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  • 1. Abrahamsen, Annbjørg Selma
    et al.
    Johannesen, Ása
    Debes, Fróði
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Weihe, Pál
    Working environment and fatigue among fishers in the north Atlantic: a field study2023Inngår i: International Maritime Health, ISSN 1641-9251, E-ISSN 2081-3252, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study investigates how Faroese deep-sea fishers’ exposure to work-related stressors affects their sleep, sleepiness, and levels of fatigue. Being constantly exposed to the unpredictable and harsh North Atlantic Ocean, having long work hours and split sleep for up to 40 days consecutively, they will arguably suffer from fatigue.

    Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty seven fishers participated in this study, and data was gathered throughout 202 days at sea. Subjective data was collected at the start and end of trips via questionnaires, sleep and sleepiness diaries and supplemented by objective sleep data through actigraphs. Ship movements were logged with a gyroscope connected to a laptop. A noise metre measured each work station and resting area, and noise exposure profiles were calculated based on each participant’s activity and location. Linear mixed-effect models investigated the effects of work exposure variables on sleep efficiency, and cumulative link mixed models measured effects on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and physical fatigue scale.

    Results: Time of day followed by ship movement were the exposure variables with the highest impact on the outcome variables of sleep efficiency, sleepiness and physical fatigue. The number of days at sea revealed correlations to outcome variables either by itself or interacting with the sleep periods per day. Crew size, shift system or noise did not impact outcome variables when in the model with other variables. Larger catches improved sleep efficiency but did not affect sleepiness and physical fatigue ratings.

    Conclusions: The findings indicate a chronically fatigued fisher population, and recommends urgent attention being paid to improving the structure of vessels and installing stabilators for greater stability at sea; work schedules being evaluated for protection of health; and work environments being designed that fulfill human physiological requirements in order to ensure the wellbeing and safety of those at sea.

  • 2.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Hur kan man minska nyrekrytering?: Monoaminerga mekanismer kopplade till personlighet och olika former av psykosocial störningsbild, såsom missbruk och andra beteendestörningar (s. 23-27)2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kopplingen mellan personlighet, biologi och social anpassning2013Inngår i: Att studera människors utveckling: Resultat från forskningsprogrammet IDA 1965-2013 / [ed] Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, s. 171-185Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    The role of impulsivity in different forms of psychosocial disturbances2008Inngår i: 16th AEP Congress: Abstract Book / [ed] Cyril Höschl, Philippe H. Robert, 2008, Vol. 23(Supplement 2), s. S333-S333Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the role of impulsivity and aggressiveness in psychosocial disturbances. Despite scientific efforts, several aspects of the relationships between these personality features and Personality Disorders, alcohol/drug abuse, and violence are still controversial. A relevant question concerns the reciprocal relationships between impulsivity and aggressiveness, and their interaction with other “action” personality traits or temperamental traits, e.g., sensation seeking. Another controversial topic is the identification of biological and neuropsychological markers of impulsivity and aggressiveness in order to get more objective measures of these personality traits than those produced by subjects' self-reports, and to obtain a deeper understanding of the phenotypic aspects underlying impulsive and aggressive behaviours as manifested in different forms of psychosocial disturbances. Starting from these considerations, the aim is to shed some light on the implications and consequences of impulsivity for psychosocial disturbances, such as criminality, abuse, and violence. The issue will be discussed in terms of development, possible underlying factors, and attitudes, which can be particularly relevant from both forensic and prevention points of view.

  • 5.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, s. 71-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 6. Aghakhani, Nader
    et al.
    Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Sheikhan, Fatemeh
    Khoei, Merghati
    Iranian women's experiences of infertility: A qualitative study2020Inngår i: International journal of reproductive biomedicine, ISSN 2476-4108, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 65-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are concerns and diverse experiences related to infertility and childlessness. The lived experience of infertile people from various cultures needs to be explored. Objective: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Iranian women experiences of their infertility. Materials and Methods: The data comprised interviews about fertility issues in the Persian language with eighteen women, aged 17-45 yr old, who agreed to be interviewed at the Mottahari Infertility Treatment Clinic, affiliated to the Urmia University of Medical Sciences about their fertility problems. They were approached by the researchers at the time of their first visit. The verbatim transcribed interviews were analyzed using deductive conventional content analysis. Results: The experiences of the informants were conceptualized into four major themes: 1) Shock (subthemes: Disbelief and Denial); 2) Reaction (subthemes: Distress, Guilt, Loss of self-esteem and Sexual reluctance); 3) Processing (subthemes: Internal processing, Avoidance, Marriage at risk, External processing, Stigma caused by the family and Stigma caused by the community) and 4) Reorientation (subthemes: Forgetting, Marriage to saving marriage and Sexual consent). Conclusion: Infertility can be a challenging condition. Considering that infertility-related issues affect Iranian women more contextual factors is necessary. So, culturally sensitive and gender specific protocols are suggested to provide suitable and about culturally sensitive and gender-specific protocols is a necessity in order to provide suitable care to infertile women.

  • 7. Alexandersson, Bjarki T.
    et al.
    Hugerth, Luisa W.
    Hedin, Charlotte
    Forsberg, Anna
    Talley, Nicholas J.
    Agreus, Lars
    Järbrink-Sehgal, Ellionore
    Engstrand, Lars
    Andreasson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schmidt, Peter T.
    Diverticulosis is not associated with altered gut microbiota nor is it predictive of future diverticulitis: a population-based colonoscopy study2023Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 58, nr 10, s. 1131-1138Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The etiopathogenesis of diverticular disease is unknown.

    Objective: To compare the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota between participants with and without diverticulosis and participants who later developed diverticulitis versus those that did not from a population-based study.

    Methods: The PopCol study, conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, invited a random sample of 3556 adults to participate, of which 745 underwent colonoscopy. Overall, 130 participants (17.5%) had diverticulosis. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted on available sigmoid biopsy samples from 529 and fecal samples from 251 individuals. We identified individuals who subsequently developed acute diverticulitis up to 13 years after sample collection. In a case-control design matching for gender, age (+/−5 years), smoking and antibiotic exposure, we compared taxonomic composition, richness and diversity of the microbiota between participants with or without diverticulosis, and between participants who later developed acute diverticulitis versus those who did not.

    Results: No differences in microbiota richness or diversity were observed between participants with or without diverticulosis, nor for those who developed diverticulitis compared with those who did not. No bacterial taxa were significantly different between participants with diverticulosis compared with those without diverticulosis. Individuals who later developed acute diverticulitis (2.8%) had a higher abundance of genus Comamonas than those who did not (p = .027).

    Conclusions: In a population-based cohort study the only significant difference was that those who later develop diverticulitis had more abundance of genus Comamonas. The significance of Comamonas is unclear, suggesting a limited role for the gut microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of diverticular disease.

  • 8.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikkel-id e013586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. Objective: To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. Methods: In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). Results: A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Conclusions: Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases.

  • 9.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Subjective working and declarative memory in dementia and normal aging2019Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 140, nr 2, s. 140-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Subjective memory complaints are common in both elderly individuals and patients with dementia. This study investigated the power of subjective memory, divided into declarative and working memory, to differentiate between patients with dementia and normal elderly individuals.

    Method: Two groups of participants, patients with dementia (n = 117) and normal elderly individuals (n = 117), individually matched with regard to age, gender, and education. All subjects had participated in the third wave of the HUNT population health survey in Nord-Trondelag County in Norway and completed the Meta-Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) in the HUNT study. The MMQ was subdivided into two components, one associated with declarative memory (episodic and semantic) and the other with working memory.

    Results: Patients with dementia reported significantly more subjective memory concerns than normal elderly individuals. The difference between working and declarative memory components was significantly greater in patients with dementia than in normal elderly individuals. This finding made it possible to differentiate patients with dementia from the normal elderly individuals. Mental and somatic health conditions did not significantly add power to differentiating the two groups.

    Conclusion: In clinical and research applications, subjective memory components could contribute to differentiation of patients with dementia and normal elderly individuals by using self-reported impairment in working memory, rather than declarative memory.

  • 10.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Brüggen, Katharina
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Subcortical and Cortical Regions of Amyloid-β Pathology Measured by C-11-PiB PET Are Differentially Associated with Cognitive Functions and Stages of Disease in Memory Clinic Patients2021Inngår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 81, nr 4, s. 1613-1624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The effect of regional brain amyloid-beta (A beta) pathology on specific cognitive functions is incompletely known.

    Objective: The relationship between A beta and cognitive functions was investigated in this cross-sectional multicenter study of memory clinic patients.

