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  • 1.
    Abougazar, Eman Silmy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
      Barriers to equal access to eHealth in Stockholm  : A qualitative study2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim behind this study was to observe and understand barriers to access the eHealth system equally. The study was conducted in Stockholm based on qualitative data in which semi- structured interviews were conducted among 15 interviewees from different localities of Stockholm. The findings from the collected data revealed that language barriers, lack of knowledge about digital literacy, unawareness of Swedish healthcare services, psychological and social barriers, safety and privacy concerns, and the lack of an e-identification are all major barriers to accessing the eHealth system. From the data, it has also been observed that the main causes of the aforementioned hurdles are based on varied socioeconomic levels, literacy conditions of an individual, cultural background, and age. Another important observation shows that highly qualified people with limited language abilities have a difficult time using eHealth services. 

    Keywords 

    Ehealth, Covid-19, nudge approach, digital literacy, linguistic skills, Bank ID, 1177.se, Alltid öppet. 

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  • 2.
    Abougazar, Eman Silmy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Barriers to equal access to eHealth in Stockholm: A qualitative study2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim behind this study was to observe and understand barriers to access the eHealth system equally. The study was conducted in Stockholm based on qualitative data in which semi- structured interviews were conducted among 15 interviewees from different localities of Stockholm. The findings from the collected data revealed that language barriers, lack of knowledge about digital literacy, unawareness of Swedish healthcare services, psychological and social barriers, safety and privacy concerns, and the lack of an e-identification are all major barriers to accessing the eHealth system. From the data, it has also been observed that the main causes of the aforementioned hurdles are based on varied socioeconomic levels, literacy conditions of an individual, cultural background, and age. Another important observation shows that highly qualified people with limited language abilities have a difficult time using eHealth services. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3. Adjei, Nicholas Kofi
    et al.
    Jonsson, Kenisha Russell
    Schultz Straatmann, Viviane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Melis, Gabriella
    McGovern, Ruth
    Kaner, Eileen
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Taylor-Robinson, David C.
    Impact of poverty and adversity on perceived family support in adolescence: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study2024In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional support from family members may have an important effect on adolescent health outcomes, and has been identified as a target for policy to protect against the impacts of poverty and other early life adversities. However, few studies have assessed the extent to which poverty and adversity themselves influence the nature of emotional support that parents can provide to adolescents. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the impact of trajectories of income poverty and family adversities, including parental mental ill health, alcohol misuse and domestic violence across childhood developmental stages on young people’s relationships with their families and perceived emotional support received. We analysed longitudinal data on 10,976 children from the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohort study. Exposure trajectories of poverty and family adversities were characterised using group-based multi-trajectory models (age 9 months–14 years). The outcomes were perceived emotional support and quality of family relationships, measured by the three-item Short Social Provisions Scale (SPS-3) and levels of parent–adolescent closeness and conflict, measured at age 14. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. At age 14, the overall prevalence of low perceived emotional support was 13% (95% CI: 12, 14). Children of mothers with lower socioeconomic status (SES) were more likely to report low emotional support, with a clear social gradient (education—degree plus: 10.3% vs. no qualifications: 15.4%). Compared with children exposed to low levels of poverty and adversity, children in the persistent adversity trajectory groups experienced higher odds of low emotional support and low-quality parent–adolescent relationship; those exposed to both persistent poverty and poor parental mental health were particularly at increased risk of experiencing poor family relationships and low perceived emotional support (adjusted odds ratio 2·2; 95% CI 1·7–2·9). Low perceived emotional support and poor family relationships in adolescence are more prevalent among socially disadvantaged children and adolescents and those experiencing social adversity. Policies to improve levels of family support for UK adolescents should focus on improving modifiable determinants such as child poverty and family mental health. 

  • 4. Adjei, Nicholas Kofi
    et al.
    Schlüter, Daniela K.
    Melis, Gabriella
    Schultz Straatmann, Viviane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Fleming, Kate M.
    Wickham, Sophie
    Munford, Luke
    McGovern, Ruth
    Howard, Louise M.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Taylor-Robinson, David C.
    Impact of Parental Mental Health and Poverty on the Health of the Next Generation: A Multi-Trajectory Analysis Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study2024In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Exposure to parental mental ill-health and poverty in childhood impact health across the lifecourse. Both maternal and paternal mental health may be important influences, but few studies have unpicked the complex interrelationships between these exposures and family poverty for later health.

    Methods: We used longitudinal data on 10,500 children from the nationally representative UK millennium cohort study. Trajectories of poverty, maternal mental health, and secondary caregiver mental health were constructed from child age of 9 months through to 14 years. We assessed the associations of these trajectories with mental health outcomes at the age of 17 years. Population-attributable fractions were calculated to quantify the contribution of caregivers' mental health problems and poverty to adverse outcomes at the country level.

    Results: We identified five distinct trajectories. Compared with children with low poverty and good parental mental health, those who experienced poverty and poor primary or secondary caregiver mental health (53%) had worse outcomes. Children exposed to both persistent poverty and poor caregiver mental health were at markedly increased risk of socioemotional behavioural problems (aOR 4.2; 95% CI 2.7–6.7), mental health problems (aOR 2.5; CI 1.6–3.9), and cognitive disability (aOR 1.7; CI 1.1–2.5). We estimate that 40% of socioemotional behavioural problems at the age of 17 were attributable to persistent parental caregivers' mental health problems and poverty.

    Discussion: More than half of children growing up in the UK are persistently exposed to either one or both of poor caregiver mental health and family poverty. The combination of these exposures is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes in the next generation.

  • 5. Adjei, Nicholas Kofi
    et al.
    Schlüter, Daniela K.
    S. Straatmann, Viviane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Melis, Gabriella
    Fleming, Kate M.
    McGovern, Ruth
    Howard, Louise M.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Taylor-Robinson, David C.
    Impact of poverty and family adversity on adolescent health: a multi-trajectory analysis using the UK Millennium Cohort Study2022In: The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, E-ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 13, article id 100279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Children exposed to poverty and family adversities including domestic violence, parental mental ill health and parental alcohol misuse may experience poor outcomes across the life course. However, the complex interrelationships between these exposures in childhood are unclear. We therefore assessed the clustering of trajectories of household poverty and family adversities and their impacts on adolescent health outcomes.

    Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort study on 11564 children followed to age 14 years. Family adversities included parent reported domestic violence and abuse, poor mental health and frequent alcohol use. We used a group-based multi-trajectory cluster model to identify trajectories of poverty and family adversity for children. We assessed associations of these trajectories with child physical, mental and behavioural outcomes at age 14 years using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for confounders.

    Findings Six trajectories were identified: low poverty and family adversity (43·2%), persistent parental alcohol use (7·7%), persistent domestic violence and abuse (3·4%), persistent poor parental mental health (11·9%), persistent poverty (22·6%) and persistent poverty and poor parental mental health (11·1%). Compared with children exposed to low poverty and adversity, children in the persistent adversity trajectory groups experienced worse outcomes; those exposed to persistent poor parental mental health and poverty were particularly at increased risk of socioemotional behavioural problems (adjusted odds ratio 6·4; 95% CI 5·0 – 8·3), cognitive disability (aOR 2·1; CI 1·5 – 2·8), drug experimentation (aOR 2·8; CI 1·8 – 4·2) and obesity (aOR 1·8; CI 1·3 – 2·5).

    Interpretation In a contemporary UK cohort, persistent poverty and/or persistent poor parental mental health affects over four in ten children. The combination of both affects one in ten children and is strongly associated with adverse child outcomes, particularly poor child mental health.

  • 6. Agardh, Emilie E.
    et al.
    Allebeck, Peter
    Flodin, Pär
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Knudsen, Ann Kristin
    Øverland, Simon
    Kinge, Jonas Minet
    Tollånes, Mette C.
    Eikemo, Terje A.
    Skogen, Jens Christoffer
    Mäkelä, Pia
    Gissler, Mika
    Juel, Knud
    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim
    McGrath, John J.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Alcohol-attributed disease burden in four Nordic countries between 2000 and 2017: Are the gender gaps narrowing? A comparison using the Global Burden of Disease, Injury and Risk Factor 2017 study2021In: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 431-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. The gender difference in alcohol use seems to have narrowed in the Nordic countries, but it is not clear to what extent this may have affected differences in levels of harm. We compared gender differences in all-cause and cause-specific alcohol-attributed disease burden, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years (DALY), in four Nordic countries in 2000-2017, to find out if gender gaps in DALYs had narrowed. Design and Methods. Alcohol-attributed disease burden by DALYs per 100 000 population with 95% uncertainty intervals were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease database. Results. In 2017, all-cause DALYs in males varied between 2531 in Finland and 976 in Norway, and in females between 620 in Denmark and 270 in Norway. Finland had the largest gender differences and Norway the smallest, closely followed by Sweden. During 2000-2017, absolute gender differences in all-cause DALYs declined by 31% in Denmark, 26% in Finland, 19% in Sweden and 18% in Norway. In Finland, this was driven by a larger relative decline in males than females; in Norway, it was due to increased burden in females. In Denmark, the burden in females declined slightly more than in males, in relative terms, while in Sweden the relative decline was similar in males and females. Discussion and Conclusions. The gender gaps in harm narrowed to a different extent in the Nordic countries, with the differences driven by different conditions. Findings are informative about how inequality, policy and sociocultural differences affect levels of harm by gender.

