomes. Furthermore, employees should be open both to the content of the change and to the process by which the intervention is implemented in order to maximize outcomes.

  • 15.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    De Cuyper, Nele
    Murphy, Megan
    Connelly, Catherine E.
    How Do We Feel and Behave When We’re Not Permanent Full-Time Employees? The Case of the Diverse Forms of Non-Standard Work2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, p. 258-275Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how it feels to work in non-standard employment that deviates from the traditional full-time permanent arrangement. Non-standard employmentis frequently used by organizations today and often tailored to organizational needs. Therefore, a diversity of arrangements has developed, which means that employment and working conditions and their consequences for the individual and the organization may vary a lot. The chapter first provides a typology of most commonly used non-standard contracts and discusses their comparability across national employment protection legislation and labour markets. It further illustrates that workers may view alternative employment differently, depending on organizational or labour market structures that create working conditions for specific contracts, and individual perspectives that are shaped by different needs and perceptions of the employment. These structural issues and individual perceptions may well explain the variety of consequences, positive as well as negative, which are discussed in this chapter in terms of work attitudes, organizational behaviour, individual health and well-being and career development.

  • 16.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Christensen, Marit
    Clausen, Thomas
    Mauno, Saija
    The Launch of a New Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, E-ISSN 2002-2867, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Berntson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Enkätmetodik2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enkätmetodik ger såväl teoretisk som praktisk kunskap om enkätundersökningar från att identifiera ett problem och formulera lämpliga frågor, till att analysera och tolka resultatet. Boken har ett evidensbaserat perspektiv där läsaren får lära sig olika verktyg som bidrar till undersökningens tillförlitlighet.

    Fokus ligger på metodiken, som förklaras och sätts in i sitt sammanhang med hjälp av många exempel, faktarutor och tydliga beskrivningar. Läsaren får således god förståelse för centrala områden såsom mätteori, reliabilitet, validitet och faktoranalys.

  • 18. Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Differences in organizational preconditions for managers in genderized municipal services2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 209-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to much research concerned with differences in male and female managers’ leadership strategies, this study focuses on how organizational arrangements vary for managers in differently genderized contexts; it explores the opportunities for frontline managers in municipal services to fulfil their assignment. The organisational preconditions for over 400 managers of municipal health and social care, education and technical services are analysed in a cross-level and comparative research design. The results indicate that managers of feminized care services work in an environment with fewer resources, less organisational support and larger spans of control, than managers in masculinized municipal services. These results shed light on meso-level mechanisms involved in the unequal distribution of health risks among men and women in working life.

  • 19.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Science, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Mather, Lisa
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Stress in paid and unpaid work as related to cortisol and subjective health complaints in women working in the public health care sector2017In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 286-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Focusing on 420 women employed within the woman-dominated health care sector, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how any variation in their total workload (TWL) in terms of paid and unpaid work relate to various subjective health complaints (SHC) (n=420) and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Design/methodology/approach: The authors explored how any variation in their TWL in terms of paid and unpaid work related cross-sectionally to SHC (n=420), and the neuroendocrine stress marker cortisol (n=68).

    Findings: Hierarchical regression analyses showed that stress of unpaid work was most strongly related to diurnal variations in cortisol. Both stress of paid and unpaid work as well as TWL stress, but not hours spent on TWL, were related to SHC.

    Practical implications: Taken together, objective measures of hours spent on various TWL domains were unrelated to outcome measures while perceptions of having too much TWL and TWL stress were linked to both cortisol and SHC, i.e. how individuals perceive a situation seem to be more important for health than the actual situation, which has implications for research and efforts to reduce individual TWL.

    Originality/value: This study is unique in showing that unpaid work and perceptions having too much TWL relate to stress markers in women working in the public health care sector.

  • 20.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Task-level work engagement of self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers2017In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 724-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Self-employed workers typically report higher well-being levels than employees. The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanisms that lead to differences in work engagement between self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers. Design/methodology/approach - Self-employed and organizationally employed high-skilled workers (N = 167) were compared using a multigroup multilevel analysis. Participants assessed their job control (general level) and reported their work engagement during work tasks (task level) by means of the Day Reconstruction Method. Aspects of job control (autonomy, creativity, and learning opportunities) and task characteristics (social tasks and core work tasks) were contrasted for the two groups as predictors of work engagement. Findings - Self-employed workers reported higher levels of job control and work engagement than organizationally employed workers. In both groups, job control predicted work engagement. Employees with more opportunities to be creative and autonomous were more engaged at work. Self-employed workers were more engaged when they had more learning opportunities. On the task level, the self-employed were more engaged during core work tasks and social tasks. Practical implications - The findings suggest that self-employment is an effective way for high-skilled workers to increase the amount of job control available to them, and to improve their work engagement. From an intervention perspective, self-employed workers may benefit most from more learning opportunities, more social tasks, and more core work tasks. Organizationally employed workers may appreciate more autonomy and opportunities for creativity. Originality/value - This study contributes to a better understanding of the role that job control and task characteristics play in predicting the work engagement of high-skilled self-employed and organizationally employed workers.