    Methods: The participants were patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 83), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 60), and healthy controls (HC, n = 32), who had been scanned by C-11-PiB PET in 13 brain regions of both hemispheres and who had been assessed by cognitive tests covering seven domains.

    Results: Hierarchic multiple regression analyses were performed on each cognitive test as dependent variable, controlling for demographic characteristics and APOE status (block 1) and PiB measures in 13 brain regions (block 2) as independent variables. The model was highly significant for each cognitive test and most strongly for tests of episodic memory (learning and retention) versus PiB in putamen, visuospatially demanding tests (processing and retention) versus the occipital lobe, semantic fluency versus the parietal lobe, attention versus posterior gyrus cinguli, and executive function versus nucleus accumbens. In addition, education had a positively and APOE status a negatively significant effect on cognitive tests.

    Conclusion: Five subcortical and cortical regions with A beta pathology are differentially associated with cognitive functions and stages of disease in memory clinic patients.

  • 11.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Graff, Caroline
    Practice effects in cognitive assessments three years later in non-carriers but not in symptom-free mutation carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: Exemplifying procedural learning and memory?2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 905329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Practice effects (PEs) defined as an improvement of performance in cognition due to repeated assessments between sessions are well known in unimpaired individuals, while less is known about impaired cognition and particularly in latent brain disease as autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease. The purpose was to evaluate the general (across tests/domains) and domain-specific PE calculated as the annual rate of change (ARC) in relation to years to the estimated disease onset (YECO) and in four groups of AD: asymptomatic mutation carriers (aAD, n = 19), prodromal, i.e., symptomatic mutation carriers, criteria for AD diagnosis not fulfilled (pAD, n = 4) and mutation carriers diagnosed with AD (dAD, n = 6) as well as mutation non-carriers from the AD families serving as a healthy comparison group (HC, n = 35). Cognition was assessed at baseline and follow-up about 3 years later by 12 tests covering six domains. The aAD and HC groups were comparable at baseline in demographic characteristics (age, gender, and education), when they were in their early forties, while the pAD and dAD groups were older and cognitively impaired. The results on mean ARC for the four groups were significantly different, small, positive, and age-insensitive in the HC group, while ARC was negative and declined with time/disease advancement in AD. The differences between HC and aAD groups in mean ARC and domain-specific ARC were not significant, indicating a subtle PE in aAD in the early preclinical stage of AD. In the symptomatic stages of AD, there was no PE probably due to cognitive disease-related progression. PEs were the largest in the verbal domain in both the HC and aAD groups, indicating a relationship with cognitive vulnerability. The group-related difference in mean ARC was predominant in timekeeping tests. To conclude, the practice effect in over 3 years was suggested to be linked to procedural learning and memory.

  • 12.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Graff, Caroline
    The APOE ε4 Allele Affects Cognitive Functions Differently in Carriers of APP Mutations Compared to Carriers of PSEN1 Mutations in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease2021Inngår i: Genes, ISSN 2073-4425, E-ISSN 2073-4425, Vol. 12, nr 12, artikkel-id 1954Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mounting evidence shows that the APOE ε4 allele interferes with cognition in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Less is known about APOE in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer’s disease (adAD). The present study explored the effects on cognition associated with the gene–gene interactions between the APOE gene and the APP and PSEN1 genes in adAD. This study includes mutation carriers (MC) and non-carriers (NC) from adAD families with mutations in APP (n = 28 and n = 25; MC and NC, respectively) and PSEN1 (n = 12 and n = 15; MC and NC, respectively) that represent the complete spectrum of disease: AD dementia (n = 8) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 15 and presymptomatic AD, n = 17). NC represented unimpaired normal aging. There was no significant difference in the distribution of APOE ε4 (absence vs. presence) between the APP vs. PSEN1 adAD genes and mutation status (MC vs. NC). However, episodic memory was significantly affected by the interaction between APOE and the APP vs. PSEN1 genes in MC. This was explained by favorable performance in the absence of APOE ε4 in PSEN1 compared to APP MC. Similar trends were seen in other cognitive functions. No significant associations between APOE ε4 and cognitive performance were obtained in NC. In conclusion, cognitive effects of APOE–adAD gene interaction were differentiated between the PSEN1 and APP mutation carriers, indicating epistasis.

  • 13.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Graff, Caroline
    Odor Identification Across Time in Mutation Carriers and Non-Carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease2024Inngår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 97, nr 2, s. 587-598Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Impaired odor identification is a characteristic of sporadic Alzheimer’sdisease(AD), but its presence in autosomal-dominantAD (adAD) remains uncertain. Objective: To investigate odor identification ability in mutation carriers (MC) and non-carriers (NC) of adAD in relation to years to estimated clinical onset clinical onset (YECO) of disease. Methods: Participants from six families with autosomal-dominant mutations (APP Swedish, APPArctic, and PSEN1 mutations) included 20 MC and 20 NC. The groups were comparable in age, gender, education, number of APOE ɛ4 alleles, and YECO, but differed in global cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination). The MC group included individuals in asymptomatic, symptomatic cognitively unimpaired, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia stages of disease, spanning approximately 40 years of the AD continuum. All NC were asymptomatic. Olfactory function was assessed by means of free and cued identification of common odors summarized as total identification. Results: MC performed poorer than NC in free and total identification. Four MC and none of the NC were anosmic. Olfactory functions in MC and NC were significantly and inversely related to time course (YECO) for both free and total identification. The decline in free identification began approximately 10 years prior to the estimated clinical onset of AD in MC. Odor identification proficiency was associated with episodic memory and executive function in MC and NC. Conclusions: Impaired odor identification is present well before the clinical diagnosis of AD in MC and is associated with disease progression. Odor identification ability may be a useful early biomarker for adAD.

  • 14.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet.
    Nordberg, Agneta
    A biomarker-validated time scale in years of disease progression has identified early- and late-onset subgroups in sporadic Alzheimer's disease2023Inngår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 1758-9193, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikkel-id 89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is possible to calculate the number of years to the expected clinical onset (YECO) of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD). A similar time scale is lacking for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). The purpose was to design and validate a time scale in YECO for patients with sAD in relation to CSF and PET biomarkers. Methods: Patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 48) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 46) participated in the study. They underwent a standardized clinical examination at the Memory clinic, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, which included present and previous medical history, laboratory screening, cognitive assessment, CSF biomarkers (A beta(42), total-tau, and p-tau), and an MRI of the brain. They were also assessed with two PET tracers, C-11-Pittsburgh compound B and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Assuming concordance of cognitive decline in sAD and adAD, YECO for these patients was calculated using equations for the relationship between cognitive performance, YECO, and years of education in adAD (Almkvist et al. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 23:195-203, 2017). Results: The mean current point of disease progression was 3.2 years after the estimated clinical onset in patients with sAD and 3.4 years prior to the estimated clinical onset in patients with MCI, as indicated by the median YECO from five cognitive tests. The associations between YECO and biomarkers were significant, while those between chronological age and biomarkers were nonsignificant. The estimated disease onset (chronological age minus YECO) followed a bimodal distribution with frequency maxima before (early-onset) and after (late-onset) 65 years of age. The early- and late-onset subgroups differed significantly in biomarkers and cognition, but after control for YECO, this difference disappeared for all except the APOE e4 gene (more frequent in early- than in late-onset). Conclusions: A novel time scale in years of disease progression based on cognition was designed and validated in patients with AD using CSF and PET biomarkers. Two early- and late-disease onset subgroups were identified differing with respect to APOE e4.

  • 15.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena
    Thordardottir, Steinunn
    Amberla, Kaarina
    Axelman, Karin
    Basun, Hans
    Kinhult-Ståhlbom, Anne
    Lilius, Lena
    Remes, Anne
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Viitanen, Matti
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Graff, Caroline
    Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease2017Inngår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 195-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.

  • 16. Andersson, Christina
    et al.
    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Einhorn, Stefan
    Osika, Walter
    Benevolence - Associations With Stress, Mental Health, and Self-Compassion at the Workplace2021Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 568625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Benevolence is an emerging concept in motivation theory and research as well as in on pro-social behavior, which has stimulated increasing interest in studying factors that impair or facilitate benevolence and effects thereof. This exploratory study examines the associations between benevolence, stress, mental health, self-compassion, and satisfaction with life in two workplace samples.

    Methods: In the first study n = 522 (38% = female, median age = 42) participants answered questionnaires regarding self-reported stress symptoms (i.e., emotional exhaustion), depressive symptoms and benevolence. In the second study n = 49 (female = 96%) participants answered questionnaires regarding perceived stress, self-compassion, anxiety, depression symptoms, and benevolence.

