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  • 1.
    B. Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years) (n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  • 2.
    Berg, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Evicted children and subsequent placement in out-of-home care: A cohort study2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0195295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Evictions may have serious consequences for individuals’ health and wellbeing. Even though an eviction may be experienced as a significant crisis for the family, there is little previous knowledge on consequences for evicted children. This study represents the first attempt to examine to what extent children from evicted households were separated from their parents and placed in out-of-home care (foster family or residential care) using population-based data, net of observed confounding factors related to the socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances of their parents.

    Methods

    This study takes advantage of information from a Swedish national database, consisting of about 8 000 evicted individuals and a random sample of 770 000 individuals from the national population, linked to individual-level, longitudinal data from Swedish national registers. Our analytical sample consists of information for more than 250 000 children born in 1995–2008, including 2 224 children from evicted households. We used binary logistic regression based on the Karlson/Holm/Breen method to account for observed imbalances at baseline between evicted and non-evicted children.

    Results

    Compared to non-evicted children, the crude odds ratio for placement in out-of-home care in evicted children was 12.10 (95% CI 8.54–17.14). Net of observed confounding factors related to the socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances of the parents, evicted children had a twofold elevated risk of being placed in out-of-home care (odds ratio 2.26, 95% CI 1.55–3.27). Crude OR for evicted children in comparison with children under threat of eviction (eviction not formally executed) was 1.71 (95% CI 1.17–2.49) and adjusted OR 1.58 (95% CI 1.06–2.35).

    Conclusion

    Children who experience eviction constitute a disadvantaged group and are at significant risk of being separated from their parents and placed in out-of-home care. These results demonstrate the importance of providing support for these children and their parents. Strategies to prevent households with children from being evicted seem to be an important and viable intervention path.

  • 3. Elo, Irma T.
    et al.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. University of Helsinki, Finland; The Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Aaltonen, Mikko
    Children's educational attainment, occupation, and income and their parents' mortality2018In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 53-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from Finland, this paper contributes to a small but growing body of research regarding adult children's education, occupation, and income and their parents' mortality at ages 50+ in 1970-2007. Higher levels of children's education are associated with 30-36 per cent lower parental mortality at ages 50-75, controlling for parents' education, occupation, and income. This association is fully mediated by children's occupation and income, except for cancer mortality. Having at least one child educated in healthcare is associated with 11-16 per cent lower all-cause mortality at ages 50-75, an association that is largely driven by mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Children's higher white-collar occupation and higher income is associated with 39-46 per cent lower mortality in the fully adjusted models. At ages 75+, these associations are much smaller overall and children's schooling remains more strongly associated with mortality than children's occupation or income.

  • 4.
    Forsström, David
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Utbud av stöd och behandling för spelproblem: En studie om utmaningar inför förtydligat ansvar i lagstiftningen2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 1st of January 2018, the Swedish legislation was subject to change due to a need to clarify the responsibility of care givers to prevent and provide support and treatment for gambling problems. The aim of this study has been to review the current situation of available support and treatment for gambling problems in Sweden, before the change in legislation took place. The Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Support Line (a telephone hotline service) has provided relevant information. Interviews have been conducted with sixteen key actors in the gambling treatment field representing municipalities, regional health care, authorities and non-governmental organisations. The interview material was analysed using thematic analysis. Preliminary results were presented for a group of treatment providers to validate the results and to collect further comments. The study showed that support and treatment for people with gambling problems are fragmentary and arbitrary on the national level. Support and treatment is available in some parts of the country but often relying on individual treatment providers’ own engagement, which creates a vulnerable situation in terms of availability and continuity of competence. The treatment offered is mainly cognitive behavioural therapy and there is a need to diversify and integrate various treatment options for different target groups. Non-governmental organisations play an important role by offering complimentary support as such, but also when treatment is not available. The main conclusion was that the municipal social services and the regional healthcare system in general are badly equipped to meet the needs of problem gamblers due to lack of resources and competence. Further efforts to provide education for personnel and implementation of screening routines to facilitate early detection in social services and health care settings are suggested. Despite ongoing development work, the legislative changes are challenging for municipalities and regional health care to accomplish satisfactory cooperation based on the needs of gamblers and their concerned significant others. A follow-up study will take place during 2019/2020 to review the development of support and treatment for gambling problems after the implementation of the new legislation.