  • 21.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Rigotti, Thomas
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Psychosocial Working Conditions Among High-Skilled Workers: A Latent Transition Analysis2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 223-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of psychosocial working conditions assume an interaction of different work environment characteristics. Most studies detail various aspects of such interactions, while fewer investigate the comprehensive patterns of interrelated variables. This exploratory study distinguishes patterns of psychosocial working conditions, describes their characteristics, and investigates their change over 6 years. The working conditions of 1,744 high-skilled workers in Sweden, of a representative sample of the working population, were empirically classified into 4 distinct patterns: (a) the Supporting pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy; (b) the Constraining pattern with a very low workload, very low time pressure, low learning opportunities, medium creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; (c) the Demanding pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, medium learning opportunities, high creativity requirements, and very low autonomy; and (d) the Challenging pattern with a high workload, high time pressure, very high learning opportunities, very high creativity requirements, and very high autonomy. Importantly, these patterns were associated with significant differences in worker well-being. From an individual perspective, working conditions most often changed from patterns with a high workload and time pressure to patterns with lower levels of these demands. Over time, the prevalence of the Constraining pattern increased while that of the Challenging pattern decreased. To conclude, a person-centered approach broadens the understanding of the complex interplay between psychosocial working conditions and their longitudinal change, which can improve the tailoring of occupational health interventions.

  • 22.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.
    Dunne, Sara
    Fink, David
    Gatej, Alexandra Raluca
    Karlsson, Ebba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ruberti, Veronica
    Wronska, Marta Katarzyna
    Why do we enjoy creative tasks? Results from a multigroup randomized controlled study2016In: Thinking Skills and Creativity, ISSN 1871-1871, E-ISSN 1878-0423, Vol. 19, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have linked positive emotions with creativity, but it remains unknown why creative activities may enhance positive emotions. We tested how creative tasks influence autonomous self-expression and task absorption, and whether this in turn increases positive emotions. Data from 478 participants were divided into four language samples (English, German, Italian, and Polish) and analyzed in a series of multigroup structural equation models. The indirect effects were replicated in all samples. Creative tasks enhanced positive emotions through an increase in autonomy. However, participants who solved creative tasks also reported lower task absorption, and this has hindered their experience of positive emotions. In total, a small increase of positive emotions was recorded for creative tasks in comparison to non-creative ones. We suggest that creative activities may support autonomous functioning and enhance positive emotions, given that participants will stay sufficiently focused on the task.

  • 23. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Stengård, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    The negative effects on mental health of being in a non-desired occupation in an increasingly precarious labour market2017In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 3, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precarious employment has been associated with poor mental health. Moreover, increasing labour market precariousness may cause individuals to feel ‘locked-in’, in non-desired workplaces or occupations, out of fear of not finding a new employment. This could be experienced as a ‘loss of control’, with similar negative health consequences. It is plausible that the extent to which being in a non-desired occupation (NDO) or being in precarious employment (PE) has a negative impact on mental health differs according to age group. We tested this hypothesis using data from 2331 persons, 18–34, 35–44, and 45–54 years old, who answered questionnaires in 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for poor mental health (GHQ-12) in 2010, after exposure to NDO and PE in 1999/2000 or 2005. NDO and PE were more common in the youngest age group, and they were both associated with poor mental health. In the middle age group the impact of NDO was null, while in contrast the IRR for PE was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.3) after full adjustment. The pattern was completely the opposite in the oldest age group (adjusted IRR for NDO 1.6 (1.1–2.4) and for PE 0.9 (0.6–1.4)). The population attributable fraction of poor mental health was 14.2% and 11.6%, respectively, for NDO in the youngest and oldest age group, and 17.2% for PE in the middle age group. While the consequences of PE have been widely discussed, those of NDO have not received attention. Interventions aimed at adapting work situations for older individuals and facilitating conditions of job change in such a way as to avoid risking unemployment or precarious employment situations may lead to improved mental health in this age group.

  • 24. Chmiel, Nik
    et al.
    Fraccaroli, FrancoSverke, MagnusStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An international perspective2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest edition of this classic text provides a comprehensive and internationally relevant introduction to work and organizational psychology, exploring the depth and diversity of the field in an accessible way without obscuring the complexities of the subject.