    Results: In study 1, measures of emotional exhaustion (r = −0.295) and depression (r = −0.190) were significantly negatively correlated with benevolence. In study 2, benevolence was significantly negatively correlated with stress (r = −0.392) and depression (r = −0.310), whereas self-compassion (0.401) was significantly positively correlated with benevolence. While correlations were in expected directions, benevolence was not significantly associated with Satisfaction with Life (r = 0.148) or anxiety (r = −0.199) in study 2.

    Conclusion: Self-assessed benevolence is associated with levels of perceived stress, exhaustion, depression, and self-compassion. Future studies are warranted on how benevolence is related to stress and mental ill health such as depression and anxiety, and if benevolence can be trained in order to decrease stress and mental ill health such as depression and anxiety in workplace settings.

  • 17.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Macquarie University, North Ryde, Australia.
    Tognetti, Arnaud
    Jones, Mike
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lasselin, Julie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Assessing sickness behavior in the French: Validation of the French translation of the sickness questionnaire (SicknessQ) in a non-clinical French population2023Inngår i: Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health, ISSN 2666-3546, Vol. 34, artikkel-id 100708Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sickness Questionnaire (SicknessQ) is a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of sickness behavior, including somatic, behavioral, and affective dimensions. To promote cross-cultural assessments of sickness behavior, we aim to expand the use of this questionnaire to other populations and languages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the French translation of SicknessQ in a French-speaking general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. One hundred and thirty-nine individuals completed the SicknessQ online, along with the construct criteria measures of self-rated health, state anxiety (STAI-S), and depressive symptoms (PHQ-9). The principal component analyses revealed two components: the first component included seven items concerning mood, motivation and experiences of fatigue and pain; the second component included three items concerning somatic sickness symptoms. Higher scores on the total scale and the two component subscales were associated with poorer self-rated health and higher STAI-S and PHQ-9 scores. Since the associations with construct criteria variables were relatively similar between the single- and the two-dimensional solutions, both the total scale and the subscales of the two components of the French SicknessQ can be used in future studies to measure sickness behavior in French-speaking populations.

  • 18. Aries, M. B. C.
    et al.
    Fischl, G.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Beute, F.
    The relationship of light exposure to sleep outcomes among office workers. Part 1: Working in the office versus at home before and during the COVID-pandemic2024Inngår i: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 113-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between everyday light exposure and sleep was studied for office workers. The study was conducted during the upswing of the COVID-19 pandemic, enabling a comparison between Office and Home Workdays. Fifteen full-time office employees were monitored for a period of 4–6 weeks. They wore a light-tracking device on their clothes and had a sleep tracker at home. Compared to an Office Workday, light exposure was lower in the afternoon and total sleep time was almost 5 minutes longer on a Home Workday. Sleep efficiency was the same on both workday types. A higher median illuminance level in the afternoon was significantly related to later sleep onset on an Office Workday. Higher median illuminance levels in the morning were related to earlier awakening. Counter to expectations, higher light levels in the evening were also related to earlier awakening. Everyday light exposure matters for sleep quality but may affect circadian functioning differently than the often more extreme light interventions employed in laboratory experiments. Moreover, differences in outcomes between Office and Home Workdays signal the need for further investigation to provide supportive light levels during workhours.

  • 19.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Distansarbete: översikt av internationella forskningen om arbetsmiljö och hälsa, balans i livet och produktivitet före och under covid-19 pandemin med särskilt beaktande av kvinnors och mäns villkor2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under covid-19-pandemins första våg, tidigt våren 2020, valde de flesta länder, inklusive Sverige, att rekommendera eller kräva att de anställda som kunde skulle arbeta på distans från bostaden för att minska smittspridningen på arbetsplatser och under resor till och från dessa arbetsplatser. Att arbeta på distans skiljer sig i många avseenden från att arbeta i arbetsgivarens lokaler.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna översikt, som består av tre delar, har varit att sammanställa och öka den forskningsbaserade kunskapen om distansarbete i hemmet.

    Översikten omfattar forskningslitteratur inom tre områden:

    • arbetsmiljö och hälsa
    • balans mellan arbetsliv och privatliv
    • produktivitet.

    I analyserna har vi därtill särskilt fokuserat på likheter och skillnader i mäns och kvinnors villkor vid lönearbete i hemmet. Ytterligare syften har varit att undersöka och dra slutsatser om distansarbete i hemmet under tiden före respektive under pandemin.

  • 20.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Rehabilitering och samordning: Slutrapport: Utvärdering av Rehsams forskningsprogram 2009–20112017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rehabilitering och samordning, Rehsam, var ett forskningsprogram som initierades av regeringen år 2009. Målet var att öka den evidensbaserade kunskapsmassan kring rehabilitering av personer som är sjukskrivna, eller riskerar att bli sjukskrivna, på grund av psykiska eller muskuloskeletala problem. Denna rapport är en sammanfattande utvärdering av Rehsamprogrammet.

    Som en uppföljning av Rehsam-satsningen fick Forte 2014 bland annat i uppdrag att göra en vetenskaplig kvalitetsbedömning av den forskning som genomförts inom Rehsam-satsningen. Detta uppdrag har genomförts i olika etapper, med två delrapporter under 2015. Den här utvärderingen omfattar 21 projekt och är en slutrapport av uppdraget.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar Rehsam-projektens resultat att projekt som omfattar insatser på arbetsplatsen är mer effektiva än de projekt som inte genomfört arbetsplats-interventioner. Tendensen är även att projekt med högre vetenskaplig kvalitet oftare har signifikanta utfall.

  • 21.
    Arvidsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Ekaterina, Torubarova
    Avdelningen för tal, musik och hörsel, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    André, Pereira
    Avdelningen för tal, musik och hörsel, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Conversational production and comprehension: fMRI-evidence reminiscent of the classic Broca-Wernicke modelManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question in neurolinguistics is whether language production and comprehension share neural infrastructure, but this question has not been addressed in the context of actual conversation. We utilized a public fMRI dataset where participants (N=24) engaged in unscripted conversations with a confederate outside the scanner via an audio-video link. We provide evidence indicating that production and comprehension, in a conversational setting, diverge with respect to how they modulate the recruitment of regions in the left-lateralized perisylvian language network. Activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus was stronger in production than in comprehension. Compared to production, comprehension showed stronger recruitment of the left anterior middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, but this was not the case for the posterior aspect of these loci. Although our results are reminiscent of the classic Broca-Wernicke model, the anterior temporal activation is a notable difference from that model. This is one of the findings which may be a consequence of the conversational setting, another being that conversational production activated what we interpret as higher-level socio-pragmatic processes. In conclusion, we present evidence supporting that the above-mentioned frontal vs temporal regions in the language network are functionally segregated during conversation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Arvidsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Audience design and frame of reference in adolescents' reference production2021Inngår i: Abstracts: 17th International Pragmatics Conference, Winterthur, 27 June – 2 July, 2021, 2021, s. 1519-1519Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When participating in dialogue, speakers design their utterances to accommodate the individual needs of listeners (Bentz, et al., in prep). This feature is known as audience design (Clark & Murphy, 1982). Although audience design is central to conventional conversation, it is not known at which age speakers begin taking into account the world knowledge/frame of reference of their interlocutors. Indications from recent studies suggest that albeit preschool and first grade children engage in basic forms of perspective taking (Nadig & Sedivy, 2002), they fail to adapt their utterances in accordance with listener-specific needs in reference production (Pagmar, et al., in prep). Adult participants do however adapt their utterances, and individual differences in the adult population were not dependent on cognitive control function (Bentz, et al., in prep). The dependence on cognitive control function, e.g. switching, may be hypothesized to be greater in children. The current study aims to test the referential production of two age groups; early and mid adolescents (11;0-12;11 and 15;0-16;11), with the purpose of tracing the development of the ability to use information regarding listener-perspective during on-line referential production, and test its relation to cognitive control. The paradigm builds further on the well-established Director’s task but does not require the participants to take the visual perspective of the listener. Instead, participants are presented with a set of pictures portraying referents well-known to them, e.g. popular cartoon characters, hosts of children’s tv-shows, etc. Knowledge of the referents are controlled through post-test surveys. Furthermore, they are asked to direct listeners of two distinct groups, small children and elders, into choosing the target referent. Participants who take the frame of reference of addressees into consideration are expected to adopt different strategies when addressing the different groups, i.e., increase informativeness when denoting referents assumed to be unknown to the listener vs using less informative referential expressions (such as proper names) when denoting referents judged to be known to the listener. Cognitive control/executive function is assessed using the Wisconsin card sorting task. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive costs of switching strategies and the Gricean maxim of quantity.