  • 5.
    Granvik Saminathen, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Effective schools, school segregation, and the link with school achievement2018In: School Effectiveness and School Improvement, ISSN 0924-3453, E-ISSN 1744-5124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether 3 teacher-rated aspects of school effectiveness differ across school segregation profiles in Stockholm, and to what extent these indicators are associated with the academic achievement of 9th-grade students. Analyses were based on 2 cross-sectional data collections performed in 2014 and 2016, respectively (147 school units), one among teachers (= 2,024) and the other among 9th-grade students (= 9,151). Multilevel analysis was applied, estimating 2-level random intercept linear regression models. Results show that teachers’ ratings of school leadership, teacher cooperation, and school ethos, as well as student-reported marks differ across school segregation profiles. Findings further reveal significant associations between these school effectiveness indicators and student performance, even when taking student family background and the school’s student body composition into consideration. In part, these associations are also identified within segregation profiles. Moreover, results show that school ethos acts as a mediator between school segregation profile and student achievement.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Examining sources of heterogeneity between studies of mental-health outcomes in children with experience of foster care – a meta-analytical approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic reviews of the effect of foster care on mental-health outcomes have consistently indicated a zero-sum game, which makes it unclear whether the intervention is suitable for children in need of out-of-home placements. This thesis took on a meta-analytical approach to examine sources of heterogeneity between studies evaluating the effect of foster care on adaptive functioning, cognitive functioning, externalizing behavior, internalizing behavior, and total problems behavior. The bulk of studies came from two recently published systematic reviews. The searches were replicated to cover studies published until March 31, 2018. From 2943 studies assessed for eligibility, 240 were selected for the analysis covering 25 085 children. A choice of study-related covariates was abstracted, and potential sources of heterogeneity were hypothesized and tested by means of meta-regression. The findings indicated that both the choice of study design and measurement instrument were significantly associated with the variation in effect sizes. These associations were even stronger in child protection-oriented welfare regimes while insignificant in family service-oriented regimes, which instead showed significant associations for outcome type and publication year. The results imply a need to standardize effect studies of foster care, and to further research on sources of heterogeneity in different child welfare regimes.

  • 7. Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Giesbrecht, Norman
    Greenfield, Thomas K.
    Alcohol's Harm to Others: Opportunities and Challenges in a Public Health Framework2018In: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 239-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergent and growing body of research on alcohol's harm to others (AHTO), or secondhand effects of drinking, has important implications for prevention, intervention, and policy. Those victimized by other drinkers tend to favor effective alcohol policies more than their nonvictimized peers, but often a community's impulse will be to combat AHTO by targeting and stigmatizing individual heavy drinkers, rather than taking a public health approach to reducing harm. Here we discuss opportunities and challenges in selecting ways of reducing AHTO. We make a case for adopting joint public health and individual approaches to reduce AHTO.

  • 8.
    Lutters, Marie-Claire
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Explaining the Occupational Class Gradient in Health Among Swedish Employees: Physical and Psychosocial Work-Related Stressors2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The work environment constitutes a key social determinant of health, yet previous research is relatively limited vis-à-vis the contribution of both physical and psychosocial work-related stressors on occupational class differences in health among Swedish employees. This study used cross-sectional data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey 2010 to assess the mediating effect of physical and psychosocial work-related stressors to occupational class differences in physical and mental ill health in Sweden. Disparities between gender were also considered. A sub-sample of 2,624 full- and part-time employed individuals aged 18-65 was analysed using logistic regression. Employees who belonged to higher occupational classes had a lower risk of physical ill health compared to employees from lower occupational classes when age, gender and part-time work is accounted for – but there was no evidence of an occupational class gradient in mental ill health. Similar results were observed among men and women. In line with previous research, differential exposure to physical work-related stressors explained most of the occupational class gradient in physical ill health, yet certain psychosocial work-related stressors were also influential. Future research should further examine what other work-related factors – or social determinants of health – can help explain the association between occupational class and mental health. 

  • 9.
    Paquette, Elodie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Social determinants of contraceptive use among young women in Kenya2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Contraceptive use has far-reaching social and health benefits for women in low and middle-income countries. While socioeconomic factors are known to be associated with contraceptive use, few studies on this topic have focused specifically on young women, whose reproductive health is a target of the Sustainable Development Goals and the Family Planning 2020 agenda. This study used the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey to examine the association between three social determinants (wealth, education, and residence) and two contraceptive outcomes (modern method use and long-acting reversible contraceptive [LARC] use) in women ages 15-24 in 2008-09 (n=3,211 women) and 2014 (n=4,982 women). Results showed increases in the prevalence of modern method use and of LARC use. Low wealth was associated with non-use of LARC methods, and the same wealth pattern emerged for all modern method use between the two timepoints. An education gradient was observed for both outcomes. This study provides some evidence that the urban-rural gap is closing for contraception; however, rural residence continues to be a strong predictor of non-use of LARC methods. Results indicate that continued work is needed to ensure equitable progress in contraceptive use and method choice to contribute to improved reproductive health for young Kenyan women.