  • 7. Agardh, Emilie E.
    et al.
    Allebeck, Peter
    Knudsen, Ann Kristin Skrindo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. The Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Aronsson, Amanda E.
    Flodin, Par
    Eikemo, Terje A.
    Bangah, Paul R.
    Skogen, Jens Christoffer
    Gissler, Mika
    Ronka, Sanna
    Mcgrath, John J.
    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
    Dadras, Omid
    Deuba, Keshab
    Hedna, Khedidja
    Mentis, Alexios-Fotios A.
    Sagoe, Dominic
    Shiri, Rahman
    Weye, Nanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway; Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Hay, Simon I.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Pasovic, Maja
    Vos, Theo
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Danielsson, Anna-Karin
    Disease Burden Attributed to Drug use in the Nordic Countries: a Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 20192023In: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, ISSN 1557-1874, E-ISSN 1557-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries share similarities in many social and welfare domains, but drug policies have varied over time and between countries. We wanted to compare differences in mortality and disease burden attributed to drug use over time. Using results from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we extracted age-standardized estimates of deaths, DALYs, YLLs and YLDs per 100 000 population for Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden during the years 1990 to 2019. Among males, DALY rates in 2019 were highest in Finland and lowest in Iceland. Among females, DALY rates in 2019 were highest in Iceland and lowest in Sweden. Sweden have had the highest increase in burden since 1990, from 252 DALYs to 694 among males, and from 111 to 193 among females. Norway had a peak with highest level of all countries in 2001-2004 and thereafter a strong decline. Denmark have had the most constant burden over time, 566-600 DALYs among males from 1990 to 2010 and 210-240 DALYs among females. Strict drug policies in Nordic countries have not prevented an increase in some countries, so policies need to be reviewed.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Arif
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lager, Anton
    Fredlund, Peeter
    Schafer Elinder, Liselotte
    Consumption of fruit and vegetables and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a 4-year longitudinal study among Swedish adults2020In: Journal of Nutritional Science, E-ISSN 2048-6790, Vol. 9, article id e14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low intake of fruit and vegetables is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the size of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) of a low intake and to investigate possible sex differences. In this regard, this study used a longitudinal data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort located in Sweden, collected in 2010 and 2014. The analysis included 14 718 men and 20 589 women aged 25 to 84 years. Fruit and vegetable intake, separately <2 servings/d or combined <4 servings/d (one serving corresponding to 100 g) was set as a cut-point for low intake. The sex difference at baseline was examined. Sex-stratified logistic regression was performed with onset of T2D as the outcome and fruit and vegetable intake at baseline as the exposure with adjustment for other known risk factors. Results indicate that men consumed significantly (P < 0.001) less fruit and vegetables compared with women. A 62 % higher risk to develop T2D over the 4-year period was observed in men who had low vegetable intake compared with high intake after adjusting for age, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol and physical activity (OR 1.62; 95 % CI 1.00, 2.63). In women, a significantly higher risk of T2D was also observed with a low intake of vegetables, but not after adjustment. The present study suggests that higher consumption of vegetables seems to be protective for the onset of T2D in men. Thus, increasing the intake of vegetables in men should be a public health priority.

  • 9. Airaksinen, Jaakko
    et al.
    Aaltonen, Mikko
    Tarkiainen, Lasse
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Latvala, Antti
    Associations Between Cohabitation, Marriage, and Suspected Crime: a Longitudinal Within-Individual Study2023In: Journal of developmental and life course criminology, ISSN 2199-4641, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 54-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of marriage on criminal behavior have been studied extensively. As marriages today are typically preceded by cohabiting relationships, there is a growing need to clarify how different relationship types are associated with criminality, and how these effects may be modified by relationship duration, partner's criminality, and crime type. We used Finnish longitudinal register data and between- and within-individual analyses to examine how cohabitation and marriage were associated with suspected crime. The data included 638,118 residents of Finland aged 0-14 in 2000 and followed for 17 years for a suspected crime: having been suspected of violent, drug, or any crime. Between-individual analyses suggested that those who were cohabiting or married had a 40-65% lower risk of being suspected of a crime compared to those who were single, depending on the type of crime. The within-individual analysis showed a 25-50% lower risk for suspected crime when people were cohabiting or married compared to time periods when they were single. Those in a relationship with a criminal partner had 11 times higher risk for suspected crime than those in a relationship with a non-criminal partner. Forming a cohabiting relationship with a non-criminal partner was associated with reduced criminality. The risk reduction was not fully explained by selection effects due to between-individual differences. Marriage did not introduce further reduction to criminality. Our findings demonstrate that selection effects partly explain the association between relationship status and criminality but are also compatible with a causal effect of cohabitation on reduced risk of being suspected of a crime.

  • 10. Airaksinen, Jaakko
    et al.
    Aaltonen, Mikko
    Tarkiainen, Lasse
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). University of Helsinki, Finland; Max-Planck-Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Latvala, Antti
    Associations of neighborhood disadvantage and offender concentration with criminal behavior: Between-within analysis in Finnish registry data2021In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 74, article id 101813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between neighborhood disadvantage and crime has been extensively studied, but most studies have relied on cross-sectional data and have been unable to separate potential effects of the neighborhood from selection effects. We examined how neighborhood disadvantage and offender concentration are associated with criminal behavior while accounting for selection effects due to unobserved time-invariant characteristics of the individuals. We used a registry-based longitudinal dataset that included all children aged 0-14 living in Finland at the end of year 2000 with follow-up until the end of 2017 for criminal offences committed at ages 18-31 years (n = 510,189). Using multilevel logistic regression with a between-within approach we examined whether neighborhoods differed in criminal behavior and whether within-individual changes in neighborhood disadvantage and offender concentration were associated with within-individual changes in criminal behavior. Our results indicated strong associations of most measures of neighborhood disadvantage and offender concentration with criminal behavior between individuals. The within-individual estimates accounting for selection related to unobserved individual characteristics were mostly non-significant with the exception of higher neighborhood disadvantage being associated with increased risk for violent crimes. Our findings suggest that criminal behavior is better explained by individual characteristics than by causal effects of neighborhoods.

  • 11.
    Al Weswasi, Enes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Sivertsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Does sentence length affect the risk for criminal recidivism? A quasi-experimental study of three policy reforms in Sweden2023In: Journal of Experimental Criminology, ISSN 1573-3750, E-ISSN 1572-8315, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 971-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study examines the relationship between incarceration time and post-release recidivism among first-time incarcerated adult offenders.

    Methods A quasi-experimental design was adopted consisting of three policy reforms that were treated as separate natural experiments. While holding imposed sentence length constant, these policy reforms either decreased or increased the required share of a sentence inmates needed to be incarcerated before being eligible for parole. Data consisted of large-scale administrative records containing all convictions for the Swedish cohorts born in 1958 and later.

    Results Results indicate that neither increased nor decreased incarceration time had a statistically significant effect on post-release recidivism, irrespective of how recidivism was measured.

    Conclusions Findings reveal little evidence for incarceration time having a criminogenic or specific preventive effect on post-release recidivism.

  • 12. Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Bohman, Hannes
    Parent-youth conflict as a predictor of depression in adulthood: a 15-year follow-up of a community-based cohort2020In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiencing conflictual relations with one's parents while growing up has been linked to onset, recurrence, and worse treatment outcome of adolescent depression. While this suggests that significant problems in the parent-youth relationship make depressive disorders more relentless, it is not clear whether this effect lasts into adulthood. Our aim was to examine if major and minor conflict with parents while growing up predicts depression in adulthood in youth with and without a history of depression. We utilized data from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study. This community-based cohort was assessed with structured diagnostic interviews both at age 16-17 and at follow-up 15 years later. The analyses included 382 individuals (227 with a history of child or adolescent depression; 155 peers without such a history). Binary logistic regression was used, adjusting for sex, disruptive behavior disorders, and additional family-related adversities. Among individuals with adolescent depression, major conflict with parents was strongly associated with adult depression (adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.87). While major conflict with parents was rare among non-depressed controls, a non-significant association of similar magnitude was still observed. Minor conflict, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with adult depression. Overall, conflict with parents did not predict adult anxiety disorders, substance use, suicidal behavior, somatoform disorders, or psychotic disorders. In conclusion, major parent-youth conflict during upbringing seems to be linked with an increased risk of depression in adulthood. These findings underscore the need to consider contextual/familial factors in the prevention and clinical management of early-life depression.