  • 23.
    Arvidsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    When did you stop speaking to yourself? Age-related differences in adolescents’ world knowledge-based audience design2022Inngår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikkel-id 220305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to adapt utterances to the world knowledge of one’s addressee is undeniably ubiquitous in human social cognition, but its development and association with other cognitive mechanisms during adolescence have not been studied. In an online production task, we measured the ability of children entering adolescence (ages 11–12, M= 11.8, 𝑁=29,17girlsN=29, 17 girls) and adolescents (ages 15–16, M = 15.9, 𝑁=29,17girlsN=29, 17 girls) to tailor referential expressions in accordance with the inferred world knowledge of their addressee—an ability we refer to as world knowledge-based audience design (AD). A post-test survey showed that both age groups held similar assumptions about the addressees’ knowledge of referents, but the younger age group did not consistently adapt their utterances in accordance with these assumptions during online production, resulting in a significantly improved AD behaviour across age groups. We also investigated the reliance of AD on executive functions (EF). Executive functioning (as reflected by performance on the Wisconsin card sorting task) increased significantly with age, but did not explain the age-related increase in AD performance. We thus provide evidence in support of an adolescent development of world knowledge-based AD over and above development of EF.

  • 24.
    Arvidsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Sundström, Johanna
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Why the GPT task of predicting the next word does not suffice to describe human language production: A conversational fMRI-study2023Inngår i: Program Pdf of The 15th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest is surging around the ”next-word-predictability” task that allowed large language models to reach their current capacity. It is sometimes claimed that prediction is enough to model language production. We set out to study predictability in an interactive setting. The current fMRI study used the information-theoretic measure of surprisal – the negative log-probability of a word occurring given the preceding linguistic context, estimated by a pre-trained language model (GPT-2). Surprisal has been shown to correlate with bottom-up processing located in the bilateral middle and superior temporal gyri (MTG/STG) during narrative comprehension (Willems et al., 2016). Still, surprisal has never been used to investigate conversational comprehension or any kind of language production. We hypothesized that previous results on surprisal in narrative comprehension would be replicated with conversational comprehension and that next-word- predictability would not encompass language production processes. We utilized a publicly available fMRI dataset in which participants (N=24) engaged in unscripted conversations (12 min/participant) via an audio- video link with a confederate outside the scanner. The conversational events Production, Comprehension, and Silence were modeled in a whole-brain analysis. Two parametric modulations of production and comprehension were added: (1) log-transformed context-independent word frequency (control regressor) and (2) surprisal. Production-surprisal and Comprehension-surprisal were respectively contrasted against the implicit baseline. These contrasts were compared with the contrasts Production and Comprehension vs implicit baseline. If surprisal merely indexed part of the activity in the latter, broader contrasts, this provides a handle on production and comprehension processes beyond next-word-predictability. For surprisal in conversational production, we observed statistically signi�cant clusters in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), the medial frontal gyrus, and the motor cortex. Importantly, Production vs implicit baseline showed bilateral STG activation while STG was not parametrically modulated by surprisal. Moreover, the bilateral MTG/STG were the only clusters active for Comprehension vs implicit baseline and they were also modulated by surprisal. For comprehension, we thus replicated the previous narrative comprehension study (Willems et al.,2016), showing that unpredictable words activate the bilateral MTG/STG also in conversational settings. Next- word-predictability is thus so far a good model for conversational comprehension. For production, however, the next-word-predictability task helped to hone in on what is sometimes considered core production machinery in LIFG. Several functional interpretations of the STG recruitment during production are possible (such as monitoring for speech errors), but the current results point in the direction of two important conclusions: (1) a functional division of the frontal and temporal cortices during production, where the frontal component is prediction-related, and (2) that language processing during production is more than prediction, at least at the word-level. We provide a functional handle on such extra-predictive processes.

  • 25.
    Arvidsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholm University Department of Linguistics, , Universitetsvägen 10 C, 114 18 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torubarova, Ekaterina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Division of Speech, Music, and Hearing, , Lindstedtsvägen 24, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pereira, André
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Division of Speech, Music, and Hearing, , Lindstedtsvägen 24, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Stockholm University Department of Linguistics, , Universitetsvägen 10 C, 114 18 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm University Department of Psychology, , Albanovägen 12, 114 19 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Conversational production and comprehension: fMRI-evidence reminiscent of but deviant from the classical Broca–Wernicke model2024Inngår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 34, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question in research on the neurobiology of language is to which extent the language production and comprehension systems share neural infrastructure, but this question has not been addressed in the context of conversation. We utilized a public fMRI dataset where 24 participants engaged in unscripted conversations with a confederate outside the scanner, via an audio-video link. We provide evidence indicating that the two systems share neural infrastructure in the left-lateralized perisylvian language network, but diverge regarding the level of activation in regions within the network. Activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus was stronger in production compared to comprehension, while comprehension showed stronger recruitment of the left anterior middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, compared to production. Although our results are reminiscent of the classical Broca–Wernicke model, the anterior (rather than posterior) temporal activation is a notable difference from that model. This is one of the findings that may be a consequence of the conversational setting, another being that conversational production activated what we interpret as higher-level socio-pragmatic processes. In conclusion, we present evidence for partial overlap and functional asymmetry of the neural infrastructure of production and comprehension, in the above-mentioned frontal vs temporal regions during conversation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26. Axelsson, Erland
    et al.
    Kern, Dorian
    Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik
    Lindfors, Perjohan
    Palmgren, Josefin
    Hesser, Hugo
    Andersson, Erik
    Johansson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Olen, Ola
    Bonnert, Marianne
    Lalouni, Maria
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Psychological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis2023Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 565-584Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of psychological treatments have been found to reduce the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but their relative effects are unclear. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we determined the effects of psychological treatments for IBS, including subtypes of cognitive behavior therapy, versus attention controls. We searched 11 databases (March 2022) for studies of psychological treatments for IBS, reported in journal articles, books, dissertations, and conference abstracts. The resulting database comprised 9 outcome domains from 118 studies published in 1983–2022. Using data from 62 studies and 6496 participants, we estimated the effect of treatment type on improvement in composite IBS severity using random-effects meta-regression. In comparison with the attention controls, there was a significant added effect of exposure therapy (g = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.17–0.88) and hypnotherapy (g = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.06–0.67) when controlling for the pre- to post-assessment duration. When additional potential confounders were included, exposure therapy but not hypnotherapy retained a significant added effect. Effects were also larger with a longer duration, individual treatment, questionnaire (non-diary) outcomes, and recruitment outside of routine care. Heterogeneity was substantial. Tentatively, exposure therapy appears to be a particularly promising treatment for IBS. More direct comparisons in randomized controlled trials are needed. OSF.io identifier: 5yh9a.

  • 27. Bagge, Ann-Sophie Lindqvist
    et al.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bagge, Roger Olofsson
    Carlander, Anders
    Mental health, stress, and well-being measured before (2019) and during (2020) COVID-19: a Swedish socioeconomic population-based study2023Inngår i: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Compare mental health, stress, and well-being in the Swedish population as measured before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Repeated cross-sectional design using data measured before (Jan-2019; n = 2791) and during (Oct/Nov-2020; n = 2926) COVID-19 pandemic in Swedish population-representative cohorts. Following constructs were measured: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10 items), health-related quality of life (HRQOL[Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Population]) and self-rated health (SRH) was assessed with a single-item question. Results: When adjusting for age, sex, education, and income there were significantly higher levels of anxiety (M = 9.15 vs. 8.48, p < 0.01) and depression (M = 3.64 vs. 3.30, p = 0.03), lower levels of stress (M = 14.06 vs. 14.91, p < 0.001), but worsened HRQOL (M = 76.40 vs. 77.92, p < 0.01) and SRH (M = 6.91 vs. 7.20, p < 0.001), observed in 2020 compared to 2019. For the negative effects seen in anxiety, depression, HRQOL, and SRH, higher income and education had a protective effect. The decrease in stress was also correlated with higher income. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a small but significant worsening in mental health and well-being in the general Swedish population, where higher socioeconomic status seemed to have a protective effect.

  • 28.
    Balter, Leonie J. T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Li, Xueqi
    Schwieler, Lilly
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Lasselin, Julie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in the kynurenine pathway and symptoms of sickness behavior in humans2023Inngår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 153, artikkel-id 106110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway are hypothesized to be implicated in inflammation-associated depression, but there is a lack of experimental studies in humans assessing the kinetics of kynurenine metabolites in relation to experimentally-induced sickness. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in the kynurenine pathway and to explore its relation to symptoms of sickness behavior during an acute experimental immune challenge.