    • Third edition of a classic textbook offering a complete introduction to work and organizational psychology for undergraduate and graduate students with no prior knowledge of the field
    • An innovative new six part structure with two-colour presentation focuses the core material around issues that are either Job-Focused, Organization-Focused, or People-Focused
    • Each chapter title is a question designed to engage readers in understanding work and organizational psychology whilst simultaneously inviting discussion of key topics in the field
    • The third edition introduces two new co-editors in Franco Fraccaroli from Italy and Magnus Sverke, who join Nik Chmiel and will increase relevance and appeal for European students.
  • 25. Chmiel, Nik
    et al.
    Fraccaroli, Franco
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Introduction2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, p. xxi-xxivChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26. Corin, Linda
    et al.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Managers’ Turnover in the Public Sector: The Role of Psychosocial Working Conditions2016In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 790-802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important challenge for public organizations is to attract and retain skilled managers. The present study explores how profiles of psychosocial working conditions, assessed by the combination of managerial-specific job demands and job resources, longitudinally predict managers’ turnover intentions and actual turnover in Swedish municipalities. Considerable effects of managers’ psychosocial working conditions on turnover intentions but not on actual turnover were found. Thus, poor working conditions may result in psychologically detached managers in public organizations, which may have considerable and costly effects on both the organizations and the managers, in terms of decreased commitment, performance, and impaired health.

  • 27.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Karin Schenck
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs - a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one's job as a GP2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one's job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Design: Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. Setting: A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Subjects: Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Results: Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention.

  • 28. Ericsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Rydstedt, Leif W.
    Pettersson, Pär
    Augustinsson, Sören
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Återhämtning bland hockeyspelare i Tre Kronor, nattarbetande bagare och skolledare – om asocialitet, sömnlösa nätter och allvarsam lek – en dygnsberättelse2016In: Arbetsliv i omvandling, ISSN 1404-8426, no 2, p. 7-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Återhämtning är den process som återställer individens energi och mentala resurser. Vi betraktar här återhämtning som en dynamisk process av ständig reglering och anpassning av aktivitetsnivån till omgivningens krav. Föreliggande studie är ett första steg i ett projekt som har för avsikt att fördjupa kunskapen om denna process. Vårt antagande är att det finns olika strategier, platser, behov, förutsättningar och möjligheter för återhämtning i arbetslivet. Både vad gäller individuella olikheter men även skillnader som kan hänföras till yrkesgrupp. Fokusgrupper genomfördes med tre olika yrkesgrupper: professionella ishockeyspelare, nattarbetande bagare och skolledare (sammanlagt 29 deltagare). Utgångspunkten för fokusgrupperna var en idé om en dygnsberättelse, inom vilken det fanns tre distinktioner, arbete, fritid och sömn. Samtalen i fokusgrupperna utgick från dygnsberättelsen, men kretsade kring arbetets krav, förväntningar på prestation samt behov och förutsättningar för återhämtning. Vad som exemplifierades var olika strategier för att hantera de psykofysiologiska påfrestningar som de olika yrkesgrupperna ställs inför. Berättelserna från fokusgrupperna är mångfacetterade och förmedlar både bilden av olika ”rum”, likt fönster, för återhämtning men även en avsaknad av sådana förutsättningar. En avsaknad som istället leder till ytterligare energiförbrukning. Det centrala problemet för de nattarbetande bagarna var ofta på ett eller annat sätt relaterat till en fysiologisk nedvarvning och framförallt (bristen på) sömnkvalitet. Det var alltså inte minnet av jobbet som klängde sig kvar hos bagarna när de hade kommit hem efter avslutat pass. Kvardröjande mentala representationer av stressorer, en typ av repetitivt ältande, visade sig däremot hos både ishockeyspelarna och skolledarna. För ishockeyspelarna var återhämtning ofta tätt sammankopplat med prestation. Goda prestationer skapade bättre förutsättningar för att inte ta med arbetet hem. Ältandet och svårigheter att släppa arbetet var ofta relaterat till mindre bra prestationer eller direkta misslyckanden.

  • 29.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att arbeta i samma sektor, organisation och yrke: Likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsorelaterade besvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar som läkare2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken, vilket kan påverka både arbetsmiljö och hälsa. Sektor och yrke behöver därför tas i beaktande när arbetsmiljö och hälsa jämförs mellan kvinnor och män. Denna studie utgår från en modell där arbetsmiljö utgörs av fem dimensioner som tillsammans skapar ett arbetsklimat. De fem dimensionerna består av arbetet, arbetsrollen, arbetsgruppen, ledarskapet och organisationen. Syftet med studien är att undersöka likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsorelaterade besvär bland kvinnor och män som har en liknande arbetssituation, det vill säga som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Dels jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Dels prediceras hälsobesvär utifrån arbetsklimatet för kvinnor och män.

  • 30.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Social status i arbetslivet: Perspektiv från en forskare inom arbets- och organisationspsykologi2016In: Makt och inflytande i arbetslivet / [ed] Margaretha Holmqvist, Stockholm: Premiss förlag, 2016, p. 220-239Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetslivet är till sin karaktär hierarkiskt. Trots det fokuserar arbets- och organisationspsykologin inte på maktfrågor, utan mer på den anställdes möjligheter till kontroll över den egna arbetssituationen. Här ges ett perspektiv på betydelsen av social status i arbetslivet.