  • 13.
    Albrecht, Sophie Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    The Highs and Lows of Work-Time Control: Exploring the role of control over working hours for health2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible work-time arrangements are thought to create ways of aligning work and private life and facilitate recovery. While temporal flexibility is found to generally bolster work–life balance, its effects on health outcomes are less well known. The present thesis seeks to examine if and how perceived control over working hours benefits workers’ health. Utilising a large Swedish cohort study, four empirical studies explored the association of work-time control (WTC) with subsequent mental and physical health as well as the underlying mechanisms and moderating influences.

    Study I assessed the factorial structure of an instrument to measure WTC and found two sub-dimensions: control over daily hours (the length, starting and ending times of a workday) and control over time off (the taking of breaks/time/days off, paid and unpaid). Levels of control per sub-dimension were described by demographic and work-related factors for a large sample of Swedish workers. In particular, shift, public sector and female workers reported low levels of WTC.

    Study II examined effects of control over daily hours and time off on depressive symptoms. Increasing control over time off was related to decreasing depressive symptoms over time, whereas only initial level of control over daily hours was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. For both sub-dimensions of WTC, the direction of this effect was predominantly from perceived control to subsequent depressive symptoms; reversed processes were of less importance.

    Study III focused on work–life interference as one step on the causal chain between WTC and depressive symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints, respectively. For both sub-dimensions of WTC, part of the effect on depressive symptoms went through work–life interference. Reversed processes played a role between depressive symptoms and work–life interference only. Control over time off was found to mitigate work–life interference and subsequent depressive symptoms more than control over daily hours, albeit with generally small effects. Regarding musculoskeletal complaints, effects were even smaller and work–life interference appeared to be less important.

    Study IV assessed gender differences in the impact of WTC on work–life interference and exhaustion regarding the mediating role of overtime hours. In a sample of knowledge workers, higher control over time off was associated with lower subsequent work–life interference and exhaustion, while control over daily hours was unrelated to both outcomes. Although men worked more overtime hours than women on average, no evidence was found for men with high control over time off/daily hours to perceive more work–life interference/exhaustion due to increased overtime compared to women.

    This thesis found that higher levels of WTC were beneficial for a range of health outcomes, which was partly explained by fewer work–life conflicts. While these effects were generally small, control over time off in particular was consistently associated with favourable outcomes in health, work-life balance and working hours. Given that the level of workers’ discretion over working hours varies starkly by work and demographic factors, enhancing the availability of flexible work-time arrangements is in the interest of public health. WTC, with a particular focus on employees’ ability to take time off from work, may improve the daily work–life interface and support a sustainable working life.

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  • 14.
    Alexius, Susanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Cisneros Örnberg, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Logics and mechanisms of board appointment in hybrid organizations2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of the paper to the panel topic 

    The management and governance of hybrid organizations involve a range of challenges and critical issues. One such issue concerns the people that embody the hybrid and their capabilities to represent and handle the complex missions and potential value conflicts at stake in a hybrid organization. Looking closer at processes of recruitment and nomination of key actors such as CFOs, managers and board members is relevant as it sheds light on high held ideals for hybrid management and governance and the human resources seen fit to handle complex hybrid missions.

    The significance of the research (why it is distinctive and its contribution to the field)

    Our case gives a micro illustration of the governance challenges involved in attempts to design the nomination process to reflect a wider range of goals and values. We also wish to briefly discuss how this shift in appointment logics – from “political discretion” (PA), over “professionalism as in efficiency and economization” (NPM) to “political correctness” (NPG) may affect the boards and management of the SOEs.

    The research question(s) and method

    The Swedish state has an outspoken aim to be an “active and professional” owner by generating economic value in its 49 state-owned enterprises. At the same time, there is a political ambition for these firms to be seen as national and international “role models”, in the forefront of gender equality and sustainability. In addition, for about 25 SOEs, there are specifically Government commissioned social “public policy assignments” to be taken into consideration. The aim of this paper is to analyse the logics (political vs. professional) in the Swedish Government offices concerning the mechanisms of appointment of board members of Swedish State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) with Government commissioned social public policy assignments.

    Findings are based on qualitative analyses of documents, observations and interviews with key actors. Focusing foremost on the daily work of civil servants responsible for board nomination in the Ministry of Commerce and Innovation the study also acknowledges the role of external head hunters and executive search firms, politically appointed civil servants, politicians and board chairs and members in the nomination process.

    The theoretical/conceptual foundations for the research

    The backdrop to our case story is the historical transition from traditional Public Administration (PA), over new public management (NPM) regimes to the emerging post-NPM era of “New Public Governance” (Osborne, 2010; Almqvist et al., 2003; Ivarsson Westernberg, 2017), their dominant institutional logics and the effects on the appointment of public representatives, such as board members of SOEs.

    The results to be reported

    Our claim is that in the emerging NPG era, the previously dominating professional (and typically economical) logic of NPM-inspired governance of State-owned enterprises is challenged. Public appointment officials now face increasing external pressure to demonstrate that the multiple social values at stake for the hybrid organizations are reflected in the nomination of their board members, without compromising business efficiency, public accountability and the public income derived from SOEs.

  • 15.
    Alexius, Susanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Cisneros Örnberg, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Logics and Practices of Board Appointment in Hybrid Organizations: The Case of Swedish State-Owned Enterprises2019In: Managing Hybrid Organizations: Governance, Professionalism and Regulation / [ed] Susanna Alexius, Staffan Furusten, Springer, 2019, p. 157-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor Family Relationships in Adolescence and the Risk of Premature Death: Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor family relationships during childhood have been shown to have long-term negative effects on an offspring’s health. However, few studies have followed the offspring to retirement age, and relatedly, knowledge about the link between poor family relationships and premature death is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and the risk of premature death, even when considering other adverse childhood conditions. Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 individuals born in 1953 who were followed up until age 65. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants’ mothers in 1968. Information on mortality was retrieved from administrative register data from 1969–2018. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of premature death, even when adjusting for childhood conditions in terms of household social class, household economic poverty, contact with the child services, parental alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.40–3.09). The findings show that poor family relationships in adolescence can have severe and long-lasting health consequences, highlighting the importance of early interventions.

  • 17.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient somatic care across the life course: Findings from a 1953 cohort2021In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 14, article id 100807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prior research has shown that poor family relations during upbringing have long-term detrimental effects on mental health. Few previous studies have, however, focused on somatic health outcomes and studies rarely cover the life span until retirement age. The aims of the current study were, firstly, to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and in-patient somatic care across the life course whilst adjusting for confounders at baseline and concurrent psychiatric in-patient care; and secondly, to compare the risks of somatic and psychiatric in-patient care across the life course.

    Methods: Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 participants born in 1953 who were followed up until 2016. Information on family relationships was collected from the participants' mothers in 1968. Annual information on in-patient somatic and psychiatric care was retrieved from official register data from 1969 to 2016.

    Results: Poisson regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of in-patient somatic care in mid- and especially in late adulthood (ages 44-53 and 54-63 years), even when controlling for the co-occurrence of psychiatric illness and a range of childhood conditions. No statistically significant association was observed in early adulthood (ages 16-43 years), when controlling for confounders. These findings are in sharp contrast to the analyses of inpatient psychiatric care, according to which the association with poor family relations was strongest in early adulthood and thereafter attenuated across the life course.

    Conclusion: Poor family relationships in adolescence are associated with an increased risk of severe consequences for somatic health lasting to late adulthood even when controlling for confounders including in-patient psychiatric care, emphasising the potentially important role of early interventions.

  • 18.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sandahl, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    School effectiveness and students' future orientation: A multilevel analysis of upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden2019In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 70, p. 62-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Future orientation (FO) refers to individuals' beliefs and feelings about their future. Earlier research has primarily investigated correlates of FO at the individual and family level, but it seems likely that FO is also shaped by other central agents or institutions, such as the school. Earlier studies have found positive associations between “school effectiveness” and student performance, and negative associations in relation to e.g., bullying, delinquency, and health risk behaviors. The current study investigated three teacher-reported features of school effectiveness - school leadership, teacher cooperation and consensus, and school ethos - and their links with student-reported FO.

    Methods

    Survey data were collected in 2016 among 5131 students (aged 17–18 years) and 1061 teachers in 46 upper secondary schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and merged with school-level register data. Two-level binary logistic regression analyses were performed.

    Results

    The analyses showed that higher teacher ratings of school leadership and school ethos were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting an optimistic FO among students. Teacher cooperation and consensus was however not associated with students' FO.

    Conclusion

    The findings indicate that the school environment contributes to shaping students' beliefs about their future. Thus, enhancing features of school effectiveness may be a way of promoting a positive development and brighter objective future prospects for the young, via pathways such as good student-teacher relations and academic motivation and achievement.

  • 19.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Sivertsson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course: A prospective cohort study2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 726-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research has shown that poor family relations in childhood are associated with adverse mental health in adulthood. Yet, few studies have followed the offspring until late adulthood, and very few have had access to register-based data on hospitalisation due to psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relations in adolescence and the likelihood of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course up until age 55. Methods: Data were derived from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study, with information on 2638 individuals born in 1953. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants' mothers in 1968. Information on in-patient psychiatric treatment was derived from administrative registers from 1969 to 2008. Binary logistic regression was used. Results: Poor family relations in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of later in-patient treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis, even when adjusting for other adverse conditions in childhood. Further analyses showed that poor family relations in adolescence were a statistically significant predictor of in-patient psychiatric care up until age 36-45, but that the strength of the association attenuated over time. Conclusions: Poor family relationships during upbringing can have serious negative mental-health consequences that persist into mid-adulthood. However, the effect of poor family relations seems to abate with age. The findings point to the importance of effective interventions in families experiencing poor relationships.