    This double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-over study included 22 healthy human participants (n = 21 both sessions, Mage = 23.4, SD = 3.6, nine women) who received an intravenous injection of 2.0 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and saline (placebo) on two different occasions in a randomized order. Blood samples (0 h, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 5 h, 7 h post-injection) were analyzed for kynurenine metabolites and inflammatory cytokines. The intensity of symptoms of sickness behavior was assessed using the 10-item Sickness Questionnaire at 0 h, 1.5 h, 3 h, 5 h, and 7 h post-injection.

    LPS induced significantly lower concentrations of plasma tryptophan (at 2 h, 4 h, 5 h, and 7 h post-injection), kynurenine (at 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, and 5 h post-injection), nicotinamide (at 4 h, 5 h, and 7 h post-injection), and higher levels for quinolinic acid at 5 h post-injection as compared to placebo. LPS did not affect kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and picolinic acid. The development of the sickness symptoms was largely similar across items, with the highest levels around 1.5–3 h post-injection. Changes in plasma levels of kynurenine metabolites seem to coincide rather than precede or follow changes in subjective sickness. Exploratory analyses indicate that higher Sickness Questionnaire total scores at 1.5–5 h post-injection were correlated with lower kynurenic acid and nicotinamide levels.

    These results lend further support for LPS-induced changes in the kynurenine pathway, but may not, as interpreted from blood levels, causally link to LPS-induced acute symptoms of sickness behavior. Future research may consider a larger sample to further scrutinize the role of the kynurenine pathway in the sickness response.

  • 29.
    Balter, Leonie J. T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raymond, Jane E.
    Working memory load impairs transfer learning in human adults2023Inngår i: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 87, s. 2138-2145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer of learning refers to successful application of previously acquired knowledge or skills to novel settings. Although working memory (WM) is thought to play a role in transfer learning, direct evidence of the effect of limitations in WM on transfer learning is lacking. To investigate, we used an acquired equivalence paradigm that included tests of association and transfer learning. The effects of imposing an acute WM limitation on young adults was tested (within-subjects design: N = 27 adults; Mage = 24 years) by conducting learning transfer tests concurrent with a secondary task that required carrying a spatial WM load when performing the learned/transfer trial (Load condition) to acutely limit WM resources or no WM load (No-Load condition; WM was unloaded prior to performing the learned/transfer trial). Analyses showed that although success on the transfer trials was high in the No-Load condition, performance dropped to chance in the Load condition. Performance on tests of learned associations remained high in both conditions. These results indicate that transfer of learning depends on access to WM resources and suggest that even healthy young individuals may be affected in their ability to cross-utilize knowledge when cognitive resources become scarce, such as when engaging in two tasks simultaneously (e.g., using satellite navigation while driving).

  • 30.
    Balter, Leonie J. T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holding, Benjamin C.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden.
    Intelligence predicts better cognitive performance after normal sleep but larger vulnerability to sleep deprivation2023Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 32, nr 4, artikkel-id e13815Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluid intelligence is seen as a beneficial attribute, protecting against stress and ill-health. Whether intelligence provides resilience to the cognitive effects of insufficient sleep was tested in the current pre-registered experimental study. Participants (N = 182) completed the Raven's test (measuring fluid intelligence) and a normal night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation. Sleepiness and four cognitive tests were completed at 22:30 hours (baseline), and the following day after sleep manipulation. At baseline, higher fluid intelligence was associated with faster and more accurate arithmetic calculations, and better episodic memory, but not with spatial working memory, simple attention or sleepiness. Those with higher fluid intelligence were more, not less, impacted by sleep deprivation, evident for arithmetic ability, episodic memory and spatial working memory. We need to establish a more nuanced picture of the benefits of intelligence, where intelligence is not related to cognitive advantages in all situations.

  • 31. Bastos, André M.
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Waite, Ayan S.
    Kopell, Nancy
    Miller, Earl K.
    Layer and rhythm specificity for predictive routing2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, nr 49, s. 31459-31469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In predictive coding, experience generates predictions that attenuate the feeding forward of predicted stimuli while passing forward unpredicted “errors.” Different models have suggested distinct cortical layers, and rhythms implement predictive coding. We recorded spikes and local field potentials from laminar electrodes in five cortical areas (visual area 4 [V4], lateral intraparietal [LIP], posterior parietal area 7A, frontal eye field [FEF], and prefrontal cortex [PFC]) while monkeys performed a task that modulated visual stimulus predictability. During predictable blocks, there was enhanced alpha (8 to 14 Hz) or beta (15 to 30 Hz) power in all areas during stimulus processing and prestimulus beta (15 to 30 Hz) functional connectivity in deep layers of PFC to the other areas. Unpredictable stimuli were associated with increases in spiking and in gamma-band (40 to 90 Hz) power/connectivity that fed forward up the cortical hierarchy via superficial-layer cortex. Power and spiking modulation by predictability was stimulus specific. Alpha/beta power in LIP, FEF, and PFC inhibited spiking in deep layers of V4. Area 7A uniquely showed increases in high-beta (∼22 to 28 Hz) power/connectivity to unpredictable stimuli. These results motivate a conceptual model, predictive routing. It suggests that predictive coding may be implemented via lower-frequency alpha/beta rhythms that “prepare” pathways processing-predicted inputs by inhibiting feedforward gamma rhythms and associated spiking.

  • 32. Beijer, Ulla
    et al.
    Birath Scheffel, Christina
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Male violence against women with substance abuse problems: some health aspects2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to investigate to which extent two groups of women with substance abuse problems were exposed to male violence; women with a residence (WR, n= 35) and homeless women (HW, n= 44). The sample thus included 79 women (mean age: 47.8 years), of which 91% had experienced different kinds of male violence: from former partners, male friends or acquaintances, and 71% reported “Countless occasions of violent events”.  Almost half of the women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HW displayed the higher risk (RR 3.78) as compared to WR. Furthermore, one-third of the abused women (26 out of 72) had been forced to commit criminal acts. Compared to the abused women without this experience, they were more likely: to be homeless, to be illicit drug addicts, to have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, to have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, and to have been victims of sexual abuse. Finally, the two groups significantly differed concerning ever having received treatment for mental problems, in that more WR women had received such treatment (74 % as compared to 46 %). In conclusion, it is suggested that experiences of male violence are to be considered in all different forms of treatment facilities for women with substance abuse problems.

  • 33. Beijer, Ulla
    et al.
    Scheffel Birath, Christina
    DeMartinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Facets of Male Violence Against Women With Substance Abuse Problems: Women With a Residence and Homeless Women2018Inngår i: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 33, nr 9, s. 1391-1411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate the type and extent to which women with substance abuse problems have been exposed to male violence during their lifetime, and to examine possible differences between women with a residence (WR) and homeless women (HW). The total sample included 79 women (WR, n = 35; HW, n = 44; M age = 47.8 years). Of the total sample, 72 women (91%) had experienced different kinds of male violence, 88% from former partners, and 26% from male friends or acquaintances. Of the 72 women, 71% further reported “Countless occasions of violent events,” and 36% had been forced to commit criminal acts. Abused women who had been forced to commit criminal acts were significantly more frequently found to be homeless, have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, have been victims of sexual violence, have used illicit drugs as a dominant preparation, and have injected illicit drugs. Almost half of the abused women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where HW showed an almost 4-time higher risk (RR 3.78) than WR. In conclusion there is a particular vulnerability in women with substance abuse to male violence, which has an important impact on their health status. Thus, from a public health perspective, it is suggested that for those women who have experienced male violence, treatment protocols need to include both assessing and addressing the impact of such experience in relation to substance abuse as well as concomitant health concerns.

  • 34.
    Bendtz, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Ericsson, Sarah
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Schneider, Josephine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Borg, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bašnáková, Jana
    Uddén, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Individual Differences in Indirect Speech Act Processing Found Outside the Language Network2022Inngår i: Neurobiology of Language, E-ISSN 2641-4368, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 287-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Face-to-face communication requires skills that go beyond core language abilities. In dialogue, we routinely make inferences beyond the literal meaning of utterances and distinguish between different speech acts based on, e.g., contextual cues. It is, however, not known whether such communicative skills potentially overlap with core language skills or other capacities, such as theory of mind (ToM). In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigate these questions by capitalizing on individual variation in pragmatic skills in the general population. Based on behavioral data from 199 participants, we selected participants with higher vs. lower pragmatic skills for the fMRI study (N = 57). In the scanner, participants listened to dialogues including a direct or an indirect target utterance. The paradigm allowed participants at the whole group level to (passively) distinguish indirect from direct speech acts, as evidenced by a robust activity difference between these speech acts in an extended language network including ToM areas. Individual differences in pragmatic skills modulated activation in two additional regions outside the core language regions (one cluster in the left lateral parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus and one in the precuneus). The behavioral results indicate segregation of pragmatic skill from core language and ToM. In conclusion, contextualized and multimodal communication requires a set of interrelated pragmatic processes that are neurocognitively segregated: (1) from core language and (2) partly from ToM.