  • 10. Piontek, Daniela
    et al.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. FT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Trends in alcohol-related mortality in East and West Germany, 1980-2014: age, period and cohort variations2018In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 113, no 5, p. 836-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims Several indicators suggest that the extent and trends of alcohol-related mortality differ between East and West Germany. Regional drinking patterns and differences in health-care systems are assumed to affect the risk of dying from an alcohol-induced disease. The study addresses two questions: (1) what are the unbiased and independent age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality trends in Germany; and (2) do these trends differ between East and West Germany? Methods Data on alcohol-related mortality for East and West Germany came from the national causes of death register for the years 1980-2014. Analyses included all deaths fully attributable to alcohol based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10). Gender-stratified age-period-cohort analyses were conducted using the intrinsic estimator model. Results Age effects showed a concave pattern with a peak at ages 55-64years in both regions. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) in East Germany were highest in the years 1990-1994 (men and women: IRR=1.52) and declined thereafter. In West Germany, IRR were lowest in 1980-1984 (men: IRR=0.81, women: IRR=0.75) and stabilized at approximately 1.10 since 1995-1999. Cohort effects showed continuously lower IRR for those born after 1955-1959 in the East and those born after 1945-1949 in the West. Patterns for males and females were comparable. Conclusions The results suggest that alcohol-related mortality showed different trends in East and West Germany, which can be explained partly by different drinking patterns before and changes in the health-care system after the reunification.

  • 11. Quilter, Julia
    et al.
    McNamara, Luke
    Seear, Kate
    Room, Robin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. La Trobe University, Australia.
    The significance of 'intoxication' in Australian criminal law2018In: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, ISSN 1836-2206, no 546, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how the state of 'intoxication' from the consumption of alcohol or other drugs is treated by the criminal justice system in Australia. The authors analysed more than 500 statutory provisions which attach significance to a person's 'intoxication' for a variety of purposes, and 327 appellate court decisions handed down in Australia between 2010 and 2014 in which the court considered evidence that the accused, the victim or a witness was 'intoxicated' at the time of the alleged offence. The study found that 'intoxication' has multiple purposes in the criminal law, but there is a widespread problem of under-definition. In the absence of clear definition, intoxication is often assessed on the basis of highly subjective criteria-in contexts as diverse as public order policing and assessments of victim credibility in sexual assault trials. The authors recommend that consideration be given to the standardising the definition of 'intoxication', consistent with society's expectation that criminal law should mark a clear line between ` sobriety' and 'intoxication' if the latter state is to carry penal consequences.

  • 12.
    Ramberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    B Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    School effectiveness and students' perceptions of teacher caring: A multilevel study2018In: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective schools literature has shown that school-contextual aspects matter for students’ academic and social outcomes. A potential link here may be the quality of the relationships between teachers and students, but few studies have investigated whether features of school effectiveness are in fact associated with students’ perceptions of teacher caring, which is the main purpose of this study. Based on recently collected data from 150 senior-level school units in Stockholm, school effectiveness in terms of teacher-assessed ‘school leadership’, ‘teacher cooperation and consensus’, and ‘school ethos’ (n = 2073) was analyzed in relation to perceived teacher caring as reported by students (n = 8022). Two-level linear regression analyses showed that all three aspects of school effectiveness were predictive of higher levels of perceived teacher caring among students. The findings suggest that these features of school effectiveness constitute an important foundation for promoting the quality of teachers’ relationships with their students.

  • 13.
    Reitan, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Södertörns högskola, Sverige.
    Lagen eller magen? Förvaltningsrätten och LVM-mål rörande gravida kvinnor2017In: Retfærd. Nordisk Juridisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0105-1121, Vol. 40, no 3-4, p. 132-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Substance Abuse (Special Provisions) Act a person may be sentenced to compulsory care for a maximum of six months by an administrative court if she has a serious ongoing substance abuse and needs care which cannot be provided through voluntary measures. The person must also risk seriously harming her physical or mental health, destroying her life, or harming herself or a next of kin. The latter does not include an unborn child and the courts are only to assess whether the grounds for commitment are sufficient in terms of the woman’s needs and risk for harm. The legislation does, however, leave ample scope for so called fairness arguments (“reella hänsyn”). This article studies the extent to which the pregnancy is accentuated in court rulings and in what way – with a special focus on fairness arguments.