  • 20.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Do trajectories of economic, work- and health-related disadvantages explain child welfare clients’ increased mortality risk? A prospective cohort study2019In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Past research has shown that individuals who have had experiences of out-of-home care (OHC) in childhood have increased risks of premature mortality. Prior studies also suggest that these individuals are more likely to follow long-term trajectories that are characterised by economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages, compared to majority population peers. Yet, we do not know the extent to which such trajectories may explain their elevated mortality risks. The aim of this study is therefore to examine whether trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages in midlife mediate the association between OHC experience in childhood and subsequent all-cause mortality.

    Methods

    Utilising longitudinal Swedish data from a 1953 cohort (n = 14,294), followed from birth up until 2008 (age 55), this study applies gender-specific logistic regression analysis to analyse the association between OHC experience in childhood (ages 0–19; 1953–1972) and all-cause mortality (ages 47–55; 2000–2008). A decomposition method developed for non-linear regression models is used to estimate mediation by trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages (ages 39–46; 1992–1999), as indicated by social welfare receipt, unemployment, and mental health problems. To account for selection processes underlying placement in OHC, an alternative comparison group of children who were investigated by the child welfare committee but not placed, is included.

    Results

    The results confirm that individuals with experience of OHC have more than a two-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality, for men (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.42–3.11) and women (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.39–3.59) alike. Approximately one-third (31.1%) of the association among men, and one-fourth (27.4%) of the association among women, is mediated by the long-term trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages. The group who were investigated but not placed shows similar, yet overall weaker, associations.

    Conclusions

    Individuals who come to the attention of the child welfare services, regardless of whether they are placed in out-of-home care or not, continue to be at risk of adverse outcomes across the life course. Preventing them from following trajectories of economic, work-, and health-related disadvantages could potentially reduce their risk of premature death.

  • 21.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Forsman, Hilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    A decade lost: does educational success mitigate the increased risks of premature death among children with experience of out-of-home care?2018In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 997-1002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Past research has consistently identified children with experience of out-of-home care (OHC) as a high-risk group for premature mortality. While many have argued that educational success is a key factor in reducing these individuals’ excessive death risks, the empirical evidence has hitherto been limited. The aim of the current study was therefore to examine the potentially mitigating role of educational success for the association between OHC experience and premature mortality.

    Methods: Drawing on a Stockholm cohort born in 1953 (n=15,117), we analysed the associations between placement in OHC (ages 0-12), school performance (ages 13, 16, and 19), and premature all-cause mortality (ages 20-56) by means of Cox and Laplace regression analysis.

    Results: The Cox regression models confirmed the increased risk of premature mortality among individuals with OHC experience. Unadjusted Laplace regression models showed that these children died more than a decade, based on median survival time, before their majority population peers. However, among individuals who performed well at school, i.e. scored above-average marks at age 16 (grade 9) and age 19 (grade 12), respectively, the risks of premature mortality did not significantly differ between the two groups.

    Conclusion: Educational success seems to mitigate the increased risks of premature death among children with experience of OHC.

  • 22.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Jackisch, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Prevailing over Adversity: Factors Counteracting the Long-Term Negative Health Influences of Social and Material Disadvantages in Youth2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 9, article id 1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disadvantaged circumstances in youth tend to translate into poor health development. However, the fact that this is not always the case has been seen as indicative of differential resilience. The current study highlights factors outside the context of the family with the potential to counteract the long-term negative influences of social and material adversity in adolescence on general health status. This study was based on two waves of questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort. From the wave in 1981 (age 16), indicators of social and material conditions as well as factors related to school, peers, and spare time were derived. From the wave in 2008 (age 43), information about self-rated health was used. Ordinal logistic regression models (n = 908) showed that adversity in youth was associated with poorer self-rated health in midlife among men and women alike, net of health status at baseline. However, having an advantaged situation with regard to school, peers, or spare time appeared to protect against the detrimental influences of disadvantaged circumstances in the family context on subsequent health. This suggests that health-promoting interventions may benefit from focusing on contexts outside the family in their effort to strengthen processes of resilience among disadvantaged youths.

  • 23.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rojas, Yerko
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Brännström, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Association of Child Placement in Out-of-Home Care With Trajectories of Hospitalization Because of Suicide Attempts From Early to Late Adulthood2020In: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 3, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance Children placed in out-of-home care (OHC) have higher rates of suicidal behaviors, including suicide attempts, compared with those who grow up in their family of origin. Several studies have shown that this elevated risk persists into young adulthood. Yet, our knowledge about any longer-term associations of OHC with suicide attempts is limited. Objective To examine how childhood experiences of placement in OHC are associated with trajectories of hospitalization because of suicide attempts (HSA) from early into late adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants This prospective birth cohort study that was conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, and analyzed in March 2020 included 14559 individuals born in 1953 who were living in the greater metropolitan of Stockholm in November 1963 and followed through registers up until December 2016. Exposures Childhood experiences of OHC based on information from the Social Register (age 0-19 years). Main Outcomes and Measures Hospitalization because of suicide attempts based on in-patient care data from the National Patient Register. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to cluster individuals according to their probabilities of HSA across adulthood (age 20-63 years). Results In this cohort of 14559 individuals (7146 women [49.1%]), 1320 individuals (9.1%) had childhood experiences of OHC, whereas 525 individuals ( 3.6%) had HSA. A Cox regression analysis showed a substantially higher risk of HSA among those with childhood experiences of OHC (hazard ratio, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.93-4.36) and after adjusting for a range of adverse childhood living conditions (hazard ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.00-3.15). Those with at least 1 HSA were grouped into 4 trajectories: (1) peak in middle adulthood (66 [12.6%]), (2) stable low across adulthood (167 [31.8%]), (3) peak in early adulthood (210 [40.0%]), and (4) peak in emerging adulthood (82 [15.6%]). A multinomial regression analysis suggested that those with experiences of OHC had higher risks of following any of these trajectories (trajectory 1: relative risk ratio [RRR], 2.91; 95% CI, 1.61-5.26; trajectory 2: RRR, 3.18; 95% CI, 2.21-4.59; trajectory 3: RRR, 4.32; 95% CI, 3.18-5.86; trajectory 4: RRR, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.94-5.46). The estimates were reduced after adjusting for adverse childhood living conditions. Conclusions and Relevance The findings suggest that the elevated risk of suicide attempts among former child welfare clients does not cease after young adulthood, indicating the necessity for clinical attention to childhood experiences of OHC as a risk marker for suicidal behavior across the life span. Question How are childhood experiences of placement in out-of-home care associated with trajectories of hospitalization because of suicide attempts from early into late adulthood? Findings In this cohort study of 14559 individuals, individuals were grouped into 4 trajectories with differential onset of suicide attempts across adulthood. Childhood experiences of placement in out-of-home care were associated with increased risks of following each of these trajectories. Meaning The elevated risk of suicide attempts among former child welfare clients persists into young adulthood, indicating the necessity for clinical attention to childhood experiences of out-of-home care as a risk marker for suicidal behavior across the life span. This cohort study examines the association between childhood experiences of placement in out-of-home care and trajectories of hospitalization because of suicide attempts from early into late adulthood in Sweden.

  • 24.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Is there a peer status gradient in mortality? Findings from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and followed to age 672023In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 184-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Similar to having a less advantaged socioeconomic position, children in lower peer status positions typically experience a situation characterized by less power, influence and command over resources, followed by worse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine whether peer status position is further associated with increased risks for premature all-cause mortality. Methods Data were drawn from a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden. Peer status positions were established through survey data on peer nominations within the school class at age 13, whereas national registers were used to identify all-cause mortality across ages 14-67. Differences in hazard rates and median survival time, according to peer status position, were estimated with Cox regression and Laplace regression, respectively. Results Although differences in hazard rates were not large, they were consistent and clear, also after taking childhood socioeconomic status into account. Regarding median survival time, the number of years lost increased gradually as peer status decreased, with a difference of almost 6 years when comparing individuals in the lowest and highest positions. Conclusions Children's positions in the peer status hierarchy play a role for their chances of health and survival, pointing to the relevance of addressing opportunities for positive peer interaction and mitigating any adverse consequences that may stem from negative experiences within the peer context.

  • 25.
    Almroth, Melody
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Carlsson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Pan, Kuan-Yu
    Berglund, Karin
    Thern, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The role of working conditions in educational differences in all-cause and ischemic heart disease mortality among Swedish men2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 300-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study aims to investigate the extent to which low job control and heavy physical workload in middle age explain educational differences in all-cause and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality while accounting for important confounding factors.