  • 31.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Att arbeta i samma sektor, organisation och yrke: Likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar som läkare2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of Abstracts - FALF 2016, Mittuniversitetet , 2016, p. 23-23Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknaden i Sverige är könssegregerad. Det innebär att kvinnor och män i hög grad arbetar i olika sektorer och har olika yrken. Det gör att sektor och yrke behöver tas med när hälsoskillnader mellan kvinnor och män ska undersökas. Den här studien undersöker likheter och skillnader i arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär bland kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, i samma organisation och har samma yrke. Först jämförs arbetsklimat och hälsobesvär mellan kvinnor och män. Sedan undersöks sambanden mellan arbetsklimatet och hälsobesvär för kvinnor och män. Resultaten baseras på självrapporter i enkäter från 95 kvinnor och 105 män som arbetade som läkare på ett och samma akutsjukhus i Stockholm. Resultaten visade inga statistiskt säkerställda skillnader mellan kvinnor och män när det gällde upplevelser av arbetet, arbetsrollen, ledarskapet eller organisationen. Dock rapporterade kvinnorna att de upplevde sammanhållningen och samarbetet i arbetsgruppen som lägre än männen. Kvinnorna rapporterade också mer av både psykiska och fysiska hälsobesvär jämfört med männen. Både sammanhållning och samarbete i arbetsgruppen var relaterade till färre hälsobesvär, men bara för männen. Den här explorativa studien visar att det kan finnas likheter i arbetsklimatet bland kvinnor och män när arbetssituationen är likartad, men tyder också på att en del av de skillnader som finns i den segregerade arbetsmarknaden också tycks vara närvarande för kvinnor och män som arbetar i samma sektor, organisation och yrke.

  • 32.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the Same Sector, in the Same Organization and in the Same Occupation: Women and Men Physicians’ Work Climate and Health Complaints2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores similarities and differences between women and men with similar working conditions (working within the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of psychological work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

    Design/Methodology: Questionnaire data were collected from 95 women and 105 men physicians who worked in the same acute care hospital in Sweden in 2001.

    Results: Results showed no gender differences in the job, role, leadership, or organizational characteristics. Women reported less workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation and more mental and physical health complaints than men. Role characteristics (overload/conflict/ambiguity) were related to more health complaints for both women and men. Workgroup cohesiveness and cooperation were related to less health complaints only for men.

    Limitations: The study did not account for women and men often working as physicians in different specialties and/or may perform different work tasks. The non-work domain was not investigated.

    Research/practical implications: This study indicates similarities between women and men when the work situation is similar, but suggests that some of the differences that appear in the larger structures of the gender-segregated labor market also seem to be present for women and men who work in the same sector, the same organization, and in the same occupation.

    Originality: Previous research has underscored the problem of finding samples that are large enough to allow comparing women and men working under similar working conditions.

  • 33.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Working in the same sector, organization and occupation: Similarities and differences in work climate and health complaints among women and men physicans2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish labor market is gender segregated. This means that gender differences in health can be confounded by factors associated with sector and occupation. Thus, sector and occupation need to be considered when comparing work environment and health between women and men. This study uses the theoretical model of psychological work climate that specifies the work environment in terms of five dimensions. These five dimensions are characteristics of the job, role, workgroup, leadership and organization. The aim of the present study was to explore similarities and differences between women and men who have similar working conditions (working in the same sector, in the same organization, and in the same occupation). Women and men were compared regarding 1) levels of work climate and health complaints and 2) how the work climate related to health complaints.

  • 34.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    Why do General Practitioners Self-Diagnose and Self-Prescribe Drugs?2016In: Book of Proceedings. 12th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: OHP in Times of Change: Society and the workplace / [ed] K. Teoh, V. Dediu, N.J. Saade, & J. Hassard, Nottingham, UK, 2016, p. 203-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Physicians tend to demonstrate inappropriate behavior when it comes to taking care of their own health. Self-prescribing or self-treatment seems to be practiced in many countries, and self-treated illnesses are found to be more common among general practitioners. For the physician such behavior is a threat to their own health, and as a consequence their patients might not be able to receive optimal health care. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between help seeking behavior, sickness presenteeism, exhaustion, and self- treatment among general practitioners.

    Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among GPs employed in one City Council in Sweden using a questionnaire on health and work factors. The criterion variable “To self-diagnose and self-treat” was measured with a single item from the Physician Career Path Questionnaire (PCPQ; Fridner, 2004). Exhaustion was measured with a scale from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, OLBI (α = .82; Demerouti et al., 2001, 2003). “Sickness presenteeism” and “Taking vacation due to stress” was measured with single items, also from the PCPQ (Fridner, 2004). For the analyses, we used hierarchical multiple regression.