  • 35. Bergman, Ingvar
    et al.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Health-adjusted neuropsychological test norms based on 463 older Swedish car drivers2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 93-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for improved normative information in particular for older persons. The present study provides neuropsychological test norms on seven cognitive tests used in a sample representing the general older driving population, when uncontrolled and controlled for physical health. A group of 463 healthy Swedish car drivers, aged 65 to 84 years, participated in a medical and neuropsychological examination. The latter included tests of visual scanning, mental shifting, visual spatial function, memory, reaction time, selective attention, and simultaneous capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that, when uncontrolled for health, old age was associated with significant impairment on all seven tests. Education was associated with a significant advantage for all tests except most reaction time subtests. Women outperformed men on selective attention. Controlling for health did not consistently change the associations with education, but generally weakened those with age, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.36 SD (residual). In terms of variance explained, impaired health predicted on average 2.5%, age 2.9%, education 2.1% and gender 0.1%. It was concluded (1)that individual regression-based predictions of expected values have the advantage of allowing control for the impact of health on normative scores in addition to the adjustment for various demographic and performance-related variables and (2) that health-adjusted norms have the potential to classify functional status more accurately, to the extent that these norms diverge from norms uncontrolled for physical health.

  • 36. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Owen, Mikaela
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Leadership, work environment and caries prevention - what is good for the staff, is also good for the patients2023Inngår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 81, nr 3, s. 196-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Dental caries is a health problem that can be prevented. The aim of this study is to analyse if the quality of leadership, in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics, influences the extent to which patients with caries receive preventive care, and if any such effect is mediated through a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff.

    Methods: The multilevel cross-sectional design includes work environment data from surveys of 75 general public dental clinics, register-based data on preventive measures provided to 5398 patients who received a dental filling due to a caries diagnosis, and patient demographics. Using a multilevel path analysis with logistic regression, we tested a model with one direct and three indirect pathways, controlling for the potential confounding effect of patient demographic factors.

    Results: Leadership quality, as assessed by the staff at the clinic, was associated with increased odds of patients with caries receiving prevention, controlling for patient demographic factors. Leadership quality was also positively related to a collaborative work climate, clear role expectations and a low average level of burnout among staff. Against expectations, however, no indirect effect from leadership quality on prevention through the other work environment factors was found.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the quality of leadership in Swedish Public Dental Health clinics was positively related to a good work environment for staff and to delivery of preventive care to patients experiencing caries.

  • 37. Beute, F.
    et al.
    Lowden, Arne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Aries, M. B. C.
    The relationship of light exposure to sleep outcomes among office workers. Part 2: Comparison of days with and without social constraints2024Inngår i: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938, Vol. 56, nr 2, s. 126-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social constraints posed by work schedules influence sleep duration and timing. Everyday light exposure can help (or hinder) sleep outcomes. This study investigated the differences in the relationship between light exposure and sleep outcomes on days with and without social constraints using ambulatory assessment for 4–6 weeks for 15 office employees. The effects of light on sleep were investigated for both clock time and wake time (related to individual sleep times). Participants were exposed to more light during the morning and afternoon on workdays, and sleep times were later on days without social constraints. The relationship between light exposure and sleep was more pronounced, or sometimes even only present, for days without social constraints. In addition, no differences were found between clock time and wake time, which underlines the complexity of the relationship between everyday light exposure and sleep. Despite increased light exposure during workdays, the effects of light on sleep were more pronounced on days without social constraints. It may signal that office workers need a more substantial circadian stimulus (i.e. higher light exposure) for light to influence sleep outcomes on days with social constraints.

  • 38. Birath Scheffel, Christina
    et al.
    Beijer, Ulla
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Institutionen för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa, Karolinska Institutet.
    Barn till våldsutsatta kvinnor med missbruksproblem2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att utifrån insamlade och bearbetade data från ursprungsprojektet 'Studie om mäns våld mot kvinnor med missbruksproblem' sammanställa resultat som speglar barns psykosociala familjesituation där modern har missbruksproblem och i många fall blivit utsatt för manligt våld av partner och/eller släkting, bekant, eller myndighetsperson. Sammanfattningsvis lyfter resultaten, avseende barnens egen ogynnsamma utveckling och den generationsöverskridande problematiken i föreliggande studie, frågan om betydelsen av tidiga interventioner riktade till barn i riskmiljöer. Detta förefaller vara av särskild vikt för att ge underbyggt stöd för aktivt handlande avseende Barns rätt i samhället enligt Barnkonventionen.

  • 39. Birmingham, Elina
    et al.
    Svärd, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kanan, Christopher
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Exploring emotional expression recognition in aging adults using the Moving Window Technique2018Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id e0205341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult aging is associated with difficulties in recognizing negative facial expressions such as fear and anger. However, happiness and disgust recognition is generally found to be less affected. Eye-tracking studies indicate that the diagnostic features of fearful and angry faces are situated in the upper regions of the face (the eyes), and for happy and disgusted faces in the lower regions (nose and mouth). These studies also indicate age-differences in visual scanning behavior, suggesting a role for attention in emotion recognition deficits in older adults. However, because facial features can be processed extrafoveally, and expression recognition occurs rapidly, eye-tracking has been questioned as a measure of attention during emotion recognition. In this study, the Moving Window Technique (MWT) was used as an alternative to the conventional eye-tracking technology. By restricting the visual field to a moveable window, this technique provides a more direct measure of attention. We found a strong bias to explore the mouth across both age groups. Relative to young adults, older adults focused less on the left eye, and marginally more on the mouth and nose. Despite these different exploration patterns, older adults were most impaired in recognition accuracy for disgusted expressions. Correlation analysis revealed that among older adults, more mouth exploration was associated with faster recognition of both disgusted and happy expressions. As a whole, these findings suggest that in aging there are both attentional differences and perceptual deficits contributing to less accurate emotion recognition.

  • 40. Blindow, Katrina J.
    et al.
    Thern, Emelie
    Hernando-Rodriguez, Julio C.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Gender-based harassment in Swedish workplaces and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality: A prospective cohort study2023Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 395-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study investigated experiences of different types of work-related gender-based harassment (GBH), specifically sexual and gender harassment, as risk factors for alcohol-related morbidity and mortality (ARMM).

    Methods: Information about experiences of (i) sexual harassment (SH-I) and (ii) gender harassment (GH-I) from inside the organization and (iii) sexual harassment from a person external to the organization (SH-E) were obtained from the Swedish Work Environment Survey 1995–2013, a biannual cross-sectional survey, administered to a representative sample of the Swedish working population. The survey responses from 86 033 individuals were connected to multiple registers containing information about alcohol-related diagnoses, treatment, or cause of death. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess hazard ratios (HR) of incident ARMM during a mean follow-up of eight (SH-I and GH-I) and ten (SH-E) years.

    Results: A higher prospective risk estimate of ARMM was found among participants who reported experiences of SH-E [HR 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–2.52], GH-I (HR 1.33, CI 1.03–1.70), or SH-I (HR 2.37, CI 1.42–3.00). Additional analyses, distinguishing one-time from reoccurring harassment experiences, indicated a dose–response relationship for all three harassment types. Gender did not modify the associations. Under the assumption of causality, 9.3% (95% CI 5.4–13.1) of the risk of ARMM among Swedish women and 2.1% (95% CI 0.6–3.6) among Swedish men would be attributable to any of the three types of GBH included in this study.

    Conclusions: Experiences of GBH in the work context may be a highly relevant factor in the etiology of ARMM.

  • 41.
    Blomqvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Associations between COVID-19-related changes in the psychosocial work environment and mental health2023Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 664-672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals' lives have been substantially affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to describe changes in psychosocial work environment and mental health and to investigate associations between job insecurity and mental ill-health in relation to changes in other psychosocial work factors, loneliness and financial worries.

    Methods: A sub-sample of individuals from the eighth Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health answered a web-based survey in early 2021 about current and pandemic-related changes in health, health behaviours, work and private life. We investigated participants working before the pandemic (N=1231) in relation to standardised measures on depression, anxiety and loneliness, together with psychosocial work factors, in descriptive and logistic regression analyses.