    Methods The study is based on a register-linked cohort of men who were conscripted into the Swedish military at around the age of 18 in 1969/1970 and were alive and registered in Sweden in 2005 (N=46 565). Cox proportional hazards regression models were built to estimate educational differences in all-cause and IHD mortality and the extent to which this was explained by physical workload and job control around age 55 by calculating the reduction in hazard ratio (HR) after adjustments. Indicators of health, health behavior, and other factors measured during conscription were accounted for.

    Results We found a clear educational gradient for all-cause and IHD mortality (HR 2.07 and 2.47, respectively, for the lowest compared to the highest education level). A substantial part was explained by the differential distribution of the confounding factors. However, work-related factors, especially high physical workload, also played important explanatory roles.

    Conclusion Even after accounting for earlier life factors, low job control and especially high physical workload seem to be important mechanistic factors in explaining educational inequalities in all-cause and IHD mortality. It is therefore important to find ways to reduce physical workload and increase job control in order to decrease inequalities in mortality.

  • 26. Almroth, Melody
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Sorberg Wallin, Alma
    Andersson, Tomas
    van der Westhuizen, Amanda
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Job control, job demands and job strain and suicidal behaviour among three million workers in Sweden2022In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 79, no 10, p. 681-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate the association between job control, job demands and their combination (job strain) and suicide attempts and deaths among male and female workers in Sweden.

    Methods Job control and demands were measured separately for men and women using a job exposure matrix, which was linked to around three million individuals based on their occupational title in 2005. Suicide attempts and deaths were measured in the hospital and cause of death registers from 2006 to 2016. HRs were estimated using discrete proportional hazards models with annually updated age as the time axis. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic, family, health, labour market and childhood factors, as well as the time-varying effects of unemployment, sick leave and family factors during follow-up.

    Results Low job control was associated with an increased risk of suicide attempts and deaths among both men and women while high job demands tended to be associated with a decreased risk. The combination of job control and job demands (job strain) reflected the increased risk of low control jobs and the decreased risk of high demand jobs. Associations were attenuated but still present after adjustments.

    Conclusions Low job control is related to suicide attempts and deaths, and this is only partially explained by important covariates measured both prebaseline and during follow-up. Attempts to increase job control among workers may be beneficial in preventing suicide.

  • 27. Almroth, Melody
    et al.
    Hemmingsson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sörberg Wallin, Alma
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Falkstedt, Daniel
    Psychosocial workplace factors and alcohol-related morbidity: a prospective study of 3 million Swedish workers2022In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 366-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychosocial workplace factors may be associated with alcohol-related morbidity, but previous studies have had limited opportunities to take non-occupational explanatory factors into account. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between job control, job demands and their combination (job strain) and diagnosed alcohol-related morbidity while accounting for several potentially confounding factors measured across the life-course, including education. Methods: Job control, job demands and job strain were measured using the Swedish job exposure matrix measuring psychosocial workload on the occupational level linked to over 3 million individuals based on their occupational titles in 2005 and followed up until 2016. Cox regression models were built to estimate associations with alcohol-related diagnoses recorded in patient registers. Results: Low job control was associated with an increased risk of alcohol-related morbidity, while high job demands tended to be associated with a decreased risk. Passive and high-strain jobs among men and passive jobs among women were also associated with an increased risk of alcohol diagnoses. However, all associations were found to be weakened in models adjusted for other factors measured prospectively over the life-course, especially in models that included level of education. Conclusion: The associations between low job control and high job demands, and the risk of alcohol-related morbidity reflect underlying socioeconomic differences to some extent. Lower job control, however, remained associated with a higher risk of alcohol-related morbidity.

  • 28.
    Altmejd, Adam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Östergren, Olof
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Björkegren, Evelina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for International Economic Studies. London School of Economics, London, United Kingdon.
    Inequality and COVID-19 in Sweden: Relative risks of nine bad life events, by four social gradients, in pandemic vs. prepandemic years2023In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 120, no 46, article id e2303640120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic struck societies directly and indirectly, not just challenging population health but disrupting many aspects of life. Different effects of the spreading virus—and the measures to fight it—are reported and discussed in different scientific fora, with hard-to-compare methods and metrics from different traditions. While the pandemic struck some groups more than others, it is difficult to assess the comprehensive impact on social inequalities. This paper gauges social inequalities using individual-level administrative data for Sweden’s entire population. We describe and analyze the relative risks for different social groups in four dimensions—gender, education, income, and world region of birth—to experience three types of COVID-19 incidence, as well as six additional negative life outcomes that reflect general health, access to medical care, and economic strain. During the pandemic, the overall population faced severe morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 and saw higher all-cause mortality, income losses and unemployment risks, as well as reduced access to medical care. These burdens fell more heavily on individuals with low income or education and on immigrants. Although these vulnerable groups experienced larger absolute risks of suffering the direct and indirect consequences of the pandemic, the relative risks in pandemic years (2020 and 2021) were conspicuously similar to those in prepandemic years (2016 to 2019)

  • 29.
    Ameyaw, Clement Bright
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Family structure and adolescents’ binge drinking: the role of parental monitoring2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the general decline in alcohol use among adolescents, binge drinking in this age group remains a serious public health problem. The overarching aim of this study was to examine the association between family structure and adolescents' binge drinking and to what extent this association is accounted for by differences in parental monitoring. The study utilised data from the Stockholm School Survey 2014, involving 12,540 students in 9th and 11th grade in the Stockholm Municipality, Sweden. The analytical sample was restricted to 10,279 students. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations with chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression were applied in the analyses. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics including gender, grade, and parental education, family structure was significantly associated with adolescents' binge drinking, where binge drinking was higher among students in the non-nuclear family structure compared with those in the nuclear family structure. However, the association between family structure and adolescents' binge drinking was not accounted for by differences in parental monitoring. In conclusion, the non-nuclear family structure is a risk factor, but also high parental monitoring is a protective factor in relation to adolescents' binge drinking. Accordingly, the findings of the study may be used as a basis for preventive work.

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  • 30. Anderberg, Mats
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Adolescents with substance abuse problems in outpatient treatment: A one-year prospective follow-up study2021In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 466-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: There is a lack of knowledge about how adolescents with substance abuse problems manage after taking part in treatment. It is also difficult to perform traditional follow-up studies with this group. This article presents the outcome of a prospective study of 455 adolescents who underwent outpatient treatment, based on data taken from official registers. It aims to describe and analyse indications of continued use of substance (CUS) and how various risk and protective factors predict outcomes after initiated treatment at a Maria clinic in Sweden.

    Design: The study is based on structured interviews at intake, and the data that indicated CUS were taken from several different national registers. The analyses included descriptive data and bivariate associations, logistic regressions and a CHAID analysis.

    Results: Almost two thirds of the adolescents have no indication of CUS at one-year follow-up. The ten studied risk factors independently were weak predictors of CUS and it was instead the accumulation of risk factors that were linked to a negative outcome.

    Conclusion: The majority of adolescents who start outpatient treatment for substance abuse problems return to a lesser extent in registers that may indicate a continued problem with alcohol and drugs one year later. A concentration of more than five risk factors appears to be associated with a registration. The study also provides an example of an alternative method for following up adolescents with alcohol and drug abuse problems.

  • 31. Anderberg, Mats
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Criminality among Young People With Substance Use Problems in Sweden: A One-Year Follow-Up Study2022In: Journal of Drug Issues, ISSN 0022-0426, E-ISSN 1945-1369, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 406-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish drug policy has a strong focus on minor drug violations. This longitudinal study analyses the association between criminality and substance use problems among young people who have received outpatient treatment and risk factors that predict continued problems with criminality. Research on this target group is under development in Sweden, but there are few follow-up studies. The study indicates that about one-quarters of the young people who begin outpatient treatment have been convicted of crimes at 1-year follow-up. Most of them who had been convicted with offences also have ongoing problems with substance use and three-quarters of the young people had been charged with a drug-related offence. More than five risk factors give an elevated risk of continued criminality. Interventions meeting the needs of young people, moving away from the current emphasis on penal law principles, may also contribute to reduced criminality in this target group. 

  • 32.
    Andersson, Fia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Primary health care and the challenges of identifying bipolar disorder: A regional comparative study in Sweden2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric diagnosis that is difficult to identify. Diagnostic delays are 5-10 years and cause irreversible harm for the patient and burden health care systems. Health deterioration and societal costs may be avoided if BD were diagnosed and treated at an early stage in the disease progression. BD is supposed to be treated by specialised psychiatric health care, yet primary health care (PHC) is an important part of the process as it is often the first contact of care for patients. It would therefore be of interest to investigate the preconditions of PHC in relation to the process of early detection of BD. PHC is organised by regional administration and due to regional inequality in health care it would also be of interest to apply a geographic perspective, investigating potential geographic variation in preconditions. In this study, PHC professionals from two regions were interviewed using semi-structured interviews and data was thematically analysed. Results present mostly similarities but also some differing preconditions in the regional analysis. The study concludes that PHC has an important in the role of early detection of BD, but also for patients who already received a diagnosed.