    Results: Altogether 193 (63,9%) female GPs and 109 (36,1%) male GPs answered the questionnaire, a 44% response-rate. Among them 46,2% stated they had diagnosed and treated themselves for a condition for which they would have referred a patient to a specialist. Our regression analysis model revealed that those physicians who self-treated themselves were also significantly more sickness present at work. Adding to this, exhaustion among the GPs was also included in the model.

    Conclusions: This study shows that self-treatment is not an isolated behavior, but occurs together with exhaustion and sickness presenteeism, indicating a quite severe situation for their health, which would need to be investigated by other doctors than themselves. This needs to be further investigated and taken into account by the National Board of Health and Welfare, County Councils and Medical Associations, and for future physicians our medical schools. 

  • 35.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Emotional working memory in older adults after total sleep deprivation2017In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, no Suppl. 1, p. e110-e110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Even though the occurrence of sleep problems increases with age, few studies have focused on the cognitive effects of acute sleep deprivation in elderly. Most previous research indicate that, compared to young, older adults show less impairment in e.g. attention after sleep deprivation. However, little is known of whether the same pattern holds for higher cognitive functions. In addition, while old age is usually related to a general decrease in working memory abilities, performance on working memory tasks may differ depending on the emotional valence of the stimuli, where positive stimuli seem to be beneficial for working memory performance in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory in older adults using two levels of working memory load.

    Materials and methods: A healthy sample of 48 old adults (MAge=66.69 years, SDAge=3.44 years) was randomized into a total sleep deprivation group (TSD; n=24) or a sleep control group (SC; n=24). They performed a working memory task (n-back) containing positive, negative and neutral pictures in a low (1-back) and a high (3-back) working memory load condition. Performance was measured as Accuracy (d'), Omissions and Reaction Time (RT).

    Results: For the d' and Omissions we performed two separate 2x2x3 (sleep, working memory load, valence) repeated measures analyses of variance (rmANOVA). For the RTs, we applied a mixed-effects model. For both d' and RT we found no effect of sleep deprivation (Ps > .05). For valence, we found main effects on both d' (F1,46 = 5.56, P=.005) and RT (F1,95.7 = 4.84, P=.01). d' did not differ for positive and neutral pictures, but was in both cases significantly better than for negative pictures. RTs were significantly faster for positive pictures. However, a working memory loadvalence interaction (F1,95.7 = 4.50, P=.01) further revealed an effect of valence in the low, but not in the high load condition. In the low load condition, RTs were faster for positive than for neutral pictures and faster for neutral than for negative pictures. There was no significant effect of Omissions.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that emotional working memory performance was not significantly affected by one night of sleep deprivation in older adults, which contrast what we found in a sample of young adults from the same project. In line with previous research, our results indicate a beneficial effect of positive stimuli on working memory in older adults. This effect was present in both groups and most pronounced for reaction times in the condition with a lower cognitive demand. We can conclude that, among older adults, the working memory performance is not impaired by sleep deprivation and that the benefits of positive stimuli on working memory seem intact. These findings contribute to a better understanding of older adults' cognitive functioning after sleep deprivation.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Gender differences in Reasons for Sickness Presenteeism - a study among GPs in a Swedish health care organization2016In: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 2052-4374, Vol. 28, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is common that physicians go to work while sick and therefore it is important to understand the reasons behind. Previous research has shown that women and men differ in health and health related behavior. In this study, we examine gender differences among general practitioners who work while sick.

    Methods: General practitioners (GP’s) working in outpatient care in a Swedish city participated in the study (n = 283; women = 63 %; response rate = 41 %). Data were obtained from a large web-based questionnaire about health and organization within primary care. Two questions about sickness presenteeism (going to work while sick) were included; life-long and during the past 12 months, and five questions about reasons. We controlled for general health, work-family conflict and demographic variables.

    Results: Female physicians reported sickness presenteeism more often than male physicians. Work-family conflict mediated the association between gender and sickness presenteeism.

    Women reported reasons related with “concern for others” and “workload” more strongly than men. Men reported reasons related with “capacity” and “money” more strongly than women. These differences are likely effects of gender stereotyping and different family-responsibilities.

    Conclusions: Gender socialization and gender stereotypes may influence work and health-related behavior. Because sickness presenteeism is related with negative effects both on individuals and at organizational levels, it is important that managers of health organizations understand the reasons for this, and how gender roles may influence the prevalence of sickness presenteeism and the reasons that female and male GPs give for their behavior.