  • 14.
    Reitan, Therese
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Substance abuse during pregnancy: a 5-year follow-up of mothers and children2018In: Drugs: education prevention and policy, ISSN 0968-7637, E-ISSN 1465-3370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The study investigates health and social conditions among pregnant substance abusers and the children that were born from these pregnancies, and analyses outcomes in relation to type of substance abuse.

    Methods: Register data concerning 97 pregnant substance abusers and 104 children, at birth and 5 years on, were analysed with descriptive statistics and chi square tests.

    Results: The women presented a multitude of problems, including low education, substance abusing partners, and elevated smoking rates. Compared with the population, more children were born prematurely and average birth weight was almost 350 g lower. About 14% were diagnosed as being affected by maternal substance abuse. During follow-up, 5 women died and 88% showed continued substance-related mental and health problems. All children survived and 85% experienced placement in out-of-home care. Purchase of psychotropic drugs and mental health problems were more common among women with alcohol as one drug of preference.

    Conclusions: Parenthood did not represent a turning point for pregnant substance abusers. Comprehensive and persistent support is necessary, but in the short-term, efforts should be made to curb excessive smoking rates. The children faced several disadvantages at birth, but a longer follow-up is required to assess the impact of maternal substance abuse properly.

  • 15.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Binde, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Configurations of gambling change and harm: qualitative findings from the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs)2018In: Addiction Research and Theory, ISSN 1606-6359, E-ISSN 1476-7392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gambling participation and problems change over time and are influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, gambling research has only to a small extent studied gamblers’ own perceptions of transitions in and out of problem gambling.

    Method: Qualitative telephone interviews were made with 40 gamblers who had repeatedly participated in the Swelogs Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study. The framework approach was used for analyses, resulting in a multiple-linkage typology.

    Results: Our analyses revealed four configurations of gambling: (a) stable low frequency with no or minor harm, (b) decreasing high frequency with occasional harm, (c) fluctuating with moderate harm, and (d) increasing high frequency with substantial harm. Natural recovery and return to previous levels of gambling intensity were common. Change occurred either gradually, as a result of adjustment to altered personal circumstances, or drastically as a consequence of determined decisions to change. Personal and contextual factors such as psychological well-being, supportive relationships, and meaningful leisure activities played a part in overcoming harmful gambling and keeping gambling on a non-problematic level. Gambling advertising was commonly perceived as aggressive and triggering.

    Conclusions: The experience of harm is highly subjective, which should be taken into account when developing preventive measures. Considering the fluid character of gambling problems, help and support should be easily accessible and diversified. To repeatedly be interviewed about gambling and its consequences can contribute to increased reflection on, and awareness of, one’s own behaviours and the societal impacts of gambling.

  • 16.
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    One model to rule them all? Governing images in the shadowof the disease model of addiction2018In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment providers demonstrate a quite strong support for a disease model of addiction, particularly so in the United States. However, conceptions vary and the problems may be perceived as primarily a disease, moral or social problems, or a combination of these (Barnett et al. in press). This commentary discusses the ongoing and dynamic process of defining addiction problems and notes that non-medical perspectives often appear in the shadow of and tend to oppose the disease model that stands quite inviolable – i.e., like the One Ring to rule them all by citing The Lord of the Rings. Recent changes in the Swedish Addiction treatment system, well known for its social perspective on the nature and handling of addiction problems, are highlighted to demonstrate that the world may be changing, or not. It is argued that there cannot be just one model. 