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  • 33. Andersson, Filip
    et al.
    Sundin, Erica
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Ramstedt, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Sweden.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Prevalence of cannabis use among young adults in Sweden comparing randomized response technique with a traditional survey2023In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 118, no 9, p. 1801-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: The prevalence of cannabis use based on self-reports is likely to be underestimated in population surveys, especially in contexts where its use is a criminal offence. Indirect survey methods ask sensitive questions ensuring that answers cannot be identified with an individual respondent, therefore potentially resulting in more reliable estimates. We aimed to measure whether the indirect survey method ‘randomized response technique’ (RRT) increased response rate and/or increased disclosure of cannabis use among young adults compared with a traditional survey.

    Design: We conducted two parallel nation-wide surveys during the spring and the summer of 2021. The first survey was a traditional questionnaire-based one (focusing on substance use and gambling). The second survey applied an indirect survey method known as ‘the cross-wise model’ to questions related to cannabis use. The two surveys employed identical procedures (e.g. invitations, reminders and wording of the questions)

    Setting and Participants: The participants were young adults (aged 18–29 years) living in Sweden. The traditional survey had 1200 respondents (56.9% women) and the indirect survey had 2951 respondents (53.6% women).

    Measurements: In both surveys, cannabis use was assessed according to three time-frames: life-time use; use during the past year; and use during the past 30 days.

    Findings: The estimated prevalence of cannabis use was two- to threefold higher on all measures when estimated using the indirect survey method compared with the traditional survey: use during life-time (43.2 versus 27.3%); during the past year (19.2 versus 10.4%); and during the past 30 days (13.2 versus 3.7%). The discrepancy was larger among males and individuals with an education shorter than 10 years, who were unemployed, and who were born in non-European countries.

    Conclusions: Indirect survey methods may provide more accurate estimates than traditional surveys on prevalence of self-reported cannabis use.

  • 34.
    Aradhya, Siddartha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Obućina, Ognjen
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Juárez, Sol Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Intermarriage and COVID-19 mortality among immigrants. A population-based cohort study from Sweden2021In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e048952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate the role of language proficiency and institutional awareness in explaining excess COVID-19 mortality among immigrants.Design Cohort study with follow-up between 12 March 2020 and 23 February 2021.

    Setting Swedish register-based study on all residents in Sweden.

    Participants 3 963 356 Swedish residents in co-residential unions who were 30 years of age or older and alive on 12 March 2020 and living in Sweden in December 2019.

    Outcome measures Cox regression models were conducted to assess the association between different constellations of immigrant-native couples (proxy for language proficiency and institutional awareness) and COVID-19 mortality and all other causes of deaths (2019 and 2020). Models were adjusted for relevant confounders.

    Results Compared with Swedish-Swedish couples (1.18 deaths per thousand person-years), both immigrants partnered with another immigrant and a native showed excess mortality for COVID-19 (HR 1.43; 95%CI 1.29 to 1.58 and HR 1.24; 95%CI 1.10 to 1.40, respectively), which translates to 1.37 and 1.28 deaths per thousand person-years. Moreover, similar results are found for natives partnered with an immigrant (HR 1.15; 95%CI 1.02 to 1.29), which translates to 1.29 deaths per thousand person-years. Further analysis shows that immigrants from both high-income and low-income and middleincome countries (LMIC) experience excess mortality also when partnered with a Swede. However, having a Swedish-born partner is only partially protective against COVID-19 mortality among immigrants from LMIC origins.

    Conclusions Language barriers and/or poor institutional awareness are not major drivers for the excess mortality from COVID-19 among immigrants. Rather, our study provides suggestive evidence that excess mortality among immigrants is explained by differential exposure to the virus.

  • 35.
    Aradhya, Siddartha
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Juárez, Sol Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Immigrant ancestry and birthweight across two generations born in Sweden: an intergenerational cohort study2022In: BMJ Global Health, E-ISSN 2059-7908, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e007341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Differences in birthweight are often seen between migrants and natives. However, whether migrant-native birthweight inequalities widen, narrow or remain persistent across generations when comparing the descendants of immigrants and natives remains understudied. We examined inequalities in birthweight of mothers (G2) and daughters (G3) of foreign-born grandmothers (G1) compared with those of Swedish-born grandmothers.

    Methods We used population registers with multigenerational linkages to identify 314 415 daughters born in Sweden during the period 1989–2012 (G3), linked to 246 642 mothers (G2) born in Sweden during 1973–1996, and to their grandmothers (G1) who were Swedish or foreign-born. We classified migrants into non-western, Eastern European, the rest of Nordic and Western. We used multivariable methods to examine mean birthweight and low birthweight (<2500 g; LBW).

    Results Birthweight between individuals with Swedish background (G1) and non-western groups increased from -80 g to -147 g between G2 (mothers) and G3 (daughters), respectively. Furthermore, the odds of LBW increased among the G3 non-western immigrants compared with those with Swedish grandmothers (OR: 1.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.69). Birthweight increased in both descendants of Swedes and non-western immigrants, but less so in the latter (83 g vs 16 g).

    Conclusion We observed an increase in birthweight inequalities across generations between descendants of non-western immigrants and descendants of Swedes. This finding is puzzling considering Sweden has been lauded for its humanitarian approach to migration, for being one of the most egalitarian countries in the world and providing universal access to healthcare and education.

  • 36.
    Arat, Arzu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Burström, Bo
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Social inequities in vaccination coverage among infants and pre-school children in Europe and Australia - a systematic review2019In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 290Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Herd immunity levels of vaccine uptake are still not reached in some high-income countries, usually in countries with persisting social inequities in uptake. Previous studies have focused on factors within one health care system. This study takes a broader health care systems approach by reviewing the socioeconomic distribution of vaccination coverage on the national level in light of structural and organizational differences of primary care for children.

    Methods

    A systematic literature review of socio-economic patterns of uptake of Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) and/or Diphteria-Tetanus-Pertusis (DTP) in population based studies of children 0–5 years of age living in the 30 European Economic Area (EEA) or European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and Australia, was carried out using the PRISMA guidelines. The health care system in the countries in the study were categorized by degree of freedom of the primary care provider (hierarchical or non-hierarchical) and whether preventive services were provided in a separate organization (well-baby clinics).

    Results

    The review identified 15 studies from 10 European countries and Australia that fulfilled the criteria. Although the heterogeneity of the socio-economic indicators did not allow for a conclusive meta-analysis, the study pointed towards lower levels of inequities in primary care models with well-baby clinics. In non-hierarchical primary care organizations that also lacked well-baby clinics, socioeconomic gaps in uptake were often found to be large.

    Conclusion

    This review indicates that structural and organizational aspects of health care systems for young children are important for equity in vaccine uptake.

  • 37. Arat, Arzu
    et al.
    Moore, Hannah C.
    Goldfeld, Sharon
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Sheppeard, Vicky
    Gidding, Heather F.
    Childhood vaccination coverage in Australia: an equity perspective2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 1337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study describes trends in social inequities in first dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR1) vaccination coverage in Western Australia (WA) and New South Wales (NSW). Using probabilistically-linked administrative data for 1.2 million children born between 2002 and 2011, we compared levels and trends in MMR1 vaccination coverage measured at age 24 months by maternal country of birth, Aboriginal status, maternal age at delivery, socio-economic status, and remoteness in two states.

    Results: Vaccination coverage was 3-4% points lower among children of mothers who gave birth before the age of 20 years, mothers born overseas, mothers with an Aboriginal background, and parents with a low socio-economic status compared to children that did not belong to these social groups. In both states, between 2007 and 2011 there was a decline of 2.1% points in MMR1 vaccination coverage for children whose mothers were born overseas. In 2011, WA had lower coverage among the Aboriginal population (89.5%) and children of young mothers (89.3%) compared to NSW (92.2 and 92.1% respectively).

    Conclusion: Despite overall high coverage of MMR1 vaccination, coverage inequalities increased especially for children of mothers born overseas. Strategic immunisation plans and policy interventions are important for equitable vaccination levels. Future policy should target children of mothers born overseas and Aboriginal children.

  • 38.
    Arat, Arzu
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Norredam, Marie
    Baum, Ulrike
    Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn
    Gunlaugsson, Geir
    Wallby, Thomas
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Sachsska Children’s Hospital, Sweden.
    Organisation of preventive child health services: Key to socio-economic equity in vaccine uptake?2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 491-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Measles has made a comeback in Western Europe, with more cases being reported each year. One factor behind this development is low vaccination coverage in socially disadvantaged segments of the population in many countries. This study investigates whether socioeconomic patterns of uptake of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine in the Nordic countries differ by national organisation of preventive health services for children. METHODS: MMR vaccine uptake before the age of two years was analysed in register data from Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden, linked to family indicators of socio-economic status (SES) from national registers. RESULTS: Denmark, a country where child vaccinations are administered by general practitioners, presented the lowest overall coverage of MMR at 83%. It also had the greatest difference between subpopulations of low and high SES at 14 percentage points. Finland, Iceland and Sweden, countries where preschool children are vaccinated in 'well-baby' clinics, had a higher overall coverage at 91-94%, with a more equal distribution between SES groups at 1-4 percentage points. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the organisation of preventive health care in special units, 'well-baby' clinics, facilitates vaccine uptake among children with low SES in a Nordic welfare context.