  • 37. Hasson, Henna
    et al.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Karina
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Are We All in the Same Boat?: The Role of Perceptual Distance in Organizational Health Interventions2016In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 294-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how agreement between leaders' and their team's perceptions influence intervention outcomes in a leadership-training intervention aimed at improving organizational learning. Agreement, i.e. perceptual distance was calculated for the organizational learning dimensions at baseline. Changes in the dimensions from pre-intervention to post-intervention were evaluated using polynomial regression analysis with response surface analysis. The general pattern of the results indicated that the organizational learning improved when leaders and their teams agreed on the level of organizational learning prior to the intervention. The improvement was greatest when the leader's and the team's perceptions at baseline were aligned and high rather than aligned and low. The least beneficial scenario was when the leader's perceptions were higher than the team's perceptions. These results give insights into the importance of comparing leaders' and their team's perceptions in intervention research. Polynomial regression analyses with response surface methodology allow three-dimensional examination of relationship between two predictor variables and an outcome. This contributes with knowledge on how combination of predictor variables may affect outcome and allows studies of potential non-linearity relating to the outcome. Future studies could use these methods in process evaluation of interventions.

  • 38.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lön, motivation och prestation: Psykologiska perspektiv på verksamhetsnära lönesättning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Individuell lönesättning, med en tydligare uttalad koppling mellan anställdas arbetsutförande och lön, har blivit ett allt vanligare inslag i verksamheter. Ett grundläggande antagande som ligger bakom denna utveckling är att lön och löneutveckling är motiverande för individen och därmed bidrar till bra arbetsprestationer och god verksamhetsutveckling. Ett annat grundantagande är att lön och lönesystem kan dra till sig individer som är attraktiva för organisationen samt att lönesystemet ger organisationen möjligheter att premiera och därmed behålla de individer som bidrar till verksamheten.

  • 39.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Malmrud, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Lön, motivation och prestation: Psykologiska perspektiv på verksamhetsnära lönesättning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företags- och medarbetarnära lönebildning blir allt vanligare. Den utvecklingen baseras på antaganden om att lön och löneutveckling bidrar till ökad motivation och goda arbetsprestationer, och att den gör det lättare för arbetsgivare att rekrytera och behålla attraktiva medarbetare. En tydligare uttalad koppling mellan anställdas arbetsutförande och lön antas alltså  bidra till att verksamheten utvecklas. Samtidigt är lön en av flera olika faktorer som kan bidra till ökad motivation hos medarbetare och det finns andra faktorer än lön som kan ha större betydelse för motivationen. En förutsättning för att lön ska fungera som en motivationsfaktor är att lönesättningen upplevs som legitim och rättvis. Men för att nå dit behövs det kunskap om de psykologiska mekanismerna som ligger bakom upplevelser av legitimitet, liksom om hur lön och lönesättning hänger samman med motivation och prestation i arbetet.

  • 40.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Richter, Anne
    Låstad, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Meta-Analysis on Job Insecurity and its Outcomes: An Extension of Previous Knowledge2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Job insecurity has been recognized as a predominant work stressor in work environment research for the past thirty years. Thus far, two meta-analyses have been published on the consequences of job insecurity for individual and organizational outcomes. However, these meta-analyses were published in 2002 and 2008 and contain only a few broad outcomes. Since then, the amount of published job insecurity studies have increased substantially, investigating a wider range of outcomes. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to extend previous knowledge by investigating the effects of job insecurity on a broader spectrum of outcomes than the previous meta-analyses have done.

    Design/Methodology: Literature searches with the search terms “job insecurity”, “job uncertainty”, “job security”, and “job security satisfaction” in relevant databases during the time period 1980─2016 resulted in 523 peer-reviewed papers published. The outcome variables were divided in to three thematic categories: work related attitudes and behaviors, mental and physical health, and life outside work.

    Results: The results suggest that job insecurity has a substantial and negative impact on the wide range of outcomes included.

    Limitations: The study cannot address the question of direction (causality) of the relationships presented and did not control for potential confounding variables.

    Research/Practical implications: Job insecurity is demonstrated to have strong, negative effects on organizational performance and individual health and well-being as well as for life outside work.

    Originality/Value: Adding to previous knowledge, this study both broadens and deepens the understanding of the negative consequences associated with job insecurity.

  • 41.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inclusion, sustainability, and equality: how can research contribute?2017In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, article id 1332856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polarisation, segregation, exclusion, inequality, and vulnerability are real threats to our societies. What kind of research can identify and explain the mechanisms involved in creating what we need to strive for integration, inclusion, equality, and social sustainability? What kind of questions shall we raise? How can we decrease the gap between research and practice? In fact, striving to keep to the standards of excellent science might result in missing important aspects and new perspectives. There is a risk that within disciplines, science is too abstract and narrow-minded.

    My intention here is to share some reflections on how we can learn from earlier experiences of research on inequalities and to discuss some alternative ideas on approaches that might contribute applicable knowledge.