  • 17.
    Storbjörk, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Stenius, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    The new privatized market: A question of ideology or pragmatism within the Swedish addiction treatment system?2018In: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given its traditions of universal welfarism and social democracy, Sweden had already scored unexpectedly high on New Public Management by the 1980s. Health and welfare services remain primarily tax‐funded, but the production of care is increasingly transferred to a competitive quasi-market. To what extent can this development be understood in terms of right‐wing governments, and to what extent in terms of other, socioeconomic and pragmatic factors? We examined this question through official statistics on providers of institutional addiction care since 1976, and through the total expenditure and purchases by local‐level municipal social services of interventions for substance users in Sweden in 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2014. We have analyzed the distribution across publicand private providers within the addiction treatment system, and whether national developments and local differences across the 290 municipalities—which bear the major treatment responsibility—can be understood in terms of local‐level political majority, population size, and local wealth. The share of purchased services has remained stable, but the treatment system shows increasing financial turnover and an increasing share of for‐profit providers among producers of purchased care, especially in outpatient treatment. While venture capital enterprises emerged as a new actor, non‐governmental organizations lost out in importance. Bourgeois government correlated with larger shares of purchasing and purchases from for‐profit providers. However, purchasing on a market dominated by for‐profit providers has also become the “newnormal”, regardless of ideology, and recent years have shown a reversed effect of left‐wing municipalities purchasing more services than right‐wing governments. Pragmatic reasons also influence local‐level purchasing.

  • 18.
    Vitcheva, Tereza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Can Effort-reward Imbalance explain Differences in Burnout and Sickness Absence between Strata of Occupational Gender Composition?: A Prospective Cohort Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study examined the prospective association between male-female ratio in occupations and levels of effort-reward imbalance, burnout and sickness absence. Specifically, we examined whether levels of effort-reward imbalance, burnout and sickness absence differed by strata of occupational gender composition, and whether effort-reward imbalance explained these differences. Methods: Data from two waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) was used, forming a sample of 9051 participants. Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA were used to estimate differences in variables between strata of occupational gender composition, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse if effort-reward imbalance explained differences in outcomes between five strata of occupational gender composition. The analyses were stratified by gender and level of education. Results: Levels of effort-reward imbalance, burnout and sickness absence varied by strata of occupational gender composition. Effort-reward imbalance was the most consistent predictor, while few significant associations were found between occupational gender composition and the outcomes. Effort-reward imbalance mediated some, but not all of the significant associations between occupational gender composition and the outcomes. Conclusions: There was no strong support for an association between occupational male-female ratio and burnout or sickness absence. Effort-reward imbalance was prospectively associated with all outcomes.

  • 19.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Work and organizational psychology.
    Bullying as a Stressor in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys–Associations with Perceived Stress, Recurrent Pain, and Salivary Cortisol2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 2, article id 364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying involves repeated exposure to negative actions while also invoking a power asymmetry between the involved parties. From a stress perspective, being bullied can be seen as a severe and chronic stressor, and an everyday social-evaluative threat, coupled with a shortage of effective social resources for dealing with this particular stressor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to bullying among mid-adolescent girls and boys is associated with subjective and objective stress-related outcomes in terms of perceived stress, recurrent pain, and salivary cortisol. The data came from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS) including students in grades 8–9 in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2010 (study sample n = 392; cortisol subsample n = 198). Bullying was self-reported and measured by multiple items. The statistical analyses included binary logistic and linear (OLS) regression. Being bullied was associated with greater perceived stress and an increased risk of recurrent pain, among both boys and girls. Also, bullied students had lower cortisol output (AUCG) and lower cortisol awakening response (CARG) as compared to those who were not bullied. Gender-stratified analyses demonstrated that these associations were statistically significant for boys but not for girls. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that being bullied was related to both subjective and objective stress markers among mid-adolescent girls and boys, pointing to the necessity of continuously working against bullying.

  • 20.
    Östergren, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Educational inequalities in mortality are larger at low levels of income: A register-based study on premature mortality among 2.3 million Swedes, 2006–20092018In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 5, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education develops skills that help individuals use available material resources more efficiently. When material resources are scarce, each decision becomes comparatively more important. Education may also protect from health-related income decline, since the highly educated tend to work in occupations with lower physical demands. Educational inequalities in health may, therefore, be more pronounced at lower levels of income. The aim of this study is to assess whether the shape of the income gradient in premature mortality depends on the level of education.

    Total population data on education, income and mortality was obtained by linking several Swedish registers. Income was defined as five-year average disposable household income for ages 35–64 and mortality follow-up covered the period 2006–2009. The final population comprised 2.3 million individuals, 6.2 million person-years and 14,362 deaths. Income was modeled using splines in order to allow variation in the functional form of the association across educational categories. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used.

    The curvilinear shape of the association between income and mortality was more pronounced among those with a low education. Both absolute and relative educational inequalities in premature mortality tended to be larger at low levels of income. The greatest income differences in mortality were observed for those with a low education and the smallest for the highly educated.

    Education and income interact as predictors of mortality. Education is a more important factor for health when access to material resources is limited.

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