  • 39. Arnarsson, Ársaell Már
    et al.
    Potrebny, Thomas
    Torsheim, Torbjørn
    Eriksson, Charli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Time-trends in Nordic adolescents’ communication with their parents2019In: Nordisk välfärdsforskning | Nordic Welfare Research, ISSN 1799-4691, E-ISSN 2464-4161, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 88-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is an important developmental period toward greater independence. However, the family is still very important in the life of young people. The aim of this study was to analyse changes over time in easy communication between adolescents and their parents in the Nordic countries.

    The study used the Nordic part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children, carried out in four waves from 2002–2014. It included 109,446 adolescents. The adolescents were asked how easy it was to communicate with their mother or father about things that really bothered them. The results were analysed using descriptive statistics and binomial logistic regression.

    In all Nordic countries, the prevalence of easy communication between adolescents and their parents increased from 2002 to 2014. Although the positive change in parental communication was more pronounced among Nordic fathers, the data showed that mothers had markedly better communication with their adolescents than fathers did. In 2014, around three out of four adolescents found it easy to talk with their fathers, while four out of five found it easy to talk with their mothers. The results indicate that policies in the Nordic countries to support the role of both mothers and fathers in caring for their children are warranted.

  • 40.
    Aronsson, Vanda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Can a poor psychosocial work environment and insufficient organizational resources explain the higher risk of ill-health and sickness absence in human service occupations? Evidence from a Swedish national cohort2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in burnout, self-rated health (SRH) and sickness absence between human service occupations (HSOs) and other occupations, and whether they can be attributed to differences in psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. Methods: Data were derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, an approximately representative sample of the Swedish working population (n = 4408). Employment in HSOs, psychosocial work environment and organizational resources in 2012 predicted relative risks of sickness absence, burnout and suboptimal SRH in 2014 using modified Poisson regressions. The psychosocial work factors' and organizational resource variables' relative importance were estimated by adding them to the models one by one, and with population attributable fractions (PAFs). Results: Employment in HSOs was associated with a higher risk of sickness absence and the risk was explained by psychosocial and organizational factors, particularly high emotional demands, low work-time control and exposure to workplace violence. Employment in HSOs was not associated with burnout after sociodemographic factors were adjusted for, and furthermore not with SRH. A lower risk of suboptimal SRH was found in HSOs than in other occupations with equivalent psychosocial work environment and organizational resources. PAFs indicated that psychosocial work environment and organizational resource improvements could lead to morbidity reductions for all outcomes; emotional demands were more important in HSOs. Conclusions: HSOs had higher risks of sickness absence and burnout than other occupations. The most important work factors to address were high emotional demands, low work-time control, and exposure to workplace violence.

  • 41. Arpin, Emmanuelle
    et al.
    Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Kerr, Meghan
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mashford-Pringle, Angela
    Barros, Aluisio
    Rajmil, Luis
    Choonara, Imti
    Spencer, Nicholas
    Climate Change and Child Health Inequality: A Review of Reviews2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 20, article id 10896Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing evidence on the observed and expected consequences of climate change on population health worldwide. There is limited understanding of its consequences for child health inequalities, between and within countries. To examine these consequences and categorize the state of knowledge in this area, we conducted a review of reviews indexed in five databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts). Reviews that reported the effect of climate change on child health inequalities between low- and high-income children, within or between countries (high- vs low–middle-income countries; HICs and LMICs), were included. Twenty-three reviews, published between 2007 and January 2021, were included for full-text analyses. Using thematic synthesis, we identified strong descriptive, but limited quantitative, evidence that climate change exacerbates child health inequalities. Explanatory mechanisms relating climate change to child health inequalities were proposed in some reviews; for example, children in LMICs are more susceptible to the consequences of climate change than children in HICs due to limited structural and economic resources. Geographic and intergenerational inequalities emerged as additional themes from the review. Further research with an equity focus should address the effects of climate change on adolescents/youth, mental health and inequalities within countries.

  • 42.
    Astrakos, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Parents, internet, and adolescents’ health behaviours: Scoping review and Semi-structured interviews about parents use of internet related to adolescent’s health behaviours2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Health behaviour is detrimental to the pathways to adulthood. Internet becomes an important way for parents to get support and to exchange information. Therefore, a scoping review and interviews with mothers had been conducted to map knowledge to investigate the extent to which the internet is being used by parents to access information relative to their adolescent’s health behaviours. Method: Scoping review was used to identify articles related to the topic. The literature search was conducted on two databases, PubMed, and PMC. In addition, semi-structured interviews conducted by telephone with mothers based in Sweden. Content analyses were used to describe common themes. Result: The searches on the PubMed and PMC electronic databases detected 274 items. Only 9 articles were relevant and matched the criteria that were relevant to the topic. Most of the studies have been conducted in developed countries such as the United States and Australia from 2004 to 2020. During semi-structured interviews, using the internet was described as a supportive tool for mothers. Conclusion: The gap was clear due to the low number of the identified articles. New studies should be conducted in developing countries. Demographic influences should be considered regarding participants recruitment for interviews.

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  • 43. Atzendorf, Josefine
    et al.
    Apfelbacher, Christian
    Gomes de Matos, Elena
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; Eötvös-Loránd-Universität, Hungary.
    Piontek, Daniela
    Patterns of multiple lifestyle risk factors and their link to mental health in the German adult population: a cross-sectional study2018In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 12, article id e022184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Lifestyle risk factors, such as drinking or unhealthy diet, can expotentiate detrimental health effects. Therefore, it is important to investigate multiple lifestyle risk factors instead of single ones. The study aims at: (1) identifying patterns of lifestyle risk factors within the adult general population in Germany and (2) examining associations between the extracted patterns and external factors.

    Design Cross-sectional study.

    Setting General German adult population (aged 18–64 years).

    Participants Participants of the 2015 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (n=9204).

    Primary outcome measures Lifestyle risk factors (daily smoking, at-risk alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, low physical activity, weekly use of pharmaceuticals, as well as consumption of cannabis and other illicit drugs).

    Results A latent class analysis was applied to identify patterns of lifestyle risk factors, and a multinomial logistic regression was carried out to examine associations between the extracted classes and external factors. A total of four classes were extracted which can be described as healthy lifestyle (58.5%), drinking lifestyle (24.4%), smoking lifestyle (15.4%) and a cumulate risk factors lifestyle (1.7%). Individuals who were male, at younger age and single as well as individuals with various mental health problems were more likely to show multiple lifestyle risk factors.

    Conclusions Healthcare professionals should be aware of correlations between different lifestyle risk factors as well as between lifestyle risk groups and mental health. Health promotion strategies should further focus especially on younger and single men.

    This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

  • 44. Atzendorf, Josefine
    et al.
    Apfelbacher, Christian
    Gomes de Matos, Elena
    Lochbühler, Kirsten
    Piontek, Daniela
    Seitz, Nicki-Nils
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; LTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Do smoking, nutrition, alcohol use, and physical activity vary between regions in Germany?-results of a cross-sectional study2020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies on lifestyle risk factors mainly focused on age- or gender-specific differences. However, lifestyle risk factors also vary across regions. Aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which prevalence rates of SNAP (smoking, nutrition, alcohol consumption, physical activity) vary between East and West Germany or North and South Germany.

    Methods: Data came from the population-representative 2015 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) comprising 9204 subjects aged 18 to 64 years. To assess an east-west or south-north gradient, two binary logistic regression models were carried out for each SNAP factor.

    Results: The logistic regression models revealed statistically significant differences with higher rates of at-risk alcohol consumption and lower rates of unhealthy nutrition in East Germany compared to West Germany. Significant differences between North and South Germany were found for at-risk alcohol consumption with higher rates of at-risk alcohol consumption in South Germany. Daily smoking and low physical activity were equally distributed across regions.

    Conclusions: The implementation of measures reducing at-risk alcohol consumption in Germany should take the identified east-west and south-north gradient into account. Since the prevalence of unhealthy nutrition was generally high, prevention and intervention measures should focus on Germany as a whole instead of specific regions.