  • 42.
    Jonsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Abbott, Max W.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Measuring Gambling Reinforcers, Over Consumption and Fallacies: The Psychometric Properties and Predictive Validity of the Jonsson-Abbott Scale2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, gambling and problem gambling research relies on cross-sectional and retrospective designs. This has compromised identification of temporal relationships and causal inference. To overcome these problems a new questionnaire, the Jonsson-Abbott Scale (JAS), was developed and used in a large, prospective, general population study, The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs). The JAS has 11 items and seeks to identify early indicators, examine relationships between indicators and assess their capacity to predict future problem progression. The aims of the study were to examine psychometric properties of the JAS (internal consistency and dimensionality) and predictive validity with respect to increased gambling risk and problem gambling onset. The results are based on repeated interviews with 3818 participants. The response rate from the initial baseline wave was 74%. The original sample consisted of a random, stratified selection from the Swedish population register aged between 16 and 84. The results indicate an acceptable fit of a three-factor solution in a confirmatory factor analysis with ‘Over consumption,’ ‘Gambling fallacies,’ and ‘Reinforcers’ as factors. Reinforcers, Over consumption and Gambling fallacies were significant predictors of gambling risk potential and Gambling fallacies and Over consumption were significant predictors of problem gambling onset (incident cases) at 12 month follow up. When controlled for risk potential measured at baseline, the predictor Over consumption was not significant for gambling risk potential at follow up. For incident cases, Gambling fallacies and Over consumption remained significant when controlled for risk potential. Implications of the results for the development of problem gambling, early detection, prevention, and future research are discussed.

  • 43.
    Lantz, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    NPM och tillit – om handlingsutrymmets psykologiska innebörd och betydelse2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Lantz, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Friedrich, Peter
    Cross-boundary collaboration and team innovation2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The individual employees’ possibility to learn at the workplace is an important aspect of a humane work situation (Kohn & Schooler, 1982), and individual learning is a prerequisite for collective learning that result in meaningful change and development within organizations. Lean production System (LPS) has been widely implemented in organizations in different sectors all over the world (Wittrock, 2015). A review of how LPS affect employees shows mainly negative impact of LPS on health, well-being, work-related attitudes, as well as learning, creativity and proactivity (Hasle, Bojesen, Langaa Jensen, & Bramming, 2012). Some studies show also positive outcomes, but little is known about how LPS is implemented when it results in efficiency, learning and positive work conditions (Cullinane, Bosak, Flood, & Demerouti, 2012). LPS principles (short work flows, focus on value-stream, standardization, and routinization) limit autonomy and complexity, and are opposed to a job design that supports individual-, and team learning (see e.g. Lantz, Sjöberg & Friedrich, 2016). Yet LPS should be an effective means for innovation processes through teamwork, and cooperation across functions and teams (Netland,2013).

    The results presented in this paper are based on two studies, part of a larger longitudinal project on teamwork on the shop-floor within LPS in manufacturing industry. Lantz, Sjöberg, and Friedrich (2016) showed in a previous study that additional work tasks carried out on spare time, such as maintenance work, handling deviations, and eliminating non-value-added activities, impact team proactivity through team learning, Main tasks (90% of the work-time) do not. A conclusion was that teamwork within LPS can be a pillar for innovation, and enhance learning, if additional tasks are identified and carried out. How can such proactive behavior be supported? Within the production all tasks that go beyond the production when it runs well, involve other functions. We regard cooperation across borders with other functions and teams as a potential source of inspiration to transform the teams’ understanding of work.

    In this paper our aim is to investigate the role of cross-boundary collaboration (CBC) for team learning and proactivity, and identify hindrances and prerequisites for such collaboration. In the first study we test a model of how CBC impact team proactivity through team learning. In the second study we investigate qualitative differences between how close-to the-production specialists describe their CBC with stagnant teams (1 SD below mean on team proactivity in study 1) and proactive teams (1 SD above mean in study 1), and how managers support and engage in CBC.