    Results: While 9% reached the clinical threshold for depression and 6% for anxiety, more than a third felt more worried, lonelier or in a low mood since the start of the pandemic. Two per cent had been dismissed from their jobs, but 16% experienced workplace downsizings. Conditioning on socio-demographic factors and prior mental-health problems, the 8% experiencing reduced job security during the pandemic had a higher risk of anxiety, but not of depression, compared to employees with unaltered or increased job security. Loneliness and other psychosocial work factors explained more of the association than objective measures of job insecurity and financial worries.

    Conclusions: Reduced job security during the COVID-19 pandemic seems to have increased the risk of anxiety among individuals with a strong labour market attachment, primarily via loneliness and other psychosocial work factors. This illustrates the potentially far-reaching effects of the pandemic on mental health in the working population.

  • 42. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Stordal, Eystein
    Romild, Ulla
    Nordahl, Hans M.
    Prevalence and correlates of successful aging in a population-based sample of older adults: the HUNT study2017Inngår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 431-440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The factors influencing successful aging (SA) are of great interest in an aging society. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of SA, the relative importance across age of the three components used to define it (absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical function, and active engagement with life), and its correlates. Data were extracted from the population-based cross-sectional Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 2006–2008). Individuals aged 70–89 years with complete datasets for the three components were included (N = 5773 of 8,040, 71.8%). Of the respondents, 54.6% were women. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze possible correlates of SA. Overall, 35.6% of the sample met one of the three criteria, 34.1% met combinations, and 14.5% met all of the three criteria. The most demanding criterion was high function, closely followed by absence of disease, while approximately two-thirds were actively engaged in life. The relative change with age was largest for the high cognitive and physical function component and smallest for active engagement with life. The significant correlates of SA were younger age, female gender, higher education, weekly exercise, more satisfaction with life, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption, whereas marital status was not related to SA. The prevalence of SA in this study (14.5%) is comparable to previous studies. It may be possible to increase the prevalence by intervention directed toward more exercise, non-smoking, and better satisfaction with life.

  • 43. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Stordal, Eystein
    Nordahl, Hans M.
    Myklebust, Tor Å.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Processing speed and working memory are predicted by components of successful aging: a HUNT study2022Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has demonstrated that cognitive heterogeneity occurs with aging both within and between individuals. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the cognitive heterogeneity in aging was related to the subgroups of successful and usual aging.

    Method: Participants were a representative sample of normal older adults (n = 65, age range 70–89 years). All subjects had participated in the third phase of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT3) and completed all subtests in the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III). Successful aging was defined in four ways in the study: as (1) absence of disease, (2) high functioning, (3) active engagement with life, or (4) all three components combined. Five domains of memory and intelligence functions were investigated using linear regression analysis, with group membership (successful versus usual aging) as predictors and age, sex and education as correlates.

    Results: Processing speed performance was correlated with the successful aging component absence of disease, younger age and being of the female sex, while working memory performance was correlated with the successful aging component absence of disease and more years of education. Performance in other domains (verbal, visuospatial, and episodic memory) were not related to any successful aging definition. Age had a consistent negative effect on the processing speed domain for all successful aging definitions. Education was positively linked to cognitive performance on the verbal and working memory domains. Being female was positively linked to processing speed and episodic memory.

    Conclusions: Processing speed and working memory were linked to successful aging when it was defined as absence of disease, but not by other components of successful aging, i.e. domain-specific. In contrast, other cognitive domains were not related to any components of successful aging.

  • 44. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Nordahl, Hans Morten
    Stordal, Eystein
    Bosnes, Ole
    Myklebust, Tor Åge
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lifestyle predictors of successful aging: A 20-year prospective HUNT study2019Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikkel-id e0219200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lifestyle factors predicting successful aging as a unified concept or as separate components of successful aging are important for understanding healthy aging, interventions and preventions. The main objective was to investigate the effect of midlife predictors on subsequent successful aging 20 years later. Materials and methods Data were from a population-based health survey, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), with an average follow-up of 22.6 years. Individuals free of major disease at baseline in 1984-86 with complete datasets for the successful aging components in HUNT3 in 2006-08, were included (n = 4497; mean age at baseline 52.7, range 45-59, years). Successful aging was defined either as a unified category or as three components: being free of nine specified diseases and depression, having no physical or cognitive impairment, and being actively engaged with life. The midlife predictors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, obesity and social support) were analysed both as separate predictors and combined into a lifestyle index controlling for sociodemographic variables, using multivariable regression analysis. Results Successful aging as a unified concept was related to all the lifestyle factors in the unadjusted analyses, and all except alcohol consumption in the adjusted analyses. The individual components of successful aging were differently associated with the lifestyle factors; engagement with life was less associated with the lifestyle factors. Non-smoking and good social support were the most powerful predictors for successful aging as a unified concept. When the lifestyle factors were summed into a lifestyle index, there was a trend for more positive lifestyle to be related to higher odds for successful aging. Conclusions Lifestyle factors predicted an overall measure of SA, as well as the individual components, more than 20 years later. Modifiable risk factors in midlife, exemplified by social support, may be used for interventions to promote overall health and specific aspects of health in aging.

  • 45. Botvinik-Nezer, Rotem
    et al.
    Holzmeister, Felix
    Camerer, Colin F.
    Dreber, Anna
    Huber, Juergen
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Kirchler, Michael
    Iwanir, Roni
    Mumford, Jeanette A.
    Adcock, R. Alison
    Avesani, Paolo
    Baczkowski, Blazej M.
    Bajracharya, Aahana
    Bakst, Leah
    Ball, Sheryl
    Barilari, Marco
    Bault, Nadege
    Beaton, Derek
    Beitner, Julia
    Benoit, Roland G.
    Berkers, Ruud M. W. J.
    Bhanji, Jamil P.
    Biswal, Bharat B.
    Bobadilla-Suarez, Sebastian
    Bortolini, Tiago
    Bottenhorn, Katherine L.
    Bowring, Alexander
    Braem, Senne
    Brooks, Hayley R.
    Brudner, Emily G.
    Calderon, Cristian B.
    Camilleri, Julia A.
    Castrellon, Jaime J.
    Cecchetti, Luca
    Cieslik, Edna C.
    Cole, Zachary J.
    Collignon, Olivier
    Cox, Robert W.
    Cunningham, William A.
    Czoschke, Stefan
    Dadi, Kamalaker
    Davis, Charles P.
    Luca, Alberto De
    Delgado, Mauricio R.
    Demetriou, Lysia
    Dennison, Jeffrey B.
    Di, Xin
    Dickie, Erin W.
    Dobryakova, Ekaterina
    Donnat, Claire L.
    Dukart, Juergen
    Duncan, Niall W.
    Durnez, Joke
    Eed, Amr
    Eickhoff, Simon B.
    Erhart, Andrew
    Fontanesi, Laura
    Fricke, G. Matthew
    Fu, Shiguang
    Galvan, Adriana
    Gau, Remi
    Genon, Sarah
    Glatard, Tristan
    Glerean, Enrico
    Goeman, Jelle J.
    Golowin, Sergej A. E.
    Gonzalez-Garcia, Carlos
    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.
    Grady, Cheryl L.
    Green, Mikella A.
    Guassi Moreira, Joao F.
    Guest, Olivia
    Hakimi, Shabnam
    Hamilton, J. Paul
    Hancock, Roeland
    Handjaras, Giacomo
    Harry, Bronson B.
    Hawco, Colin
    Herholz, Peer
    Herman, Gabrielle
    Heunis, Stephan
    Hoffstaedter, Felix
    Hogeveen, Jeremy
    Holmes, Susan
    Hu, Chuan-Peng
    Huettel, Scott A.
    Hughes, Matthew E.
    Iacovella, Vittorio
    Iordan, Alexandru D.
    Isager, Peder M.
    Isik, Ayse I.
    Jahn, Andrew
    Johnson, Matthew R.
    Johnstone, Tom
    Joseph, Michael J. E.
    Juliano, Anthony C.
    Kable, Joseph W.
    Kassinopoulos, Michalis
    Koba, Cemal
    Kong, Xiang-Zhen
    Koscik, Timothy R.
    Kucukboyaci, Nuri Erkut
    Kuhl, Brice A.
    Kupek, Sebastian
    Laird, Angela R.
    Lamm, Claus
    Langner, Robert
    Lauharatanahirun, Nina
    Lee, Hongmi
    Lee, Sangil
    Leemans, Alexander
    Leo, Andrea
    Lesage, Elise
    Li, Flora
    Li, Monica Y. C.
    Lim, Phui Cheng
    Lintz, Evan N.
    Liphardt, Schuyler W.
    Losecaat Vermeer, Annabel B.
    Love, Bradley C.
    Mack, Michael L.
    Malpica, Norberto
    Marins, Theo
    Maumet, Camille
    McDonald, Kelsey
    McGuire, Joseph T.
    Melero, Helena
    Mendez Leal, Adriana S.
    Meyer, Benjamin
    Meyer, Kristin N.
    Mihai, Glad
    Mitsis, Georgios D.
    Moll, Jorge
    Nielson, Dylan M.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Notter, Michael P.
    Olivetti, Emanuele
    Onicas, Adrian I.
    Papale, Paolo
    Patil, Kaustubh R.
    Peelle, Jonathan E.
    Perez, Alexandre
    Pischedda, Doris
    Poline, Jean-Baptiste
    Prystauka, Yanina
    Ray, Shruti
    Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.
    Reynolds, Richard C.
    Ricciardi, Emiliano
    Rieck, Jenny R.
    Rodriguez-Thompson, Anais M.
    Romyn, Anthony
    Salo, Taylor
    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.
    Sanz-Morales, Emilio
    Schlichting, Margaret L.
    Schultz, Douglas H.
    Shen, Qiang
    Sheridan, Margaret A.
    Silvers, Jennifer A.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Smith, Alec
    Smith, David V.
    Sokol-Hessner, Peter
    Steinkamp, Simon R.
    Tashjian, Sarah M.
    Thirion, Bertrand
    Thorp, John N.
    Tinghog, Gustav
    Tisdall, Loreen
    Tompson, Steven H.
    Toro-Serey, Claudio
    Torre Tresols, Juan Jesus
    Tozzi, Leonardo
    Truong, Vuong
    Turella, Luca
    van 't Veer, Anna E.
    Verguts, Tom
    Vettel, Jean M.
    Vijayarajah, Sagana
    Vo, Khoi
    Wall, Matthew B.
    Weeda, Wouter D.
    Weis, Susanne
    White, David J.
    Wisniewski, David
    Xifra-Porxas, Alba
    Yearling, Emily A.
    Yoon, Sangsuk
    Yuan, Rui
    Yuen, Kenneth S. L.
    Zhang, Lei
    Zhang, Xu
    Zosky, Joshua E.
    Nichols, Thomas E.
    Poldrack, Russell A.
    Schonberg, Tom
    Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams2020Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 582, s. 84-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses(1). The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset(2-5). Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed. The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.