  • 45. Atzendorf, Josefine
    et al.
    Aschenbrenner, Annika Berit
    de Matos, Elena Gomes
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. FT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    Kroeger, Christoph
    Delle, Simone
    Piontek, Daniela
    E-Zigaretten: Einschätzung vonGesundheitsgefahren undNutzung zur Tabakentwöhnung2018In: Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz, ISSN 1436-9990, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 1415-1421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    BackgroundThe perception that e-cigarettes are less harmful than traditional tobacco products can influence the consumption of e-cigarettes.ObjectivesThree questions were examined: (1)How do different population groups perceive health risks of e-cigarettes? (2)Do sociodemographic variables explain differences in the risk assessment of e-cigarettes? (3)Does the perception of health risks predict the use of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation?MethodsData came from the 2015 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) with asample size of n=9204 participants, aged 18 to 64years (response rate 52.2%). Data were collected by telephone, online, or by written questionnaires. Assessments of risk perception of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes (more harmful, just as harmful, less harmful, do not know) were compared. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were performed.ResultsIndividuals with lower education rated e-cigarettes as more harmful. Older people and women perceived e-cigarettes as just as harmful. Smokers considered e-cigarettes to be more harmful than or just as harmful as conventional tobacco products. The likelihood of using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation was higher if people thought they were less harmful than conventional cigarettes.ConclusionsOnly one-third of the population knows that e-cigarettes are less harmful to health than conventional cigarettes. The perception of health risks is related to the usage of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation.

  • 46. Atzendorf, Josefine
    et al.
    Gomes de Matos, Elena
    Kröger, Christoph
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; Eötvös-Loránd-Universität, Hungary.
    Piontek, Daniela
    Die Nutzung von E-Zigaretten in der deutschen Bevölkerung – Ergebnisse des Epidemiologischen Suchtsurvey 20152019In: Das Gesundheitswesen, ISSN 0941-3790, E-ISSN 1439-4421, Vol. 81, no 02, p. 137-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Estimates of e-cigarette consumption in Germany vary considerably. The use of e-cigarettes for tobacco cessation is critically discussed. Based on current data, the distribution of the consumption of e-cigarettes and their use in the adult general population of Germany will be presented.

    Methods The 2015 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse, a nationwide survey of 18 to 64 year-old people in Germany (n=9,204, response rate: 52,2%), was used as data basis.

    Results E-cigarettes were known to most of the respondents (85,3%, 43,5 Mio.), whereas only 2,9% (1,5 Mio.) used e-cigarettes in the last 30 days. Higher risk of consuming e-cigarettes was seen in younger people (OR=0,95, 95%-KI=(0,93; 0,97)), men (OR=1,45, 95%-KI=(1,02; 2,07)) and smokers (OR=12,53, 95%-KI=(8,71; 18,03)). About a third of smokers and ex-smokers of conventional cigarettes (36,6%) who consumed e-cigarettes used these for tobacco cessation of which one fifth (21,3%) was able to quit smoking.

    Conclusion E-cigarette users seem to be more likely to be male, younger and smokers of conventional cigarettes. In addition to curiosity, the change in smoking behavior is an important motive for consumption. The results indicate that the use of e-cigarettes can contribute to tobacco cessation, the majority of users, however, continue to consume conventional and/or e-cigarettes.

  • 47. Atzendorf, Josefine
    et al.
    Rauschert, Christian
    Seitz, Nicki-Nils
    Lochbühler, Kirsten
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD). Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary.
    The Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, Illegal Drugs and Medicines: An Estimate of Consumption and Substance-Related Disorders in Germany2019In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, E-ISSN 1866-0452, Vol. 116, no 35-36, p. 577-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prevalence estimates of the use of tobacco, alcohol, illegal drugs, and psychoactive medications and of substance-related disorders enable an assessment of the effects of substance use on health and society.Methods: The data used for this study were derived from the 2018 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (Epidemiologischer Suchtsurvey, ESA). The sample of the German adult population comprised 9267 persons aged 18 to 64 (response rate, 42%). Population estimates were obtained by extrapolation to a total resident population of 51 544 494 people.Results: In the 30 days prior to the survey, 71.6% of the respondents (corresponding to 36.9 million persons in the population) had consumed alcohol, and 28.0% (14.4 million) had consumed tobacco. 4.0% reported having used e-cigarettes, and 0.8% reported having used heat-not-burn products. Among illegal drugs, cannabis was the most commonly used, with a 12-month prevalence of 7.1% (3.7 million), followed by amphetamines (1.2%: 619 000). The prevalence of the use of analgesics without a prescription (31.4%) was markedly higher than that of the use of prescribed analgesics (17.5%, 26.0 million); however, analgesics were taken daily less commonly than other types of medication. 13.5% of the sample (7.0 million) had at least one dependence diagnosis (12-month prevalence).Conclusion: Substance use and the consumption of psychoactive medications are widespread in the German population. Substance-related disorders are a major burden to society, with legal substances causing greater burden than illegal substances.

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  • 48. Au, Lauren E.
    et al.
    Ritchie, Lorrene D.
    Gurzo, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Nhan, Lilly A.
    Woodward-Lopez, Gail
    Kao, Janice
    Guenther, Patricia M.
    Tsai, Marisa
    Gosliner, Wendi
    Post-Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Adherence to Select School Nutrition Standards by Region and Poverty Level: The Healthy Communities Study2020In: Journal of nutrition education and behavior, ISSN 1499-4046, E-ISSN 1878-2620, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study determined the extent to which schools adhered to select nutrition and wellness provisions of the 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act and examined differences by US region and school poverty level. Design: Comparison of cross-sectional observational data from the Healthy Communities Study (2013-2015) by region and school poverty level. Participants: A total of 401 US elementary and middle schools. Main Outcome Measures: Adherence with federal nutrition standards for meals and competitive foods; extent of implementation of select aspects of school wellness policies. Analysis: Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were used. Differences were examined by school poverty level and region, adjusting for other school- and community-level covariates. Results: Most schools reported meeting reimbursable school meal nutrition standards (74%); more schools in the West met nutrition standards (82%) than in the Midwest (64%). Most grains offered at lunch were whole grain-rich (82%), and most competitive foods complied with standards (78%) before they were required. Most schools had a wellness coordinator (80%). Lowest levels of adherence were reported for guidelines for classroom or school event foods. No differences were observed by school poverty level. Conclusions and Implications: Findings suggest that Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act provisions were feasible across a wide variety of schools, and schools successfully implemented reimbursable school meal nutrition standards regardless of school poverty level.

  • 49. Au, Lauren E.
    et al.
    Zhu, Sonya M.
    Nhan, Lilly A.
    Plank, Kaela R.
    Frongillo, Edward A.
    Laraia, Barbara A.
    Gurzo, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences.
    Ritchie, Lorrene D.
    Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Higher Adiposity among US Schoolchildren Ages 10-15 Years: The Healthy Communities Study2019In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 149, no 9, p. 1642-1650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Limited research exists on the relationship between food insecurity and children's adiposity and diet and how it varies by demographic characteristics in the United States. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity and child adiposityrelated outcomes, measured as BMI (kg/m(2)) z score (BMI-z), weight status, andwaist circumference, and diet outcomes, and examined if the associations differ by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Methods: Data collected in 2013-2015 from 5138 US schoolchildren ages 4-15 y from 130 communities in the cross-sectional Healthy Communities Study were analyzed. Household food insecurity was self-reported using a validated 2-item screener. Dietary intake was assessed using the 26-item National Cancer Institute's Dietary Screener Questionnaire, and dietary behaviors were assessed using a household survey. Data were analyzed using multilevel statistical models, including tests for interaction by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Results: Children from food-insecure households had higher BMI-z (beta: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.21), waist circumference (beta: 0.91 cm; 95% CI: 0.18, 1.63), odds of being overweight or obese (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.34), consumed more sugar from sugar-sweetened beverages (beta : 1.44 g/d; 95% CI: 0.35, 2.54), and less frequently ate breakfast (beta: -0.28 d/wk; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.17) and dinner with family (beta(:) -0.22 d/wk; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.06) compared to children from food-secure households. When examined by age groups (4-9 and 10-15 y), significant relationships were observed only for older children. There were no significant interactions by sex or race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Household food insecurity was associated with higher child adiposity-related outcomes and several nutrition behaviors, particularly among older children, 10-15 y old.

  • 50. Augustsson, Erika
    et al.
    Rehnberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Simmons, Cassandra
    Rodrigues, Ricardo
    Kadi, Selma
    Ilinca, Stefania
    Phillips, Susan
    Fors, Stefan
    Can Sex Differences in Old Age Disabilities be Attributed to Socioeconomic Conditions? Evidence from a Mapping Review of the Literature2023In: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 761-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old age disabilities are more common among women than men, and adverse socioeconomic conditions are associated with a higher prevalence of disabilities among older adults. The goal of this study was to complete a mapping review of the available evidence assessing the extent to which the observed sex differences in older adults´ disabilities can be attributed to sex differences in socioeconomic status. We searched three databases for articles published between 2009 and 2019, and after screening and looking at eligibility criteria, 6 articles were included in the review. For those studies that did not directly analyse the contribution of socioeconomic conditions, we used the´difference method´ to estimate the proportion of the sex gap in disabilities among older adults that could be attributed to socioeconomic conditions. Our review demonstrated that women generally have a higher prevalence of disabilities than men. In several studies, these differences could be partly attributed to sex differences in the distribution of socioeconomic conditions. We also find great elasticity in the magnitude of both the sex gap in disabilities and in the proportion that could be attributed to differences in socioeconomic conditions. 

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