  • 45.
    Lantz Friedrich, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Fritz Change AB, Stocksund, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Friedrich, Peter
    Leaned teamwork fattens workplace innovation: The relationship between task complexity, team learning and team proactivity2016In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 561-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim is to contribute to research on workplace innovation by identifying tasks within industrial Lean Production Systems (LPS) that can trigger the involvement of teams in workplace innovation. Previous research has shown negative effects of LPS for employees’ motivation, learning, and innovation processes. The principles of job design of production tasks, e.g., standardization and routinization, are seemingly opposed to a job design that supports team’s engagement in workplace innovation. In this study, we explored relations between task complexity, team learning, and proactivity. Work task analysis was conducted at baseline among 41 teams to capture the complexity of different work tasks. Eight months later, employees completed a questionnaire about team-learning processes, and managers rated each team’s proactivity. Three kinds of tasks were identified. The results showed that the main work task and supplementary tasks gave no input to the team’s learning process. Mediation analysis showed that additional work tasks, taking little time, have an impact on team proactivity through team learning. A conclusion is that teams within LPS can be engaged in workplace innovation depending on how they take on additional tasks, as these impact team learning. The implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  • 46.
    Lantz Friedrich, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Sjöberg, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Friedrich, Peter
    Leaned teamwork fattens workplace innovation: the relationship between task complexity, team learning and team proactivity2017In: Creativity and Innovation in Organizations: Current Research and Recent Trends in Management / [ed] José Ramos, Neil Anderson, José M. Peiró, Fred Zijlstra, Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown negative effects of LPS for employees’ motivation, learning, and innovation processes. The principles of work design of production tasks within LPS are seemingly opposed to a work design that supports team’s engagement in workplace innovation. In this study, we explored relations between task complexity, team learning, and team innovation processes. Work task analysis was conducted at baseline among 41 teams to capture the complexity of different work tasks. Eight months later employees completed a questionnaire about team learning processes, and managers rated each team’s proactivity. Three kinds of tasks were identified. The results showed that the main work task and supplementary tasks gave no input to the team’s learning process. Mediation analysis showed that additional work tasks, taking little time, have an impact on team proactivity through team learning. Our conclusion is that teams within LPS can be engaged in workplace innovation depending on how they take on additional tasks, as these impact team learning. The implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  • 47.
    Lantz Friedrich, Annika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Ulber, Daniela
    Why Are We in a Team? Effects of Teamwork and How to Enhance Team Effectiveness2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] Nik Chmiel, Franco Fraccaroli, Magnus Sverke, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, 3, p. 212-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations have structured their work around teams, and most people have an experience of teamwork where they have felt the joy of accomplishing things together, learning from others, and getting good and rewarding results. There are many reasons for why people work in teams, including managerial beliefs that teamwork can be beneficial to organizational effectiveness. We start this chapter by describing positive outcomes of teamwork for the individual, the team and the organization. In a second step, we define teams and distinguish them from other groupings. It is not always that teams are effective. How can effects of teamwork be explained and thus be enhanced? In the following sections, we first outline a model of effective teamwork and then go deeper into aspects and processes that research has shown to be important for team effectiveness. We finish with an overview of the main findings and discuss how contextual and situational aspects impact team processes, and how factors on individual, team and organizational levels interact.

  • 48.
    Le Blanc, Pascale M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.
    Van Vuuren, Tinka
    "I WILL SURVIVE" A Construct Validation Study on the Measurement of Sustainable Employability Using Different Age Conceptualizations2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Though the importance of sustainable employability throughout people's working life is undisputed, up till now only one attempt for a conceptual definition has been made (van der Klink et al., 2016). Following the suggestions to further refine and improve this definition recently put forward by Fleuren et al. (2016), we propose an approach to sustainable employability that is based on the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity (AMO) framework, and incorporates three indicators: the ability, the motivation, and the opportunity to continue working, respectively. As sustainable employability is considered to be an important aspect of successful aging at work, this study used four different conceptualizations of aging at work to set up convergent and divergent validity of our operationalization of sustainable employability: calendar age, organizational age (job and organizational tenure), functional age (work ability), and life-span age (partner and children). We formulated several hypotheses that were tested by analyzing data from an online survey among 180 employees from Dutch public service organizations who filled out a questionnaire on different age concepts, and their ability, motivation, and opportunity to continue working. Multiple regression analyses were performed, and results showed that the four conceptualizations of aging were differently related to the three indicators of sustainable employability. Life-span age, in terms of having children, had the strongest negative relationship with the ability to continue working, organizational age (i.e., organizational tenure) had the strongest negative relationship with themotivation to continue working, and functional age had the strongest negative relationship with the opportunity to continue working. Moreover, functional age was significantly negatively related to the other two indicators of sustainable employability too, while life-span age appeared to enhance the ability and motivation to continue working (in terms of having children) and the perceived opportunity to continue working (in terms of having a partner). Calendar age was only important for the opportunity to continue working and appeared to have a negative association with this outcome variable. These results lend support to our proposed operationalization of sustainable employability by showing that the three indicators are differently related to different age conceptualizations thus expanding previous research on the conceptualization of sustainable employability.

  • 49.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity.

    Methods: Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account.

    Results: We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity.

    Conclusions: Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  • 50.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Eib, Constanze
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Peristera, Paraskevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    The influence of and change in procedural justice on self-rated health trajectories: Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health results2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Procedural justice perceptions are shown to be associated with minor psychiatric disorders, long sickness absence spells, and poor self-rated health, but previous studies have rarely considered how changes in procedural justice influence changes in health. Methods: Data from four consecutive biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey of Health (SLOSH) (N=5854) were used to examine trajectories of self-rated health. Adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, we studied the predictive power of change in procedural justice perceptions using individual growth curve models within a multilevel framework. Results: The results show that self-rated health trajectories slowly decline over time. The rate of change was influenced by age and sex, with older people and women showing a slower rate. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and marital status, procedural justice was significantly associated with self-rated health. Also, improvements in procedural justice were associated with improvements in self-rated health. Additionally, a reverse relationship with and change in self-rated health predicting procedural justice was found. Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that procedural justice at work is a crucial aspect of the psychosocial work environment and that changes towards more procedural justice could influence self-rated health positively. The reciprocal association of procedural justice and self-rated health warrants further research.

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