  • 46. Brincat, Scott L.
    et al.
    Donoghue, Jacob A.
    Mahnke, Meredith K.
    Kornblith, Simon
    Lundqvist, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Miller, Earl K.
    Interhemispheric transfer of working memories2021Inngår i: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 109, nr 6, s. 1055-1066Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual working memory (WM) storage is largely independent between the left and right visual hemifields/cerebral hemispheres, yet somehow WM feels seamless. We studied how WM is integrated across hemifields by recording neural activity bilaterally from lateral prefrontal cortex. An instructed saccade during the WM delay shifted the remembered location from one hemifield to the other. Before the shift, spike rates and oscillatory power showed clear signatures of memory laterality. After the shift, the lateralization inverted, consistent with transfer of the memory trace from one hemisphere to the other. Transferred traces initially used different neural ensembles from feedforward-induced ones, but they converged at the end of the delay. Around the time of transfer, synchrony between the two prefrontal hemispheres peaked in theta and beta frequencies, with a directionality consistent with memory trace transfer. This illustrates how dynamics between the two cortical hemispheres can stitch together WM traces across visual hemifields.

  • 47.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Löfstedt, Petra
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Psychosocial School Conditions and Mental Wellbeing Among Mid-adolescents: Findings From the 2017/18 Swedish HBSC Study2023Inngår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 67, artikkel-id 1605167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate mid-adolescent boys’ and girls’ experiences of school demands, teacher support, and classmate support, and explore the associations of these factors with mental wellbeing.

    Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study of 2017/18, with information collected among 1,418 students in grade 9 (∼15–16 years). School demands, teacher support, and classmate support were measured by indices based on three items each. Mental wellbeing was measured by the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMWBS). Linear regression analyses were performed.

    Results: Higher demands were associated with lower mental wellbeing. Conversely, mental wellbeing increased with greater teacher support and classmate support. Interactions between demands and the support variables showed that at the lowest levels of teacher and of classmate support, mental wellbeing was low and not associated with school demands. With increasing levels of teacher and classmate support, the overall level of mental wellbeing increased and revealed an inverse association between school demands and mental wellbeing.

    Conclusion: The study contributes with knowledge about how psychosocial conditions in school may hinder or enhance wellbeing among students.

  • 48.
    Brulin, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Hallman, David M.
    Gendered Associations of Flexible Work Arrangement and Perceived Flexibility with Work–Life Interference: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis on Office Workers in Sweden2023Inngår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 167, nr 1-3, s. 571-588Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible work arrangements (FWA) may be beneficial for increasing perceived flexibility (i.e. control over when, where and how to work) and reducing interference between work and private-life, but knowledge of gendered patterns of these relationships is sparse. Drawing on gender theory, the aim of this study was to conduct gender-differentiated analyses of the associations between FWA (non-regulated work or flex-time) and work–life interference using perceived flexibility as a mediator. Survey data were collected in 2016 from a sample of 2614 employees in the Swedish Transport Administration (response rate 67%). The sample included 39.6% women and 60.4% men, 71.7% had non-regulated work and 28.3% flex-time. Associations were determined using linear mixed models and mediation analysis. Results indicated a beneficial effect of non-regulated work (referencing flex-time) on work–life interference through an increase in perceived flexibility. The indirect effect of FWA was pronounced and statistically significant in the total sample, as well as in men and women. However, in men, non-regulated work was associated with a statistically significant increase in interference (competitive mediation). Gender did not interact significantly with work arrangement nor with perceived flexibility. In conclusion, the type of FWA can result in different perceptions of flexibility which in turn may affect experiences of work–life interference. Furthermore, it should be acknowledged that both FWAs and flexibility may be experienced differently for men and women regarding interference. Thus, employers seeking to reduce employee interference should consider gender norms and individual needs. 

  • 49. Buchanan, Erin M.
    et al.
    Jernsäther, Teodor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Kurfalı, Murathan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Primbs, Maximilian A.
    The Psychological Science Accelerator’s COVID-19 rapid-response dataset2023Inngår i: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Psychological Science Accelerator coordinated three large-scale psychological studies to examine the effects of loss-gain framing, cognitive reappraisals, and autonomy framing manipulations on behavioral intentions and affective measures. The data collected (April to October 2020) included specific measures for each experimental study, a general questionnaire examining health prevention behaviors and COVID-19 experience, geographical and cultural context characterization, and demographic information for each participant. Each participant started the study with the same general questions and then was randomized to complete either one longer experiment or two shorter experiments. Data were provided by 73,223 participants with varying completion rates. Participants completed the survey from 111 geopolitical regions in 44 unique languages/dialects. The anonymized dataset described here is provided in both raw and processed formats to facilitate re-use and further analyses. The dataset offers secondary analytic opportunities to explore coping, framing, and self-determination across a diverse, global sample obtained at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be merged with other time-sampled or geographic data. 

  • 50. Burke, Sarah M.
    et al.
    Majid, D. S. Adnan
    Manzouri, Amir H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Sweden.
    Moody, Teena
    Feusner, Jamie D.
    Savic, Ivanka
    Sex differences in own and other body perception2019Inngår i: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 474-488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Own body perception, and differentiating and comparing one's body to another person's body, are common cognitive functions that have relevance for self-identity and social interactions. In several psychiatric conditions, including anorexia nervosa, body dysmorphic disorder, gender dysphoria, and autism spectrum disorder, self and own body perception, as well as aspects of social communication are disturbed. Despite most of these conditions having skewed prevalence sex ratios, little is known about whether the neural basis of own body perception differs between the sexes. We addressed this question by investigating brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Body Perception task in 15 male and 15 female healthy participants. Participants viewed their own body, bodies of same-sex, or opposite-sex other people, and rated the degree that they appeared like themselves. We found that men and women did not differ in the pattern of brain activation during own body perception compared to a scrambled control image. However, when viewing images of other bodies of same-sex or opposite-sex, men showed significantly stronger activations in attention-related and reward-related brain regions, whereas women engaged stronger activations in striatal, medial-prefrontal, and insular cortices, when viewing the own body compared to other images of the opposite sex. It is possible that other body images, particularly of the opposite sex, may be of greater salience for men, whereas images of own bodies may be more salient for women. These observations provide tentative neurobiological correlates to why women may be more vulnerable than men to conditions involving own body perception.

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